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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Samples of rime and snow were collected from 36 storm events during three winters at a high-elevation site in northern California. Trajectories for the 36 events were segregated into types characterized by either large zonal or large meridional extent. The hypothesis that events dominated by meridional flow (potentially bringing pollutants to the study site from pollutant source areas to the south) were associated with elevated ion concentrations in time was not substantiated. For both the combined 3-year period, and winter 1988–89 alone, Cl−, NO 3 − , SO 4 2− , and H+ concentrations in rime were greater generally than in snow, with the 3-year median concentrations for these ions ranging from 7 to 11 μeq L−1 in rime, vs. 2 to 8 μeq L−1 in snow. Intra-year variation in ion concentrations in rime was high during all three winters, with maximum concentrations during events in winter 1988–89 at least 16 times the magnitude of the minimum concentration for each ion.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract We investigated fecal contamination of Finnish lakes and rivers on the basis of 132 476 observations of total coliform bacteria (TC), thermotolerant coliform bacteria (ThC) and fecal streptococci (FS) enumerated in a nationwide monitoring programme during the period 1962–1984. The number of analyses of TC was 19 672, of ThC 16 456 and of FS 96 348. The waters were classified into three groups, influenced mainly by municipal wastewaters, industrial wastewaters or diffuse loading. Annual median bacterial concentrations were used for presenting the trends. All the concentrations decreased until about 1976, except TC concentrations in the industrialized and diffuse load areas. Since 1976 the concentrations decreased more slowly or occasionally even increased, especially those of TC. In the whole data the dynamics of bacterial loads (CFU s−1) were similar to those of annual median bacterial concentrations. The most probable explanations for the declining bacterial concentrations are increase in the human population served by wastewater treatment plants, improved sewage treatment processes, decreased wastewater volumes of the forest industry and decrease in the number of cattle. The monitoring programme continues.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Here results are presented of a hydrochemical study at a pristine and two acid rain-impacted catchments in Norway. An analysis of streamwater chemical data interpreted as mixtures of observed soil solutions, is combined with data on the spatial distribution of soils. The analysis reveals that at all three sites low flow streamwater is dominated by groundwater, relatively rich in base cations, originating from the peat bogs adjacent to the brook. By contrast, high flow largely originates in catchment-specific acidic soil horizons on the hill slopes. Results indicate that short-term and long-term hydrochemical responses to acid deposition may differ between catchments which at first glance have a ‘similar’ make up of acidic soils. This illustrates the difficulty in selecting appropriate sites for comparative studies of the effect of acid atmospheric deposition on the chemistry of streamwater.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In six of the seven lakes studied, addition of vanadium at concentrations in the 2 to 165×10−7 M range decreased photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton in six lakes. The depression was not a result of photosynthate loss. The response of phytoplankton photosynthesis to vanadium addition was assessed as the slope of photosynthetic rate (as percent of control) plotted against added vanadium concentration. We then used univariate and multivariate statistics to determine whether the response to vanadium (“slope”) was influenced by phosphorus availability (estimated by 32P-turnover-time), phytoplankton biomass, and proportions of six taxonomic groups (as % of total phytoplankton biomass): Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Cryptophyta, and Cyanobacteria. Simple correlation analysis revealed that only biomass and cyanobacteria were significantly correlated (p〈0.05) with the response to vanadium. To reduce redundancy among the eight ecological variables, we conducted a principal component analysis using data from the 22 experiments. The first two principal components accounted for 59% of the variance in the original variables. PC1 loaded highly and positively on biomass and cyanobacteria, and negatively on Bacillariophyta and Chrysophyta. PC2 loaded positively on Cryptophyta and Pyrrophyta. Only PC1 was significantly correlated (p 〈0.05) with the response to vanadium (“slope”). We conclude that lakes characterised by high phytoplankton biomass, high proportion of cyanobacteria, and low proportion of Bacillariophyta and Chrysophyta, are most vulnerable to inhibition of photosynthesis by vanadium. In the surface waters studied, dissolved vanadium at concentrations above the detection limit of 5.0×10−8 M was found only in the inshore areas of Lake Erie and in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The accumulation of organochlorine compounds (α, β and γ HCH, HCB, pp'DDE pp'DDT and polychlorobiphenyls) by fishes of two different species, the Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the Perch (Perca fluviatilis), predator of the Roach, have been studied at two stations situated on the catchment basin of the Seine. Only polychlorobiphenyls show high contents in these fishes. The polychlorobiphenyl compositions of these organisms correspond to those found in most environments. There is no systematic relationship between the bioconcentration and the size of the fish. The reproductive cycle appears to have a significant impact on the organochlorine contents. Moreover, the extent of PCB amplification with trophic level depends partly on the mode of expression of their contents, related either to body weight or to lipid weight. Thus the PCB body contents in the Perch are slightly higher than in the Roach, whereas, regarding lipid weight, the contents are twice as high as in the predator species. In the Roach, body contents of micropollutants are only two six times higher than in Molluscs (Anodonta cygnea, Vivipara vivipara). The Roach and the zebra mussel show important differences in the PCB composition, whereas there are none between the Perch and the Roach; in the latter species, they do not seem to change with age.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The importance of nitrogen dioxide for oxidation of gaseous mercury in the atmosphere and in combustion flue gases was investigated. The reaction rate was studied by a stopped flow technique in a temperature interval from 20 °C to 900 °C and at surface-to-volume ratios of 1.8 and 4 cm−1. The reaction exhibits a first-order dependence with respect to mercury and a second-order dependence with respect to NO2 in the temperature range from 20 °C to 200 °C. From 250 °C to 500 °C, the NO2 dependence is lost and a partly heterogeneous reaction is proposed. Above 500 °C, no reaction was detectable. The Hg-NO2 reaction appears to have little significance for the atmospheric chemistry of mercury nor for the transformation of mercury in combustion processes, It might, however, have some importance on the oxidation of elemental mercury in aging combustion plumes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Black spruce from boreal forests located in northeastern Canada (Quebec) were sampled during the summer of 1990, at two stations located at 6° latitude from one another. The objective of the study was to compare the temporal and spatial evolution of mercury in the tree rings of sites with differing degrees of mercury contamination in their soils. Mean mercury tree ring contents ranged from 13 to 37 ng/g, and were more concentrated in the southern than in the northern station. No evident relationship was found between annual growth and corresponding mercury concentrations. The difference in tree ring mercury content associated with geographic orientation of the disks indicates that daily exposure to sunlight as well as temperature may affect mercury uptake, and that the mercury observed in the tree rings must be deposited from the atmosphere onto the tree surface.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Mercury content was analysed in black spruce bark and needles and in the epiphytic lichens found growing on trees. The samples were collected in two distinct boreal forests of northeastern Canada (province of Québec). The chosen sites were far from direct industrial mercurcy sources, and were located close to man made lakes of different ages. The objective of the study was to determine the role of atmospheric transport in the mercury contamination of trees growing in close proximity to reservoirs, both old and recently flooded. The lichen samples contained the highest mercury concentrations; 400–800 ng/g. They were several times higher than in the bark and one to two orders of magnitude greater than that found in the needles. The mercury concentrations measured in the lichens were significantly different between the two reservoir sites, whereas those of the needles and bark were not. The mercury concentrations in the black spruce bark sampled near the reservoirs were almost twice as high (∼130 ng/g) as those measured in the bark of black spruce trees growing near natural lakes (40–70 ng/g). However no differences were found between the mercury concentrations of young needles sampled close to reservoirs and those sampled near natural lakes, suggesting the existince of a relatively low but stable level of mercury in the local atmosphere.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Sixteen EPA chosen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were studied in the sediments and the suspended matter of the River Seine to determine existing pollution. Analyses were carried out by HPLC with coupled fluorimetric and UV detectors. PAH contents were found to be highly variable depending on many factors such as anthropogenic activities, weather and flow rate of the river, and occasionally they rose to alarming levels. Contents of 16 PAH ranged from 1.5 to 7.4 μg g−1 in the sediments, but a peak at 60.7 μg g−1. In the suspended matter the contents were usually below 10 μg g−1. From these results and taking into account the mean content of suspended matter in the river downstream from Paris, the total adsorbed PAH concentration in the river Seine should be about 60 ng l−1. Evidence has been established that storm drain discharges are a major source of pollution.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 81 (1995), S. 201-205 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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