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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 5 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Paleobiogeographically mixed marine faunas have been well recognized from many Permian marine sequences in northeast China. These mixed faunas are normally associated with Monodiexodina fusulinid assemblages. The mixed faunas are characterized by an admixture of both paleo-tropical Cathaysian taxa and cool-temperate elements. In addition, endemic taxa, especially at a specific level, and anti-tropical forms, are also very distinctive.Previously, the presence of anti-tropical taxa in these mixed faunas has been used to argue that some of the northeast Asian terranes may have originated from northern Gondwana during the Permian, where they may have been m close proximity to Tibet. However, this interpretation is contrasted by the view offered in this paper. It is argued that the anti-tropical distribution of marine taxa is a normal, predictable biogeographical phenomenon that is probably controlled by certain climatic conditions. Permian anti-tropicality seems to have occurred most strongly during the Late Artinskian to Ufimian, probably in association with the presence of distinct mesothermal climatic zones at the time. In the present study we report a mixed mid-Permian marine fauna (fusulinids and brachiopods) from the Dasuangou Formation of the Yanji area in the eastern Jilin Province of northeast China, and discuss its possible origin in the context of Permian paleogeography and the climates of eastern Pangea.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 5 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Mass balance calculations indicate that the potential supply of metals resulting from subduction of oceanic crust and sediment far exceeds that required for mineralization in island ares. Subduction of oceanic crust is more important than that of sediment in supplying these metals and the subduction of manganese nodules makes only a negligible contribution. The nature and extent of mineralization in island ares therefore depend on the nature, geometry and rate of subduction. In the Pacific, two types of subduction system occur: the high-stress (Chilean) type, characterized by shallow subduction and the formation of porphyry copper deposits in andesitic ares, and the low-stress (Mariana) type, characterized by deep subduction and the formation of Kuroko deposits in the back-arc basin, and porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits in the island are. Kuroko deposits are analogous to the epithermal deposits but are formed from saline hydrothermal fluids under much higher hydrostatic pressure.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The pre-Neogene basement of the central Ryukyu Island Arc shows zonal structures analogous to those of the outer belt of southwest Japan. The innermost terrane (Iheya Zone) consists of isoclinally folded beds dipping northwestward; the anticlinal cores are composed mainly of Permian chert, whereas the synclinal parts are represented by Jurassic to Cretaceous sandstone-rich alternating siliceous shale and chert, bearing appropriate radiolarian fossils. At the east-central area of Ie Island, the basement rocks are exposed as a 172 m high peak, Tattyu. The flank area of Tattyu is composed of latest Jurassic to Berriasian siliceous shale and chert as part of an accretionary prism, while most of Tattyu is composed of a continuous and very compact sequence of Norian through Kimmeridgian (?) bedded chert which is rather gently inclined. Beyond an unexposed part below the Norian chert, Guadalupian chert is recognized. It is inferred that this pelagic chert (Tattyu sequence) was off-scraped and thrust on to the accretionary prism which developed on its flank area in an accretion process after the Early Cretaceous.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 4 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Coesite-bearing eclogites exposed in the Alpine, Qinling-Dabie (China), Caledonian, and Ural orogenic belts provide insight into the time-dependent thermal structure of continent collision belts. Coesite-bearing eclogites record peak metamorphic temperatures of 550-900°C at pressures ≥ 2.5 GPa reflecting anomalously cool conditions at depths of 90 km or more. The low temperatures recorded by coesite-bearing eclogites strongly suggest formation in a convergent plate margin where the downward advection of cool lithosphere depresses isotherms on a regional scale. Subduction zone pressure-temperature (P-T) paths calculated using a two-dimensional finite-difference model predict steady-state temperatures of 450-650°C at 100 km depth at the slab-mantle interface for convergence rates of 10 to 100 mm/yr. Coesite-bearing eclogites record peak temperatures ~100-250°C higher, possibly reflecting (i) formation during the early stages of convergence prior to the achievement of thermal steady state; (ii) attainment of peak metamorphic temperatures during decompression (exhumation); (iii) formation during slow, 〈10 mm/yr, convergence; or (iv) uncertainties in the modeling parameters. Retrograde P-T paths determined for coesite-bearing eclogites from the western Alps and China indicate cooling during decompression from depths of ~100 km. Cooling of eclogite terrains during exhumation requires loss of heat downward into lithosphere that continues to subduct beneath the eclogites, loss of heat upward into the cooler hanging wall of a large-scale normal fault/shear zone, or a combination of the two scenarios.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 4 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 4 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 3 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract North Pacific fossil sirenians comprise representatives of three subfamilies of the Dugongidae: Halitheriinae (Metaxytherium arctodites, Middle Miocene, North America), Hy-drodamalinae (Dusisiren spp., Early-Late Miocene, and Hydrodamalis spp., Late Miocene-Pleistocene, North America and Japan), and Dugonginae (Dioplotherium allisoni, Early-Middle Miocene, North America). Indeterminate dugongid remains are also known from the Late Oligocene of Japan, and the discovery of additional taxa in the western Pacific, especially in Paleogene rocks, can be anticipated. The known North Pacific Neogene taxa apparently dispersed into the Pacific from the Caribbean. Metaxytherium gave rise in the Pacific to Dusisiren; a series of chronospecies of the latter genus eventually culminated in Hydrodamalis, which was exterminated by humans circa AD 1768. Dioplotherium left no known descendants in the Pacific. The Recent Dugong probably entered the Pacific from the Indian Ocean. The presence in the North Pacific Miocene of at least three sympatric dugongid lineages, together with desmostylians, is evidence for a diversity of marine plants that was reduced by subsequent climatic cooling.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 3 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Desmostylians from the Pacific coasts of Japan and North America are compared and taxonomy and adaptations in the mammalian order Desmostylia discussed. The taxonomy is based mainly on teeth and skulls. Feeding adaptations and habitat are discussed using teeth and restored skeletons, respectively. In the extinct order two families, six genera and 10 species can now be recognized. Each genus is distinguished by a set of tooth characters. The three species of the genus Paleoparadoxia have different body sizes. Two species of the genus Desmostylus can be distinguished on morphological differences in the cranium. As a result it is clear that both species, D. hesperus, which had long been recognized only in North America, and D. japonicus, which has hitherto been recognized only in Japan, inhabited both coasts of the Pacific. All genera of the Order Desmostylia share a common and distinctive body form, interpreted by Inuzuka as having a laterally placed limb posture. Based on this body form, the optimum habitat is thought to have been an intertidal sandy beach. The dental morphology is variable, and derived species show an adaptation for wear by an abrasive diet. In conclusion, we theorize that the Order Desmostylia was adapted for a coastal habitat from its inception, with each genus adapting to a different sort of herbivorous diet.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Based on petrological, structural, geological and geochronological research, the authors summarize the progress of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock study since 1989 by Chinese geoscientists and foreign geoscientists in the Dabie-Su-Lu region. The authors introduce and discuss a two-stage exhumation process for the UHP metamorphic rocks that have various lithologies; eclogite, ultramafics, jadeitic quartzite, gneiss, schist and marble. The metamorphic history of UHP metamorphic rocks is divided into three stages, that is, the pre-eclogite stage, coesite eclogite stage, and retrograde stage. Prior to UHP metamorphism, the ultramafics had a high temperature environment assemblage of mantle and others had blueschist facies assemblages. The granulite facies assemblages, which have recorded a temperature increase event with decompression, have developed locally in the Weihai basaltic rocks. Isotopic ages show a long range from 〉 700 Ma to 200 Ma. The diversity in protoliths of UHP metamorphic rocks may be related to the variation of isotopic ages older than 400 Ma. The Sm-Nd dating of ~ 220 Ma could reflect the initial exhumation stage after the peak UHP metamorphism in relation to the collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze blocks and subsequent events. Petrological and structural evidence imply a two-stage exhumation process. During the initial exhumation, the UHP metamorphic rocks were sheared and squeezed up in a high P/T regime. In the second exhumation stage the UHP metamorphic rocks were uplifted and eventually exposed with middle crustal rocks.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @island arc 3 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Gneiss samples were collected from the Shandong Peninsula, eastern China, in order to carry out Rb-Sr dating using whole rock powder and biotite mineral separates. Middle Proterozoic whole rock age (1808 ± 71 Ma) and Middle to Late Proterozoic biotite ages (1312 and 729 Ma) were obtained for country gneisses in the northwestern part of the peninsula. Late Proterozoic whole rock age (707 ± 61 Ma) and Mesozoic biotite ages (172 and 222 Ma) were obtained for orthogneisses in the southeastern part of the peninsula. These new age data, as well as recent petrological results and published radiometric data, support the subdivision of the Shandong Peninsula into two geological districts: (i) a northwestern area of Proterozoic age represented by a low- and middle-pressure metamorphic sequence belonging to the Sino-Korean craton; and (ii) a southeastern area of Late Proterozoic and Mesozoic age accompanied by ultra-high pressure eclogite.
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