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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: During the Late Jurassic, accelerated ocean-floor spreading and associated sea-level rise were responsible for a worldwide transgression, which reached its maximum in the Late Kimmeridgian. In many Western European basins, this major sea-level rise led to the formation of marly and condensed sections. In the Swiss Jura, however, a shallow carbonate platform kept growing and only subtle changes in the stratigraphic record suggest an increasingly open-marine influence. Field observations and thin-section analyses reveal that the central Swiss Jura was at that time occupied by tidal flats and by more or less open marine lagoons where shoals and bioherms developed. The evolution through time of sedimentary facies and bed thicknesses permits the definition of small-, medium-, and large-scale depositional sequences. The diagnostic features of these sequences are independent of scale and seem largely controlled by the Kimmeridgian second-order transgression. A high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic correlation with biostratigraphically well-dated hemipelagic and pelagic sections in the Vocontian Basin in France reveals that: (i) The most important increase in accommodation recorded in the Kimmeridgian of the central Swiss Jura occurs in the Eudoxus ammonite zone (Late Kimmeridgian) and corresponds to the second-order maximum flooding recognized in many sedimentary basins. (ii) The small- and medium-scale sequences have time durations corresponding to the first and second orbital eccentricity cycle (i.e. 100 and 400 ka, respectively), suggesting that sedimentation on the platform and in the basin was at least partly controlled by cyclic environmental changes induced by insolation variations in the Milankovitch frequency band. The comparison of the high-resolution temporal framework defined in the Swiss Jura and Vocontian Basin with the sequence-stratigraphic interpretation realized in other Western European basins shows that the large-scale sequence boundaries defined in the Kimmeridgian of the Swiss Jura appear in comparable biostratigraphic positions in most Western European basins. Discrepancies that occur are probably because of local or regional tectonics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Sedimentology 52 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: This paper examines the transport of calcareous sand in unidirectional flow and its prediction through existing sediment transport models. A flume experiment of four sand samples collected on Oahu, Hawaii, provides 29 sets of sediment transport data in the bed-form and suspended transport stages. The measured transport data are compared with direct predictions from four energy-based transport models developed for siliceous particles. Corrections for the grain-size, fall velocity, and critical velocity of calcareous sand based on recent research are applied to the models and the results are compared with the direct calculations and measured data. The comparison illustrates the important role particle shape plays in the transport of calcareous sand. All four sediment transport models give consistent predictions and good agreement with the majority of the measured data. Two of the models respond positively to the corrections in both the bed-form and suspended transport stages indicating that such an approach may provide an interim solution for the transport of calcareous sand.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In settings where the transport of sand is partially or fully supply limited, changes in the upstream supply of sand are coupled to changes in the grain size of sand on the bed. In this manner, the transport of sand under the supply-limited case is ‘grain-size regulated’. Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the downstream reach of the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons has exhibited evidence of sand-supply limitation. Sand transport in the river is now approximately equally regulated by changes in the discharge of water and changes in the grain sizes of sand on the channel bed and eddy sandbars. Previous work has shown that changes in the grain size of sand on the bed of the channel (driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand owing to both tributary floods and high dam releases) are important in regulating sand transport over timescales of days to months. In this study, suspended-sand data are analysed in conjunction with bed grain-size data to determine whether changes in the grain size of sand on the bed of the channel or changes in the grain size of sand on the surface of eddy sandbars have been more important in regulating sand transport in the post-dam Colorado River over longer, multi-year timescales. The results of this study show that this combined theory- and field-based approach can be used to deduce which environments in a complicated setting are the most important environments for regulating sediment transport. In the case of the regulated Colorado River in Marble and Upper Grand Canyons, suspended-sand transport has been regulated mostly by changes in the surface grain size of eddy sandbars.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Sedimentology 52 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Dendritic calcite forms in an active cold-water tufa system in association with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that discontinuously coat bryophytes and cyanobacteria. Dendrites consist of 100–200 nm thick calcite fibres that form 3D lattice-like domains. In each dendrite domain, fibres have three structurally equal orientations, which correspond in disposition to radii from the centre of a calcite unit cell to the convex triple face junctions on its surface. Fibres do not form in the orientation of the c-axis. The external form of each dendrite has the shape of half of a shortened octahedron, with an upper triangular surface parallel to the substrate. Dendrite nucleation takes place on or in microbial EPS, whether microbial cells are present or not, and is probably effected by attraction of Ca2+ cations to negatively charged EPS, together with CO2-degassing and concomitant pH increase of supersaturated spring water in stream splash zones. Ensuing dendrite growth is abiogenic and controlled by diffusion. Dendrite c-axes are perpendicular to the substrate, probably because the negative charge of EPS forces the orientation of Ca2+ and CO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00370746:SED741:SED_741_mu1" location="equation/SED_741_mu1.gif"/〉 planes within the developing dendrite crystal to be parallel to the EPS film surface. Dendrites are eventually filled and overgrown by solid, syntaxial calcite, which gradually and completely obliterates the dendrites as more familiar calcite crystal forms develop. No trace of the dendritic nucleus remains in the rock record. Calcite crystal nucleation may take place by this mechanism in many marine and meteoric settings, given that microbial EPS is now assumed to be virtually ubiquitous in these environments. This phenomenon could contribute to the development of familiar fabrics such as marine micrite cement and fibrous calcite cement, radial ooids, peloids, ‘abiogenic’ stromatolites, sea floor precipitates, microbialites, tufa, travertine, speleothems, and some meteoric cements. It may also contribute to the substrate-normal orientation of c-axes of common cement fabrics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A hydrothermal plume forms in Lake Banyoles, NE Spain, as a result of convection above a springwater-fed suspension cloud ponded on the lake floor. The plume propagates upwards reaching a level of neutral buoyancy from where a turbidity current spreads out laterally. Two-dimensional temperature and particle concentration measurements show the fate of the hydrothermal plume and its associated turbidity current and reveal its seasonal development. Silt particles transported by the plume have been used as tracers to determine the maximum and equilibrium heights of the plume. When the lake is stratified, the vertical transport of sediment is confined to the lake hypolimnion, as the thermocline limits the vertical propagation of the plume. In contrast, when the lake water column is mixed, the plume reaches the surface of the lake. The field measurements have been compared with models for thermal convection from finite isolated sources. Measurements of the flow velocity at the source of the hydrothermal plume (i.e. the rim current velocity) indicate that cold hypolimnetic water is entrained by the plume. Sedimentation rates measured from sediment traps at the zone where the turbidity current develops vary between 10 and 25 g m−2 day−1, and result from continuous silt particle sedimentation from the turbidity current. Sedimentation rates in traps are higher for stations situated close to the source than those further away (〈5 g m−2 day−1). Moreover, the results demonstrate that double diffusive sedimentation from the turbidity current was dominant over grain-by-grain settling, causing a mixed distribution of sediments in the region where the turbidity current spreads. The deposition of silt particles could explain the occurrence of silt layers interbedded with biocalcarenites in the littoral zones of the lake and the stratigraphy identified by seismic profiles and cores taken from the lake floor.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Upper Jurassic Guará Formation comprises an 80–200 m thick continental succession exposed in the western portion of the Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil). It comprises four distinct facies associations: (i) simple to locally composite crescentic aeolian dune sets, (ii) aeolian sand sheets, (iii) distal floodflows, and (iv) fluvial channels. The vertical stacking of the facies associations defines several 5–14 m thick wetting-upward cycles. Each cycle starts with aeolian dune sets followed by aeolian sand sheets deposits and culminating in either fluvial channels or distal flood strata. Within some cycles, aeolian sand sheets are absent and fluvial deposits rest directly above aeolian dune facies. The transitions from one facies association to another are abrupt and marked by erosive surfaces that delineate distinct episodes of sediment accumulation. The origin of both the wetting-upward cycles and the erosive surfaces was controlled by the ground-water table level, dry sand availability and aeolian and fluvial sediment transport capacity variations, related to climatic fluctuations between relatively arid and humid conditions. Preservation of the fluvial–aeolian deposits reflects an overall relative water table rise driven by subsidence.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Understanding and interpreting climate response from ancient fluvial deposits requires a combined approach of detailed sedimentological description and interpretation, local climate proxies, and the accurate comparison of these sequences with further independent climate records. Application of these multiple lines of evidence is particularly effective in the Quaternary Period, where higher resolution and more detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction are possible. This paper presents results from a Devensian (Weichselian) age sequence in northern Fenland, England, that integrates these approaches. Detailed sedimentological description has identified three fluvial facies associations overlain by a period of ice-wedge cast formation. Fossil plant and coleopteran material within these sediments have been studied to provide palaeoenvironmental reconstructions for the local landscape, including quantitative temperature estimates using the mutual climatic range method on fossil Coleoptera. In addition, joint application of radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating allows this sequence to be compared with the stacked marine isotope record, although dates do not agree well at the limit of the radiocarbon technique. Sedimentological interpretations, palaeoenvironments and global ice-volume variations (a proxy for climatic severity) are all in agreement and show clearly how the River Nene responded to subtle changes in climate and vegetation cover during the Devensian (Weichselian) Stage. The level of detail possible in this reconstruction shows the importance of this approach in understanding fluvial response to past climate changes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Holocene inner-shelf storm deposits preserved beneath the Sendai coastal plain facing the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan were formed during a transgressive–regressive cycle. The evolution of the Holocene wave-dominated depositional system along the Sendai coast is reconstructed using 76 AMS (accelerator mass spectrometers) 14C ages and the origin of bed thickness variations in the inner-shelf storm deposits is explored. The Holocene succession is 〈30 m thick and overlies latest Pleistocene to early Holocene non-marine deposits above a transgressive ravinement surface. It comprises transgressive ravinement and inner-shelf deposits, and regressive inner shelf, shoreface, and coastal plain deposits. The inner-shelf deposits comprise alternating sand and mud layers interpreted as stacked storm beds. The average preservation interval of a single storm bed is shortest during the transgression (5·7–20·6 years), and then increases to a maximum during the early regression (83·3–250·0 years), decreasing to 7·7–31·3 years with shoreline progradation. Average accumulation rates decreased during the transgression and then increased during the regression, but the sand/mud ratio varies little, reflecting inefficient sediment segregation downdip on the inner shelf. The vertical pattern of sand-layer thicknesses also shows no relationship to position within the cycle, although small-scale intervals of upward thickening and thinning probably relate to lateral switching of river mouths and/or random storm processes. The average thickness of storm beds is the highest in the interval deposited during the period from maximum flooding to early regression. This is probably because of the low preservation potential of thin beds associated with frequent, low-magnitude storms during this period of low accumulation rates and extensive reworking. This preservation bias and the nature of the Sendai inner shelf resulted in an absence of characteristic bed thickness trends in the preserved storm deposits.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Sedimentology 52 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Sediment transport in sand-bedded alluvial channels is strongly conditioned by bedforms, the planimetric morphology of which can be either two- or three-dimensional. Experiments were undertaken to examine the processes that transform the bed configuration from two-dimensional (2D) dunes to three-dimensional (3D) dunes. A narrowly graded, 500 μm size sand was subjected to a 0·15 m deep, non-varying mean flow ranging from 0·30 to 0·55 m sec−1 in a 1 m wide flume. Changes in the planimetric configuration of the bed were monitored using a high-resolution video camera that produced a series of 10 sec time-lapsed digital images. Image analysis was used to define a critical value of the non-dimensional span (sinuosity) of the bedform crestlines that divides 2D forms from 3D forms. Significant variation in the non-dimensional span is observed that cannot be linked to properties of the flow or bedforms and thus appears random. Images also reveal that, once 2D bedforms are established, minor, transient excesses or deficiencies of sand are passed from one bedform to another. The bedform field appears capable of absorbing a small number of such defects but, as the number grows with time, the resulting morphological perturbations produce a transition in bed state to 3D forms that continue to evolve, but are pattern-stable. The 3D pattern is maintained by the constant rearrangement of crestlines through lobe extension and starving downstream bedforms of sediment, which leads to bifurcation. The experiments demonstrate that 2D bedforms are not stable in this calibre sand and call into question the reliability of bedform phase diagrams that use crestline shape as a discriminator.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Wexford Basin (south-eastern Ireland) is a NE–SW-trending sedimentary basin containing carbonates and evaporites deposited during the Late Tournaisian and Viséan. Two separate depositional areas are defined on the basis of facies and facies associations. Sediments were deposited in inner ramp, lagoonal and peritidal environments near Rosslare, and in a more open-marine, shallow- to moderately deep-water, mid to outer ramp environment in the western area around Duncormick. Thick breccia deposits that occur in the Wexford Basin formed as a result of (i) fault movement that produced syn-sedimentary debris flows in the Late? Chadian (Breccia type I); (ii) dissolution of anhydrite/gypsum and subsequent collapse of sedimentary strata (Breccia type II); and (iii) fracturing and brecciation of porous rock caused by the movement of high temperature, late diagenetic fluids along fault planes (Breccia type III). The NE–SW facies polarity displayed by both sedimentary successions was the result of NW–SE extension and the reactivation of the NE–SW-trending Wexford Boundary Fault during the Chadian. Extension at the SE margin of the basin with downthrow to the NNW gave the basin a half-graben character. Thickening of the debris flow deposits to the SW suggests that while the half-graben was being tilted it also underwent a NE–SW block rotation due to an axial component of that normal fault.
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