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  • 1
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the framework of the evaluation of the three-dimensional, finite volume code ADREAHF, a computational simulation of the Thorney Island Dense Gas Trial No. 8 is performed. A one-equation turbulence closure scheme is adopted in this first approach. The results of the simulation are compared with the experimental data in the form of concentration-time histories. The model predictions are satisfactory, with a tendency of the model to underestimate the maximum gas concentration and the time of its occurrence. The differences between model predictions and experimental data can be reduced by taking into account concentration fluctuations, utilization of finer numerical grids and improvements of the turbulence modelling.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A drive to achieve manufacturing excellence is underway within the speciality chemicals industry. Components of this objective include improving capabilities for efficient technical and market information processes; responding quickly to changes in market demands and to the introduction of new product; reducing the time-consuming and costly overhead associated with documentation, recordkeeping, and safety; and coordinating the activities of operating and management personnel, scientists and engineers, and management information specialists to create a fully integrated smoothly functioning organization [1].
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The loss of containment (LOC) for Pressure Liquefied Gas (PLG) vessels under accidential fire engulfment is shown to be very complex. The LOC depends upon: (i) the extent and intesity of external heating, (ii) the pressure relief device (PRD) operation and flare (if contents flammable), (iii) the fluid and fill level, (iv) the construction of the vessel, and (v) the thermohydraulic history of the commodity prior to failure.The Simple experiments described here shows that there exists a new type of more powerful failure than the BLEVE. This even we call a BLCBE, a Boiling Liquid Compressed Bubble Explosion. A hypothesis is advanced to explain this mode of failure which is supported by an initial series of small scale experiments involving Argon, water, R11, and R123.A comprehensive test program to determine the details of the BLCBE and BLEVE failure modes is indicated along with work to determine methods of protection.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 76-82 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In conjunction with the production of a new film entitled BLEVE Update®2, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) sponsored a series of six Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) tests using 1.893 m3 propane tanks. The purpose of the experiments was to obtain film footage of BLEVEs and to compile test data and documentation that might help to better define failure mechanisms and other important physical processes involved. The experiments included tests with simulated pool fires and tests with liquid and gaseous flame jets. The fill level of each tank was varied for the six experiments. The tanks were instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers in both the liquid and vapor space. This paper describes the test setup and summarizes the data measurements obtained.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 104-105 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The American Petroleum Institute strongly supports process safety management (PSM). However, as we begin to implement OSHA's new PSM rule, and as we face EPA's Risk Management Plan Rulemaking pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments, we have several concerns. These involve: (1) resource management; (2) quality of effort; (3) managing regulatory change; (4) enforcement; (5) prospect of duplicative or inconsistent regulations; and (6) role of the Chemical Safety Board. An enormous challenge lies ahead for industry, consultants and contractors, as well as OSHA and EPA, in implementing process safety management. Working together, we will be successful.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 83-91 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Of all the analytical tools available to the process safety professional, perhaps the most critical are those used to identify and analyze process hazards. Such tools have been collectively referred to as “Hazard Evaluation Procedures” by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and as techniques for “Process Hazard Analysis” (PHA) by the Occupational, Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).One of the best known PHA tools, the Hazard and Operability or HAZOP study, emerged over two decades ago in ICI, U.K., and its use has since spread over six continents. In 1979, ARCO Chemical piloted its first HAZOP and since then, HAZOPs have become the backbone of the company's Process Hazards Review procedure.Repeated use of the HAZOP technique since 1979 has resulted in an affirmation that to be “successful”, much more was needed than simply executing the HAZOP technique. Success is dependent upon the preparation and planning effort that precedes the HAZOP, and the follow-up activity that ensures implementation of study findings. Unlike the study technique, little information was available in 1979 on how to design the framework, or management system, that was needed to support the use of this tool.The purpose of this paper is shift focus from executing the HAZOP technique to that framework, by presenting insights that have accumulated from using the technique in ARCO Chemical, especially during the period 1979 through 1986. These were the formative years, during which the company's advancement on the learning curve was most noticeable. These were the years that convinced the company that successful HAZOP studies do not just happen; success comes from building the right management system. Success must be defined and assured at each step in a Process Hazards Review procedure, of which executing the HAZOP technique is only one.
    Additional Material: 7 Tab.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemical industry today is in transition, with increasing emphasis on total quality control along with needs to meet ever more stringent levels of health, safety, and environmental management. Fortunately, these needs are being met by tremendous strides in process monitoring and control instrumentation. Microprocessor-based process sensors, programmable electronic systems (PESs), and precision throttling valves now improve the implementation and maintenance of complex process control strategies, with operators interacting with the process through modern human/machine interfaces. Sophisticated graphical displays and powerful control algorithms aid the operators in their work. Many formerly manual tasks are being automated. Some sources of human error are reduced by the use of PES controls, but these systems introduce new and different potential sources of error, leading to new implementation considerations.Many of the hazard identification and risk assessment methodologies used today are based on techniques that assume independence of failures. However, possibilities for common mode failures and covert faults are greatly increased in process control systems that make use of PES technology. PES controls are interconnected through data highways; use common hardware and software functions in many modules; and may depend on central supervisory control computers for some critical control data. Today, achieving plant safety is a systems issue, requiring an integrated analysis with inputs from each of the disciplines involved in design and operation, as well as the guidance of safety and risk specialists. This article presents a systematic, semi-quantitative approach to total system safety design in which modern programmable electronic monitoring and control systems are integrated with traditional administrative and engineering controls to achieve acceptable levels of operating risk. The philosophy presented is a reflection of the consensus of a group of experienced control system specialists from some ten leading companies.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 106-110 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The petroleum refining industry has been performing hazard analyses in process units to some extent since at least 1988 and in earnest since 1990, when the American Petroleum Institute published Recommended Practice No. 750, “Process Hazards Management.” The Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOPS) is the most widely used of the various analysis techniques available, in part because this highly structured technique is easy to teach and well-suited for continuous process units.The results of HAZOPS fall into two broad categories, tangible and intangible. The tangible results are obvious: worksheets which detail event scanarios for potential process deviations, and action items, or recommendations for changes to process equipment of procedures. In many cases, the action items address issues which have a purely economic impact or which are procedural in nature, involving little or no capital investment.The intangible results or products of a HAZOPS include: the training and knowledge gained by the team participants, and better utilization of limited capital funds resulting from more detailed up-front engineering when a HAZOPS is required prior to funding. An aggressive HAZOPS schedule also aids facilities in planning resources for process safety information updates where the necessary P&ID's or PFD's are out-of-date.This paper details the experiences with HAZOPS at Chevron U.S.A. Products Company's Pascagoula, Mississippi Refinery. The manner in which HAZOPS are performed, the types of results obtained, and the benefits of the HAZOPS program will be discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 111-114 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The most common cause for runaway polymerizations of glacial acrylic acid (AA) is overheating of the material due to mechanical failure, human error, or nearby fire. Under such circumstances, dissolved oxygen (D.O) is consumed more rapidly than the AA stabilizer, p-methoxyphenol (MEHQ), and “oxygen stravation” is the immediate cause of polymerization onset. From the known kinetics of oxygen disappearance, it is possible to calculate D.O. concentrations during a heatup period and to predict the time remaining until that concentration becomes unacceptably low. This information provides guidance for the timely activation of an emergency response shortstop inhibitor injection system so that there is enough time for adequate mixing of the inhibitor, phenothiazine (PTZ), to prevent or mitigate the polymerization.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 115-117 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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