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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 54 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 54 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Host–parasite relationships and pathogenicity of Meloidogyne javanica on potatoes (newly recorded from Malta) were studied under glasshouse and natural conditions. Potato cvs Cara and Spunta showed a typical susceptible reaction to M. javanica under natural and artificial infections, respectively. In potato tubers, M. javanica induced feeding sites that consisted of three to four hypertrophied giant cells per adult female. Infection of feeder roots by the nematode resulted in mature large galls which usually contained at least one mature female and egg mass. In both tubers and roots, feeding sites were characterized by giant cells containing granular cytoplasm and many hypertrophied nuclei. Cytoplasm in giant cells was aggregated alongside the thickened cell walls. Stelar tissues within galls appeared disorganized. The relationship between initial nematode population density (P) [0–64 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2s) per cm3 soil] and growth of cv. Spunta potato seedlings was tested under glasshouse conditions. A Seinhorst model [y = m + (1 − m)z(P−T)] was fitted to fresh shoot weight and shoot height data of nematode-inoculated and control plants. Tolerance limits (T) for fresh shoot weight and shoot height of cv. Spunta plants infected with M. javanica were 0·50 and 0·64 eggs + J2s per cm3 soil, respectively. The m parameter in that model (i.e. the minimum possible y-values) for fresh shoot weight and shoot height were 0·60 and 0·20, respectively, at P = 64 eggs + J2s per cm3 soil. Root galling was proportional to the initial nematode population density. Maximum nematode reproduction rate was 51·2 at a moderate initial population density (P = 4 eggs + J2s per cm3 soil).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: During surveys of sugarcane fields in western and central Cuba from December 2001 to March 2003, the delphacid planthopper Saccharosydne saccharivora was the most prevalent of the Auchenorrhyncha fauna surveyed. Individuals of S. saccharivora collected tested positive for the sugarcane yellow leaf phytoplasma (SCYLP). Saccharosydne saccharivora were reared in cages and used for experimental transmission studies of SCYLP. The S. saccharivora were given acquisition-access feeds of 72 h on SCYLP-infected canes collected from the field followed by an inoculation-access period of 15 days on healthy sugarcane seedlings. Symptoms of yellow leaf syndrome developed on 24 out of 36 plants, 7–12 months postinoculation. None of the 36 healthy seedlings that were inoculated with S. saccharivora fed on phytoplasma-free sugarcane developed symptoms. All phytoplasma-positive sugarcane and S. saccharivora samples showed identical RFLP patterns and had 99·89% similarity in their 16S/23S spacer-region sequences, but only 92·6–93·6% similarity with other phytoplasmas. Sequences were deposited with GenBank [accession numbers: 〈accessionId ref="info:ddbj-embl-genbank/AY725237"〉AY725237 (S. saccharivora) and 〈accessionId ref="info:ddbj-embl-genbank/AY257548"〉AY257548 (sugarcane)]. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the phytoplasmas from sugarcane and S. saccharivora are putative members of a new 16Sr phytoplasma group. This is the first report of vector transmission of a phytoplasma associated with sugarcane yellow leaf syndrome and the first time that S. saccharivora has been shown to vector a phytoplasma.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 54 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A total of 62 phytoplasma isolates were collected from North America, Europe and Asia and analysed by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) of the 16/23S spacer region amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed wide genetic diversity among the phytoplasmas studied and a number of new phytoplasma strains were identified from known or new plant hosts in Alberta, Canada. Two distinctive subgroups were revealed by HMA in phytoplasmas associated with canola yellows, Chinese aster yellows, dandelion yellows and monarda yellows. In Alberta, two subgroups of the aster yellows group of phytoplasmas, I-A and I-B, were prevalent in naturally infected field crops and ornamentals in open gardens. The results indicated that HMA is a simple, but rapid and accurate, alternative method for the detection and estimation of genetic divergence of phytoplasmas when finer molecular characterization of phytoplasmas is required at the subgroup level.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: AAC-toxin, a putative nonhost-selective phytotoxin, was obtained from Alternaria alternata causing a brown leaf spot disease of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum). The effect of AAC-toxin on the electron transfer reaction of chloroplasts showed that the activity of photosystem II, but not photosystem I, was completely inhibited by the toxin. AAC-toxin affected the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), the half-time value of fluorescence rise, and the O–J–I–P fluorescence induction kinetics curve, but not the ratio values of Fv/Fm (the quantum yield of photosystem II) and the half-time value of fluorescence quenching. It was concluded that the toxin inhibited electron transfer from QA to QB (primary and secondary quinine acceptors of photosystem II) in photosystem II by competing with QB for the binding site in D1 protein on the thylakoid membrane.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Two cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivars differing in their resistance to powdery mildew, Ningfeng No. 3 (susceptible) and Jinchun No. 4 (resistant), were used to study the effects of foliar- and root-applied silicon on resistance to infection by Podosphaera xanthii (syn. Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and the production of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The results indicated that inoculation with P. xanthii significantly suppressed subsequent infection by powdery mildew compared with noninoculation, regardless of Si application. Root-applied Si significantly suppressed powdery mildew, the disease index being lower in Si-supplied than in Si-deprived plants, regardless of inoculation treatment. The resistant cultivar had a more constant lower disease index than the susceptible cultivar, irrespective of inoculation or Si treatment. Moreover, with root-applied Si, activities of PRs (for example peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and chitinase) were significantly enhanced in inoculated lower leaves or noninoculated upper leaves in inoculated plants of both cultivars. Root-applied Si significantly decreased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in inoculated leaves, but increased it in noninoculated upper leaves. However, Si treatment failed to change significantly the activity of PRs in plants without fungal attack. Compared to the control (no Si), foliar-applied Si had no effects either on the suppression of subsequent infection by P. xanthii or on the activity of PRs, irrespective of inoculation. Based on the findings in this study and previous reports, it was concluded that foliar-applied Si can effectively control infections by P. xanthii only via the physical barrier of Si deposited on leaf surfaces, and/or osmotic effect of the silicate applied, but cannot enhance systemic acquired resistance induced by inoculation, while continuously root-applied Si can enhance defence resistance in response to infection by P. xanthii in cucumber.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 54 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A series of experiments was conducted with wheat stripe rust to analyse competition between simple and complex pathotypes in host mixtures. Two different pathotype combinations were tested, with different host components. Each combination included a complex (able to infect two host components) and two simple pathotypes. For one of the combinations, induced resistance was tested in a separate experiment as a possible interaction among pathotypes. Disease severity and pathotype frequencies were measured three times during the epidemic, on each host component grown in pure stands and in mixtures. In one of the experiments, pathotype frequencies were also measured within secondary foci. One of the complex pathotypes appeared to have a low fitness on one of the host components and did not significantly increase in frequency in host mixtures relative to pure stands. The average frequency of the other complex pathotype increased during the first epidemic cycles, but remained stable afterwards, below expected values. The results suggest that the development of complex pathotypes in host mixtures may be influenced by differential aggressiveness on the host components, by induced resistance and by random effects resulting from the formation of disease foci, and depends on pathogen autoinfection rate and dispersal mechanisms.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: New strains of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), designated MNSV-YS and MNSV-KS, caused much more severe growth retardation on melon plants than MNSV-NH, which was previously reported as the most severe strain of MNSV in Japan. MNSV-YS spread much more quickly than MNSV-NH in infected plants, and induced more severe growth retardation, even though the appearance of necrotic lesions on inoculated cotyledons was much slower. MNSV-KS had properties intermediate between those of the other two strains. The results suggest that faster-spreading strains can multiply more rapidly as a result of lower levels of activity in inducing necrotic lesions in melon plants. The complete sequences of MNSV-YS and MNSV-KS were determined, and an RT–PCR–RFLP method based on these sequences was successfully developed to detect and discriminate between the three strains.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 54 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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