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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: ELISA ; grain yield ; inoculation ; millet ; N2-fixing bacteria ; NO3 reductase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Responses to inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria were studied in relation to genotypic differences in pearl millet, effect of nitrogen levels, and FYM additions in India. In some experiments, inoculation increased mean grain yield up to 33% over the uninoculated control, whereas in the remaining 11 experiments there was no significant increase. Increased grain yields, 〉10% over the uninoculated controls were observed in 46% of the experiments withAzospirillum lipoferum (18.7% average increase) and withAzotobacter chroococcum (13.6% average increase). Yield increases were nil or reduced in three experiments withAzos. lipoferum and four experiments withAztb. chroococcum. In two experiments continued inoculation for two or three years resulted in increased grain, plant biomass yield, and N uptake. Interactions of bacterial cultures with cultivars or years were not observed. The counts of the inoculated strains increased two to three-fold when inoculation was continued for three years. Repeated inoculations increased the mean cumulative N uptake from season 1 to season 3 by 19 kg ha−1. Repeated inoculations withAztb. chroococcum andAzos. lipoferum increased mean grain yield of a succeeding crop by 14.4% and 9.8%, respectively, over the uninoculated control. Inoculation increased the efficiency of N-assimilation by pearl millet. Marginal increase in nitrogenase activity, associated with the inoculated plants was observed during later stages of plant growth. Increased leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was observed after inoculation with these bacteria. The responses to inoculation are mainly attributable to increased plant N assimilation which could be the effect of growth promoting substances secreated by the bacteria; and thus the contribution from BNF may be small.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: ammonium ; carbon ; inoculation ; nitrite ; nitrate ; oxygen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We have evaluated the effects of oxygen partial pressure (pO2), combined nitrogen, and the availability of organic substrates on nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by bacteria associated with the roots of intact maize and sorghum plants. We also investigated the possibility of enhancing associative nitrogen-fixation by inoculating the soil in which the plants were grown withAzospirillum. Acetylene reduction (AR) activity was greatest when roots of intact plants were exposed to pO2 between 1.3 and 2.1 kPa. Field-grown and greenhouse-grown plants supported similar levels of activity. Respiration inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium azide) eliminated AR activity at 2 kPa O2, whereas a fermentation inhibitor (sodium fluoride) only partially reduced the activity. Acetylene reduction activity was rapidly (1–3 h) inhibited by NH 4 + , NO 3 − , and NO 2 − at concentrations of 4–20 mg Nl−1. Rates of AR varied substantially among individual plants in each experiment and between experiments. Amendment with any of several organic substrates greatly increased AR activity when rates were low, suggesting that the lack of activity was caused by a shortage of available carbon in the rhizosphere. Inoculation withAzospirillum failed to increase rates of AR associated with maize plants. In several experiments the indigenous bacteria associated with uninoculated plants exhibited greater activity than the bacteria associated with inoculated plants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: colonization ; inoculation ; kallar grass ; N2-fixation ; 15N isotopic dilution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two experiments have been conducted, one in semi-solid Hoagland nutrient medium and the other in shallow pots containing saline soil. N2-fixing bacteria belonging toAzospirillum, Azotobacter, Klebsiella andEnterobacter were inoculated separately on kallar grass grown in semi-solid nutrient medium. It was shown that inoculation affects root proliferation and also results in15N isotopic dilution. The % Ndfa ranged from 47–70 whereas no significant effect on the total nitrogen uptake was observed. The bacterial colonization of the root surface and the presence of enteric bacteria inside the root hair cells is reported. In a soil pot experiment, non-N2-fixingPolypogon monspeliensis was used as a reference plant (control). A treatment receiving a high rate of nitrogen was also used as a non-N2-fixing control.15N-labelled ammonium sulphate at 20 kg N ha−1 and 90 kg N ha−1 was used. The % Ndfa in the aerial parts of kallar grass was 12–15 whenP. monspeliensis was used as reference plant whereas 37–39% Ndfa was estimated when the treatment receiving high nitrogen fertilizer was used as a non-N2-fixing control. These investigations revealed some problems of methodology which are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: compost ; corn ; heavy metals ; soil extractability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract This paper gives the results from four-year field experiments on compost application, added at the maximum rate allowed by Italian legislation (30 t/ha/y). The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate any eventual heavy metal accumulation in soil and corn plants. Cadmium in corn plants increased particularly in the roots from 0.22 mg kg−1 to 1.31 mg kg−1, concentration of Zn and Cu increased in grains, from 26.8 to 35.8 and from 2.4 to 4.2 mg kg−1 respectively. Relevant increase in the roots was detected for Zn from 34.6 to 146.8 mg kg−1. Only in the 4th year Ni concentration increases in the root portion while the content of Pb and Cr in corn was generally unaffected by the compost application. Heavy metals in the soil determined by a sequential chemical extraction, indicated that extractability changed with time. A certain increase was found from the beginning to the end of the experiment particularly for Zn, from 23.3 mg kg−1 to 45.1 mg kg−1 in extractable forms. Nevertheless the extractable amounts are rather small in respect to the total heavy metal content of compost.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: barley ; decomposition ; fertilization ; green manure ; liming ; N-budget ; N-release ; 15N ; red clover
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Red clover material labelled with15N was confined in mesh bags and buried into microplots in October at two field sites in Sourthern Finland. The soils (Kettula silt loam and Långvik loam) contained in the microplots were previously limed and fertilized with PK (N was given in next May) in different combinations. The following May the microplots were sown with barley and after the barley had been harvested (that August) soil samples and the mesh bags were removed. The crop, mesh bags and soil were then analysed for15N content. The soil treatments did not affect the release of clover N from the mesh bags and only slightly its retention in Kettula silt loam. The dry mass of barley obtained responded strongly to the different soil treatments. In comparison, the uptake of clover N by the barley varied much less; in Kettula silt loam a 1.6 fold increase in barley dry mass did not affect its content of clover N (12–13% of input) and in Långvik loam a ten fold increase in barley dry mass yield corresponded to a three fold increase of the content of clover N (5–16%). The total recovery of clover N (clover N in soil+mesh bags+barley harvest) was almost independent of the soil treatment; in Kettula silt loam and Långvik loam being respectively 52–56% and 71–85% of the input.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 111 (1988), S. 147-148 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: carbofuran ; nematodes ; nodulation ; Vigna radiata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Effect of carbofuran on the growth, nodulation, phytomass, chlorophyll and carotene ofVigna radiata Roxb., was studied. Out of different concentrations of carbofuranviz., 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 ppm, the concentration of 5 ppm carbofuran revealed no toxic effect, instead the growth, number of nodules, phytomass and chlorophyll were increased in comparison to control. However, 10, 25 and 50 ppm carbofuran proved to be toxic. The plants showed inhibition of growth. While 100 ppm of carbofuran was found to be fatal for the growth of plants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: acid soils ; competition ; effectiveness ; Glomus tenue ; G. mosseae ; G. fasiculatum ; G. epigaeum ; G. macrocarpum ; mineral uptake ; native VAM-fungi ; Trifolium pratense L. ; VA-mycorrhizas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Three sterilized acid soils were inoculated with inocula of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soils were limed and/or P fertilized to produce different fertility levels. Most inocula consisted of mixtures of ‘fine’ + ‘coarse’ type endophytes. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seeded in pots and grown in a glasshouse for 4 months. Root colonization by VAM fungi, the relative infection byGlomus tenue compared to that by ‘coarse’ VAM fungi and the effect of inoculation on red clover growth and mineral nutrition (P, K, Ca and Mg) were studied. Spores were also checked and tentatively identified. Results showed that root colonization by VAM fungi was higher than 50% in most cases, the lower values being found in the soil with the highest P content. Inocula containingG. mosseae + G. tenue infected plant roots only in limed (pH〉5.7) soils. A study of the relative colonization by ‘fine’ and ‘coarse’ endophytes showed that the competitive ability againstG. tenue followed the orderG. fasiculatum 〉 G. mosseae 〉 G. epigaeum 〉 G. macrocarpum, although soil properties and fertility were crucial factors.Glomus lacteum was tentatively identified in two of the three experimental soils. The inoculum in whichGlommus tenue was most infective was also the most efficient in improving plant growth and nutrient uptake. The effect of inoculation on P and Mg uptake followed a similar pattern.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Al3+ ; Ca2+(45Ca2+) ; K+(86Rb+) uptake ; cation uptake ; Picea abies ; sand culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Three clones of spruce (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in sand culture for 9 weeks, whereafter they were transferred to water culture for 3 days. The plants were supplied with or grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 0.1, 1.0 respectively 10 mM AlCl3. The monomer Al fraction (including Al3+) and the Al3+ fraction were determined in the fresh nutrient solutions. The shoot/root dry weight ratio and the water content in shoots and roots were determined, and the main cationic composition (Al, K, Ca, Mg, Mn) in needles, stems and roots were analysed. A short term uptake experiment was performed 3 days after the plants were transferred from sand culture to water culture. The K+(86Rb+) and Ca2+(45Ca2+) uptake rates in the roots were determined in absence of external AlCl3. A high proportion of the supplied Al was taken up by the plants; 57% of total supply in the 0.1 mM Al treatment and 20% in the 1.0 mM Al treatment. Between 11% and 28% of the total Al taken up in the 0.1–10 mM Al treatments was exported to the shoot, indicating that Al not only was bound in the root free space, but also crossed the plasmalemma. Al decreased the Ca and Mg concentrations in the roots. The short term uptake experiment also showed that Ca2+(45Ca2+) uptake in the roots decreased with increasing external Al concentration. However, Ca and Mg concentrations were not lower in the shoots, except at the 10 mM Al treatment. This indicates that a higher percentage of the ions taken up was exported to the shoots in presence of Al. Concentrations of Mn and K in the roots were about the same in the Al treatments as for the control, except that the K concentration decreased at the 10 mM Al treatment. K levels in stems and needles increased with increasing Al treatment probably as a result of a decreased efflux from the roots combined with a higher export/uptake ratio. However, at the end of the cultivation period, K+(86Rb+) uptake, in the roots, decreased with increasing Al treatment, probably mainly due to a reduced ATP level. The shoot/root dry weight ratio was highest for the two highest Al treatments (1.0 and 10 mM) due to a reduced root growth.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Bradyrhizobium japonicum ; Glycine max ; nodulation ; Pseudomonas fluorescens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were undertaken to determine the effect ofPseudomonas fluorescens on nodulation of soybean by two strains ofBradyrhizobium japonicum, USDA I-110 and 61A76.Pseudomonas fluorescens can enhance the nodulation ability ofB. japonicum. Preincubation ofB. japonicum withP. fluorescens before inoculation further increased the level of nodulation.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 111 (1988), S. iii 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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