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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Protozoa ; Ectomycorrhizal fungi Douglas fir ; Microbial ecology ; Biodiversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protozoan communities around roots with different types of ectomycorrhizae were distinct. These protozoan communities differed both qualitatively and quantitatively with the host (Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophylla and Abies grandis) and the ectomycorrhizal fungal species. Based on the species identified and the numbers of individuals of each species, six communities of protozoa were found associated with specific ectomycorrhizae. Previous researchers have shown that mycorrhizal colonization of roots alters the amounts and types of exudates produced by roots, which in turn alters the bacterial community present. Most likely, mycorrhizal colonization of roots influences the protozoan community around roots by controlling the bacterial community. However, the protozoan community may in turn influence the successional dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungi on different host root systems by a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms could include: (1) preying upon individuals and perhaps removing particular species of bacteria from the mycorrhizosphere; and (2) controlling nitrogen mineralization in the rhizosphere. Further work needs to be performed to determine the interaction between these quadrate (plant-bacteria-fungi-protozoa) associations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Lentil ; Wheat ; Glomus spp ; Dual inoculation ; Competition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) Glomus clarum (Nicol. and Schenck) isolate NT4, G. mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe isolate NT6 and G. versiforme (Karst.) Berch isolate NT7 coexist in wheat field soils in Saskatchewan. This study assessed the response of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to monospecific and mixed cultures of these VAMF isolates. Seedlings were inoculated with 100 spores of a VAMF isolate, or an equal mixture of spores of two isolates, and grown in a sterile soil mix in a growth chamber. Both crops responded differently to these different VAMF isolates. In the case of lentil, G. clarum NT4 was more effective than G. mosseae NT6 and G. versiforme NT7, and significantly increased (P〈0.05) the shoot dry weight (43%) and grain yield (57%) compared with the uninoculated control. There was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of VAMF colonized roots and shoot dry weight (r=0.672***) and shoot phosphorus concentration (r=0.608***) of lentil. In the case of wheat, G. clarum NT4 had no effect on shoot dry weight, but produced significant (P〈0.08) increases in grain yield (12%) and the phosphorus concentration of the shoot and grain. Although G. clarum NT4 and G. mosseae NT6 both produced similar levels of VAM colonization in wheat, the only response of wheat to isolate NT6 was an increase in plant height at harvest. The efficacy of G. clarum NT4 on both crops appeared to be related to its ability to produce more arbuscular colonization than G. mosseae NT6. Dual inoculation of seedlings with G. clarum NT4 and G. mosseae NT6 resulted in competition between these two isolates. This was evident from a comparison of plant shoot dry weight and grain yield, and VAMF spore production on the two crops inoculated either with isolate NT4 alone or in combination with NT6. G. mosseae NT6 reduced the efficacy of G. clarum NT4 by 16% when dual inoculated on lentil, but had no effect when the host was wheat. Based on spore production, it was found that G. clarum NT4 was more competitive than G. mosseae NT6 when dual inoculated on lentil or wheat. Isolate NT4 produced ca. 2000 and 500 spores/ 100 g substrate, respectively, in the lentil and wheat pots, which was approximately 2–3 times more spores than those produced by isolate NT6 with either crop. When the plants were dual inoculated, there was a 15–19% reduction in spore production by G. clarum NT4 and a 50–70% decrease in spore production by G. mosseae NT6. Our results show that G. clarum NT4 was more competitive and effective in its ability to colonize and increase the growth and yield of lentil and wheat than G. mosseae NT6 or G. versiforme NT7. The relative performance of isolate NT4 with different host plants suggests that this VAMF isolate exhibits a host preference for lentil.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Image analysis ; Glomus spp ; Extraradical mycelium ; Hyphal extraction ; Hyphal lengths
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative and reproducible information concerning the development of the extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is lacking due to the difficulties in extracting, identifying and estimating hyphal lengths. In this study, using a rhizobox growth system, the lengths of hyphae of AMF estimated using an image analysis system were not significantly different from data obtained by a trained observer using a modified grid-line intersect method. The assessment of lengths of hyphae on membrane filters or slides was, however, much quicker using image analysis, and allowed the complete sample to be quantified, unlike the grid-line method where a limited number of fields of view are assessed. The image analysis procedure is objective, observer-independent and less laborious than the manual method of assessment. Of the four different methods of sample preparation compared, membrane filter methods were found to be the most appropriate for quantitative sampling from three non-soil substrates. Glomus monosporum (UKC M3) produced twice as much extraradical mycelium and hyphal length per centimetre of colonised root than G. geosporum (BEG 11) on both leek and linseed in a durite sand at final harvest (63 days). Both AMF also produced more hyphal length per centimetre of colonised root on linseed than on leek. The spatial distribution of both AMF, however, was similar in durite sand and no correlation with levels of NaHCO3-extractable phosphorus was noted. In a third experiment, with G. manihotis (UKC INDO-1) colonising a tropical forage legume, Pueraria phaseoloides, in two other growth substrates, a different pattern of development of the extra-radical mycelium was observed. Because of a higher content of particulate matter, which collected on the membrane filters, the extraction technique had to be modified to give optimal performance of the image analysis system.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus sp ; Micropropagated fruit rootstocks ; Transplant stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Apple, peach and plum rootstocks were inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. strain A6 on transplanting from in vitro to in vivo culture. The optimal root length for effective infection, assessed in apple rootstock M 25, was 0.1–1.5 cm, corresponding to the beginning of root elongation. When inoculated at this stage, plants showed maximal growth increase and survival. Mycorrhizal infection of the Mr. S. 2/5 rootstock induced earlier growth renewal after transplanting than in the controls. These results confirm previous reports that mycorrhizal inoculation, performed during transplantation from in vitro to in vivo culture, can enhance both the growth and the survival of plants.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycorrhiza 5 (1994), S. 89-97 
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Key words Mushroom ; Polymerase chain reaction ; Mycorrhiza
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract New data on the physiology of Cantharellus cibarius mycorrhiza formation has resulted in a new aseptic routine method for in vitro formation. The advances are short formation time, healthy plants and reliable colonization. A high glucose demand and a good gas exchange with additional carbon dioxide are important factors in the mycorrhiza formation. Mycorrhiza was observed after 8 weeks, but strong colonization occurred after 10–12 weeks, when mycorrhiza was established to the depth of 5 cm. A C. cibarius strain connected to Picea abies in nature successfully colonized Pinus sylvestris in vitro, but not Betula pendula. Mycorrhizal plants have been successfully transferred to unsterile environments in greenhouses. The mycorrhizae continued to colonize new roots and the unsterile peat soil for 10 months. However, C. cibarius mycorrhiza is highly sensitive to flooding. With PCR and RFLP, fruit bodies, isolated mycelia and artificially formed mycorrhizae have been compared to prove that C. cibarius was used. Climatic changes did not induce primordia formation, but factors behind fruit body formation are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Key words Glomus mosseae ; Manganese uptake ; Root exudation ; Manganese reduction ; Mycorrhizal effect ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of rhizosphere microorganisms and vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhiza on manganese (Mn) uptake in maize (Zea mays L. cv. Tau) plants was studied in pot experiments under controlled environmental conditions. The plants were grown for 7 weeks in sterilized calcareous soil in pots having separate compartments for growth of roots and of VA mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. The soil was left either uninoculated (control) or prior to planting was inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms only (MO-VA) or with rhizosphere microorganisms together with a VA mycorrhizal fungus [Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe] (MO+VA). Mycorrhiza treatment did not affect shoot dry weight, but root dry weight was slightly inhibited in the MO+VA and MO-VA treatments compared with the uninoculated control. Concentrations of Mn in shoots decreased in the order MO-VA〉MO+VA〉control. In the rhizosphere soil, the total microbial population was higher in mycorrhizal (MO+VA) than nonmycorrhizal (MO-VA) treatments, but the proportion of Mn-reducing microbial populations was fivefold higher in the nonmycorrhizal treatment, suggesting substantial qualitative changes in rhizosphere microbial populations upon root infection with the mycorrhizal fungi. The most important microbial group taking part in the reduction of Mn was fluorescent Pseudomonas. Mycorrhizal treatment decreased not only the number of Mn reducers but also the release of Mn-solubilizing root exudates, which were collected by percolation from maize plants cultivated in plastic tubes filled with gravel quartz sand. Compared with mycorrhizal plants, the root exudates of nonmycorrhizal plants had two fold higher capacity for reduction of Mn. Therefore, changes in both rhizosphere microbial population and root exudation are probably responsible for the lower acquisition of Mn in mycorrhizal plants.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycorrhiza 5 (1995), S. 213-217 
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Avocado Banana ; Papaya ; Pineapple
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports the effects under green-house and field conditions of four arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth and nutrition of some tropical and subtropical crops of economic importance in the Canary Islands (Spain) whose mycorrhizal dependency was unknown. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus (Merr.) L.) and banana (Musa acuminata Colla) were highly responsive to the mycorrhizal condition when the AM inoculum was Glomus sp. endophytes. Under our experimental conditions, Glomus fasciculatum was the most effective fungus at improving plantlet growth and nutrition. Acaulospora sp. was ineffective and Scutellospora was only effective with banana. The data clearly show the advantage of mycorrhization during the first phase of development of the plant system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Ectomycorrhizae ; Characterization and identification ; Lactarius lignyotus ; Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ; Restriction digest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ectomycorrhizae of Lactarius lignyotus on Norway spruce are comprehensively described by morphological and anatomical characteristics. Identification of ectomycorrhizae was performed by tracing mycelia to the fruitbodies and also by molecular tools, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the fungal DNA. The newly described ectomycorrhiza is compared to ectomycorrhiza of the related Lactarius picinus. The amplified DNA products of the two fungi and their ectomycorrhizae could be distinguished by characteristic fragments after digestion with Hinf1.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae Population ; Correlation ; Soil properties ; Mollisol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) propagules by the most probable number method in some mollisols and their correlations with some important soil properties were determined. On average, the six soils, Phoolbagh clay loam, Beni silty clay loam, Haldi loam, Nagla loam, Khamia sandy loam and Patherchatta sandy loam contained 4.9, 4.0, 7.9, 7.9, 3.3 and 13.0 propagules/g soil, respectively, i.e. none of the soils was found to be high in VAM. The size of the VAM population was compared to soil properties such as pH, organic carbon, sand content, available phosphorus and available potassium, cation-exchange capacity, silt and clay contents. A significant positive correlation (r=0.586) was only found with available soil phosphorus (P〈0.05) and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.555) with soil clay content (P〈0.05).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1890
    Keywords: Key words Ectomycorrhiza ; Inoculation ; Field testing ; Laccaria spp ; Thelephora terrestris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Picea sitchensis and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings were grown in containers, inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and planted in British forestry sites. Root samples taken during the year after planting were assessed for mycorrhiza formation. Survival and shoot height were assessed at the end of each year. Observations were made each autumn on the occurrence of sporophores of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Pot experiments were used to assess the colonization potential of soils from the experimental locations. Assessment of mycorrhiza formation by the inoculant fungi both before planting and the following year showed much variation among the fungi used. Similar variation was found among field sites. Inoculation with Laccaria isolates was most successful. Height measurements are reported for the first 2 years after planting, at which time there were few significant effects on growth of Picea sitchensis or Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings. Experimental assessment of colonization potential was of little value in this work for predicting events in the forest.
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