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  • 1
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Data from 85 sites across the United States were used to estimate concentrations and yields of selected nutrients in streams draining relatively undeveloped basins. Flow-weighted concentrations during 1990–1995 were generally low with median basin concentrations of 0.020, 0.087, 0.26, 0.010, and 0.022 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for ammonia as N, nitrate as N, total nitrogen, orthophosphate as P, and total phosphorus, respectively. The flow-weighted concentration of nitrate exceeded 0.6 mg/L in only three basins. Total nitrogen exceeded 1 mg/L in only four basins, and total phosphorus exceeded 0.1 mg/L in only four basins. The median annual basin yield of ammonia as N, nitrate as N, total nitrogen, orthophosphate as P, and total phosphorus was 8.1, 26, 86, 2.8, and 8.5 kilograms per square kilometer, respectively. Concentrations and yields of nitrate tended to be highest in northeastern and mid-Atlantic coastal states and correlated well with areas of high atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Concentrations and yields of total nitrogen were highest in the southeastern part of the nation and in parts of the upper Midwest. In the northeast, nitrate was generally the predominant form of nitrogen, and in the southeast and parts of the upper Midwest, organic nitrogen was the dominant form. Concentrations of total phosphorus were generally highest in the Rocky Mountain and Central Plain states.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : This project analyzes suspended sediment flux through the upper Barataria basin in Louisiana during the winter season defined from November through April. The Barataria is a shallow coastal estuary located in southeastern Louisiana. The controls exerted by environmental parameters (such as wind or atmospheric pressure) in wetlands-shallow bay ecosystems on transport of water and sediment were examined. Water samples were taken at a bayou (which serve as the inlet for flow to the estuary) on a regular basis. These samples were analyzed for total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids. Velocity, depth, temperature, salinity, conductivity, and meteorological measurements were all recorded at the time of each sampling. A multi-parameter field probe was employed to continually monitor turbidity, water level, conductivity, and temperature during frontal events. These data were used in a regression analysis to examine the factors that drive carbon flux in the region.Investigations have determined that synoptic climate and prevailing weather conditions explain much of the variations in water levels, flow circulation patterns, salinity, and suspended sediment. Relatively small amounts of sediment appear to leave the estuary during normal tidal activity, but winter storm fronts result in significant fluxes of sediment in both up-basin and down-basin directions.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Forestation of riparian areas has long been promoted to restore stream ecosystems degraded by agriculture in central North America. Although trees and shrubs in the riparian zone can provide many benefits to streams, grassy or herbaceous riparian vegetation can also provide benefits and may be more appropriate in some situations. Here we review some of the positive and negative implications of grassy versus wooded riparian zones and discuss potential management outcomes. Compared to wooded areas, grassy riparian areas result in stream reaches with different patterns of bank stability, erosion, channel morphology, cover for fish, terrestrial runoff, hydrology, water temperature, organic matter inputs, primary production, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Of particular relevance in agricultural regions, grassy riparian areas may be more effective in reducing bank erosion and trapping suspended sediments than wooded areas. Maintenance of grassy riparian vegetation usually requires active management (e.g., mowing, burning, herbicide treatments, and grazing), as successional processes will tend ultimately to favor woody vegetation. Riparian agricultural practices that promote a dense, healthy, grassy turf, such as certain types of intensively managed livestock grazing, have potential to restore degraded stream ecosystems.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Unsustainable withdrawals from regional aquifers have resulted in adverse impacts considerable distances from the point locations of supply wells. In one area of the southeastern (SE) Coastal Plain, conservative estimates for repair/replacement of some residential wells damaged or destroyed by unsustainable yield from the Floridan aquifer system exceeded $4 million. However, a comprehensive assessment of damage/economic loss to private property and public resources due to unsustainable yield from that regional karst aquifer has not been made. Uncalculated direct costs to home-owners from damage attributed to those withdrawals are associated with destruction of homes from increased sinkhole formation, devalued waterfront property, and removal of diseased and dead trees. Examples of other uncalculated economic burdens resulting from unsustainable aquifer yield in the SE Coastal Plain include: (1) irreversible damage to the aquifer matrix and concomitant increased potential for groundwater contamination, (2) large-scale wildfires with subsequent degradation of air quality, debilitation of transportation corridors, and destruction of timber, wildlife habitat and property, and (3) destruction of “protected” natural areas. This paper provides a general background of the regional Floridan aquifer system's karst characteristics, examples of known impacts resulting from ground water mining in the SE Coastal Plain, and examples of additional damage that may be related to unsustainable yield from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Costs of these impacts have not been calculated and are not reflected in the price users pay for ground water. Evidence suggests that the classic watershed management approach must be revised in areas with mined regional karst aquifers to include impacts of induced recharge from the surficial aquifer, and subsurface inter-basin flow. Likewise, associated impacts to surface water and interrelated systems must be calculated. The true cost of groundwater mining to this and future generations should be determined using a multidisciplinary approach.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the spatially distributed modeling of water flow during storm events. Distributed modeling of flow during storm events is an important basis for any environmental modeling, including turbidity or sediment transport. During the initial phase of a rainstorm, surface runoff is the main contributor of flow. To provide the spatial components for distributed hydrological modeling a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to map and visualize contributing areas around a stream channel. Stream segments were defined using the hydrologic response unit (HRU) concept. Lateral flows were derived from GIS output for each segment of the stream and at each time interval of the rain storm and were routed using the kinematic routing equation. This approach is new in hydrological modeling and can be used to enhance many existing simulations. The model is also unique in the fine time scale (i.e., intervals are on the order of minutes). Model results showed good correlation with measured discharge values; however, further studies of contributing area behavior, its relationship with soil types and slope categories, and the influence of watershed size are needed to improve model performance. This model will be used in the future as the basis to model turbidity in streams.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : This work presents a flexible system called GIS-based Flood Information System (GFIS) for floodplain modeling, flood damages calculation, and flood information support. It includes two major components, namely floodplain modeling and custom designed modules. Model parameters and input data are gathered, reviewed, and compiled using custom designed modules. Through these modules, it is possible for GFIS to control the process of flood-plain modeling, presentation of simulation results, and calculation of flood damages. Empirical stage-damage curves are used to calculate the flood damages. These curves were generated from stage-damage surveys of anthropogenic structures, crops, etc., in the coastal region of a frequently flooded area in Chia-I County, Taiwan. The average annual flood damages are calculated with exceedance probability and flood damages for the designed rainfalls of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 year recurrence intervals with a duration of 24 hours. The average annual flood depth in this study area can also be calculated using the same method. The primary advantages of GFIS are its ability to accurately predict the locations of flood area, depth, and duration; calculate flood damages in the floodplain; and compare the reduction of flood damages for flood mitigation plans.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : In order to determine appropriate application rates and to ensure low pollutant levels in sewage sludge, knowing the chemical composition of sewage sludge is of great importance in a land application program. The objective of this study is to evaluate the variability of selected chemical characteristics of sewage sludge from New Jersey publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). Measurements of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NH4+-N, P, K+, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn reported by 98 facilities in the 1996 and 1997 New Jersey Sludge Quality Assurance Regulations (SQAR) reports were statistically analyzed. Sewage sludge from Category 5 POTWs (greater than 10 percent industrial input) showed higher Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations than Category 3 and Category 4 facilities (less than 10 percent industrial input). Even though only two years of data were analyzed, there was an indication that Cd and Pb concentrations in sewage sludge are decreasing with time. The yearly mean of only a few facilities exceeded the federal pollution concentration limits (40 CFR Part 503, Table 3). Phosphorus and Cd values showed the highest variability within facilities based on the coefficient of variation. Due to the variability of sewage sludge constituents, the use of the yearly rolling mean of nutrient concentrations to determine application rates was considered inadequate. An actual analysis of the sewage sludge to be applied is more appropriate to determine application rates than historical data.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : We evaluated the effectiveness of watershed-scale implementations of best-management practices (BMPs) for improving habitat and fish attributes in two coldwater stream systems in Wisconsin. We sampled physical habitat, water temperature, and fish communities in multiple paired treatment and reference streams before and after upland (barnyard runoff controls, manure storage, contour plowing, reduced tillage) and riparian (stream bank fencing, sloping, limited rip-rapping) BMP installation in the treatment subwatersheds. In Spring Creek, BMPs significantly improved overall stream habitat quality, bank stability, instream cover for fish, abundance of cool- and coldwater fishes, and abundance of all fishes. Improvements were most pronounced at sites with riparian BMPs. Water temperatures were consistently cold enough to support coldwater fishes such as trout (Salmonidae) and sculpins (Cottidae) even before BMP installation. We observed the first-time occurrence of naturally reproduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spring Creek, indicating that the stream condition had been improved to be able to partially sustain a trout population. In Eagle Creek and its tributary Joos Creek, limited riparian BMPs led to localized gains in overall habitat quality, bank stability, and water depth. However, because few upland BMPs were installed in the subwatershed there were no improvements in water temperature or the quality of the fish community. Temperatures remained marginal for coldwater fish throughout the study. Our results demonstrate that riparian BMPs can improve habitat conditions in Wisconsin streams, but cannot restore coldwater fish communities if there is insufficient upland BMP implementation. Our approach of studying multiple paired treatment and reference streams before and after BMP implementation proved effective in detecting the response of stream ecosystems to watershed management activities.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : An analysis of hydrograph recessions and rainfall data was performed to estimate the recession constants for two watersheds in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. To account for seasonal rainfall patterns, the data were grouped into dry and wet seasons. Sets of three Master Recession Curves (MRC) per season for each watershed were developed: one using the Matching Strip Method (MS) and two using variations of the Correlation Method (CM). These variations were the envelope line (CME) and the least squares regression (CMR). Other regression based analytical expressions that consider the streamflow recession as an autore-gressive or an integrated moving average process were also applied. The regression based methods performed consistently better than the graphical ones and they proved to be faster, easier, and less subjective. The recession constants from these methods were then used to estimate the time it would take the streamflow to reach the critical Q99 flow duration. Based on this study, once the streamflow reaches Q90, water managers have 6 to 12 days warning before streamflow reaches critical levels.
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