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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Aqueous ; cyclic ethers ; carbohydrates ; inositols ; apparent molal volume ; apparent molal compressibility ; density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Apparent molal volumes and compressibilities are reported for dilute aqueous solutions of cyclic ethers, simple carbohydrates, and related polyhydroxy compounds. The results for carbohydrates are considered in the light of two theoretical descriptions of such systems, i.e., the semiideal solution approach of Stokes and Robinson, and the McMillan-Mayer theory ty[e of approach as employed by Kozak, Knight, and Kauzmann. It is concluded that neither model is satisfactory, and that for these solutions a specific hydration model, described in more detail in another paper, is more satisfactory.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Sodium choride ; thermodynamics ; osmotic coefficients ; activity coefficients ; vapor pressure ; high temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Osmotic coefficients are reported from vapor-pressure-lowering measurements on sodium chloride solutions at concentrations from approximately 4m to saturation and at temperatures from 75° C to 300° C. In combination with previously reported measurements at lower concentrations, these results allow a correlation of free energies for the system NaCl−H2O over a range of concentrations and temperatures that is unprecedented for any aqueous electrolyte. Activity coefficients and other thermodynamic quantities for both salt and water have been calculated for the complete range of concentrations and temperatures. Calculated heats of solution and standard partial molal entropies agree well with calorimetric determinations where comparison is possible. The excess partial molal entropy of the salt is informative concerning structural effects and their changes with temperature and concentration.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Cesium chloride ; excess energy of mixing ; lithium chloride ; mixed solutions ; sodium sulfate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The osmotic coefficients of aqueous solutions of lithium chloride+sodium sulfate and cesium chloride+sodium sulfate at 25°C have been measured. Interaction coefficients have been calculated and also the excess Gibbs energy of mixing. A correlation is found between the binary interaction coefficients and the Pauling cation radius of the alkali halide component.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Ultrasonics ; relaxation ; ion association ; tetraalkylammonium halides ; hydrogen-bonded solvent
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ultrasonic absorption measurements have been carried out in aqueous solutions of Bu4NCl, Bu4NBr, Bu4NI, Me4NCl, and LiCl in 2-propanol over the frequency range 15–250 MHz. A single relaxation frequency was observed for each system. All the data were found to be consistent with a 2-step association mechanism in which the rate-determining step was the diffusion of the ions to form a solventseparated ion pair, followed by rapid desolvation to form the contact ion pair. Measured association rate constants were very nearly those predicted for a diffusion-controlled process.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Irreversible thermodynamics ; Onsager reciprocal relations ; silver nitrate solutions ; electrolyte solutions ; ionic transport coefficients ; ionic interactions ; ion pairs ; ionic mobilities ; friction coefficients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Values ofI ij calculated from experimental data are given for AgNO3 at 25°C. Experimental values of the ratioI 12/I21 are calculated to provide a sensitive direct test of the Onsager reciprocal relations,I 12=I21. This ratio is found to be unity within experimental error (ca. 2%). The general physical interpretation ofI ij/N as mobilities is discussed. An approximate way of estimatingI ij for dissociated salts is considered. A comparison is made between AgNO3 I ij data and corresponding data for NaCl and KCl. It is concluded that ion-pair formation (1) sharply increases the magnitude of the interaction mobility,I 12/N; and (2) increases the “intrinsic mobility” of Ag+,I 11/N, and decreases the intrinsic mobility of NO 3 − ,I 22/N.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Excess free energy of mixing ; mixed salt solutions ; osmotic coefficients ; KCl ; K2SO4 ; NaCl ; Na2SO4
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium sulfate, and potassium sulfate can be mixed in six ways to give ternary mixtures. Two of these have already been studied and results are now presented for the remaining four systems: H2O−NaCl−K2SO4, H2O−Na2SO4−K2SO4, H2O−KCl−Na2SO4, and H2O−KCl−K2SO4.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Calorimetry ; thermodynamics ; complex formation ; copper dipeptides ; zinc dipeptides ; cadmium dipeptides ; dipeptide complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Calorimetric and potentiometric studies have been made at 25°C of the formation of zinc and cadmium complexes of diglycine and of the copper complexes of glycylsarcosine, glycineamide, glycylproline, glycyl-l-alanine, α-alanylglycine, and glycyl-γ-aminobutyric acid. In addition, a potentiometric investigation has been made of the formation of copperl-alanyl-l-alanine complexes. The data have been used to calculate ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS values for all the equilibria involved and, in the case of copper, these data strongly support a common structure for all the mono complexes at lower pH in which the copper is bound to the terminal—NH2 and the oxygen of the peptide group. At higher pH, thermodynamic functions have been determined for the dissociation of the peptide hydrogen atom which is labilized by the copper atom.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of solution chemistry 1 (1972), S. 197-198 
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Viscosity ; electrolyte ; alkali halide ; tetraalkylammonium halide ; aqueous solution ; hydration ; hydrophobic hydration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The viscosities of most alkali and tetraalkylammonium halides have been measured in water at 25°C. The relative viscosities can be fitted, up to 1M, with the relationη r =1+A η c1/2+B η c+D η 2. TheA η term depends on long-range coulombic forces, andB η is a function of the size and hydration of the solute. When combined with partial-molal-volume data, the difference B η −0.0025V° is mostly a measure of the solute-solvent interactions. IonicB η are obtained if the tetraethylammonium ion is assumed to obey Einstein's law. TheD η parameter depends on higher terms of the long-range coulombic forces, on higher terms of the hydrodynamic effect, and on structural solute-solute interactions. As such, it cannot be interpreted unambiguously.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Enthalpy of dilution ; urea ; thermodynamics ; calorimetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Using the isothermal displacement calorimeter, enthalpies of dilution are obtained for solutions of urea in water, methanol, ethanol, formamide, N,N-dimethyl-formamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions.
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