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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: trans-4-hydroxy-β-prolinebetaine ; Furcellaria lumbricalis ; pyrrolidinium-3-carboxy-4-hydroxy-1 ; 1-dimethyl ; hydroxide ; inner salt (3R-trans)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From the red marine alga Furcellaria lumbricalis (Huds.) Lamour, a novel betaine has been isolated and characterised from infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data astrans-4-hydroxy-β-prolinebetaine.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: blue-green alga ; Microcystis viridis ; cyanoviridin RR ; microcystin RR ; toxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mass culture of an axenic clone ofMicrocystis viridis (NIES-102) was carried out, and three toxins were isolated from the cell. Structure elucidation of one of the toxins, designated cyanoviridin RR (microcystin RR), was performed mainly by means of modern NMR techniques. Cyanoviridin RR was a cyclic heptapeptide consisting of seven amino acids, Adda, l-arginine, erthro-β-methyl-aspartic acid, l-arginine, d-alanine, N-methyldehydroalanine, and d-glutamic acid. Structurally, this toxin belongs to the cyanoginosins already isolated fromM. aeruginosa.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: temperature ; acclimation ; Eucheuma alvarezii ; Eucheuma isiforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Branch cultures ofEucheuma alvarezii Doty var.tambalang Doty, farmed in the Philippines, andE. isiforme (C. Agardh) J. Agardh var.denudatum Cheney, from the west coast of Florida, were gradually transferred through three temperature regimes over a 6-week period. Photosynthetic responses were measured under a series of irradiances (P-I curves) and temperatures to determine immediate responses of the plants before, during and after completion of the transfers. The Philippine variety did not show acclimation to 18 °C either after gradual transfer from the initial culture temperature of 25 °C or when abruptly transferred from 25 to 18 °C. The Florida variety did show acclimation to 25 °C when gradually transferred from 18 to 22 to 25 °C over the 6-week period, but not if abruptly transferred from 18 to 25 °C. The west coast variety ofE. isiforme from Florida shows a temperature acclimation ability that parallels the seasonal changes in water temperature of its habitat.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: cyanobacteria ; toxins ; hepatotoxins ; Microcystis ; Anabaenopsis ; Anabaena ; Greece
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cyanobacterial scums, collected in 1987 from four Greek freshwater lakes, were examined for their toxicity to mice. Species ofMicrocystis, Oscillatoria, Anabaenopsis, andAnabaena were dominant in the samples. All samples tested had toxic effects on mice after intraperitoneal injection. The lethal dose (LD50) ranged from 40 to 1500 mg cyanobacterial dry weight kg−1 body weight and gross pathological signs of poisoning were characteristic of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. The toxicities of the Greek cyanobacterial blooms were similar to those reported for blooms elsewhere in the world, shown to be responsible for the poisoning of wild and domestic animals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Microalgae ; Chlorella vulgaris ; starch ; carbohydrates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chlorella vulgaris was grown photosynthetically in batch culture under nitrogen sufficiency or nitrogen limitation. The starch content of the cells was measured as the amount of glucose released by enzymic hydrolysis of partially purified starch. Nitrogen sufficient algae contained approximately 20% of their dry weight as starch, whereas in nitrogen limited cells starch comprised up to 55% of the cellular dry weight. Starch production was pH dependent; optimal production of starch was achieved between pH 7.5 and 8.0. Optimal growth of C. vulgaris occurred at pH 7.0. Carbon yield experiments showed that for every gram of carbon consumed 0.5 g of starch (glucose) could be recovered.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: cyanobacterium ; Synechococcus ; carbohydrate ; nitrogen fixation ; polymer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A polymer-producing strain of unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp., was isolated from a coastal lagoon in Florida. This strain, designated BG0011, excreted a highly viscous polysaccharide. Maximum observed growth rates for BG0011 were 2.5 div. day-2. BG0011 also exhibited nitrogen fixation (nitrogenase) activity under aerobic conditions and grew at near maximum rates in medium lacking reduced nitrogen. Growth and carbohydrate production were enhanced by carbon dioxide enrichment. Rheological study of the extracellular polysaccharide revealed a viscosity versus shear rate curve similar in shape to that of xanthan gum. Maximum observed rate of carbohydrate production was 1 g dry weight liter-1 month-1.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ; fluorometric HPLC determination ; Dinophysis spp. ; Prorocentrum lima
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sixteen species of unialgal samples of dinoflagellate, either wild or cultured, were tested for production of diarrhetic shellfish toxins such as okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), and pectenotoxins (PTXs). Determination of micro-quantities of the toxins was facilitated by fluorometry and UV HPLC. Seven Dinophysis species were confirmed to produce either OA or DTX1, or both. Toxin content and composition varied regionally and seasonally. Intraspecies variation was also observed among cultured strains of Prorocentrum lima. PTX2 was the only toxin detected among PTX family, and D. fortii was the only species to contain this toxin.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied phycology 1 (1989), S. 167-170 
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Vaucheria dichotoma ; terbutryn ; resistance ; triazine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Infestations of Vaucheria dichotoma have been reported to become resistant to the herbicide terbutryn after successful control by annual or biennial applications for 11 years. V. dichotoma was isolated from a site where terbutryn treatment gave good control and from a site where terbutryn treatment had failed. The isolate from the latter was resistant to terbutryn in laboratory toxicity tests. The resistant strain was not killed until the dose of terbutryn was increased to more than double the concentration approved for use in British waters. The shape of the resistance curve indicated that the resistance mechanism was not by modification of the protein binding site, suggesting that differential uptake, translocation and/or degradation is involved.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: harvesting methods ; seaweed cultivation ; Gymnogongrus ; sand invasion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Every year, several hundred tonnes of dry Gymnogongrus furcellatus are exported from Chile for carrageenan production. The present study provides ecological information for rational harvesting practices, including an understanding of the effects of environmental factors on growth. Field results indicate that the species is abundant in areas where disturbing factors do not destroy the crustose base of the plants, which can survive sand burial, but is grazing sensitive. In central Chile the erect axes have a clear seasonal pattern of growth which, as extrapolated from laboratory experiments, is most affected by seasonal changes in quantum dosage and photoperiod. Laboratory experiments show that vitamins and CO2 additions also influence growth rates significantly. Field data indicate that harvesting in central Chile should be done bi-monthly, within the six most productive months of the year and be stopped before March, when the female gametophytes become fertile. Hand picking is the least destructive harvesting method. Even though the daily growth rate of the species could be raised to 7% in laboratory experiments, tank cultivation appears uneconomical. The cost of some of the factors required for the growth of this species, such as daily vitamin additions, aeration and CO2 supplements, are unlikely to be recovered by the 25% average carrageenan content of this species. In addition, the high light requirements of the species would restrict culture to only 6 months a year at these latitudes. Therefore adequate management of the beds is required for sustained production.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: acetylene reducing activity ; dinitrogen fixation ; N2-fixing cyanobacteria ; ricefields
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A device forin situ estimation of biological nitrogen fixation in shallow-water ricefields was developed using the acetylene-reducing assay. The device consists of a rigid transparent bottomless plastic bottle provided with an agitation system. Laboratory experiments using flooded pots inoculated withAnabaena UAM 202 indicated that agitation significantly reduced the time needed to detect the production of ethylene by eliminating the slow diffusion of acetylene and ethylene in water. A direct relationship between the abundance of cyanobacteria and the rate of acetylene reduction was observed in laboratory and field experiments. A negative correlation between the amount of combined nitrogen and the abundance of cyanobacteria was observed in the field.
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