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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: trans-4-hydroxy-β-prolinebetaine ; Furcellaria lumbricalis ; pyrrolidinium-3-carboxy-4-hydroxy-1 ; 1-dimethyl ; hydroxide ; inner salt (3R-trans)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From the red marine alga Furcellaria lumbricalis (Huds.) Lamour, a novel betaine has been isolated and characterised from infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data astrans-4-hydroxy-β-prolinebetaine.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: fatty acids ; Porphyridium cruentum ; salinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Porphyridium cruentum Näg. (clone 161) was found to grow best in medium containing between 0.45 M and 0.8 M NaCl. From studies done on growing cultures, the palmitic acid content of the cells decreased with increasing NaCl concentration of the medium. Conversely, when the culture was transferred from a 0.8 M NaCl medium to 0.2 M NaCl, the amount of palmitic acid in thePorphyridium cells increased with time of incubation and it contributed up to 64.5% of the total fatty acid content. There appears to be a negative correlation between the cellular content of palmitic acid and the growth lag. The oleic acid content varied only marginally with increasing NaCl concentration. The poly-unsaturated acid content (linolenic and arachidonic acids) decreased initially and then increased with NaCl concentration up to and beyond ca. 0.8 M NaCl respectively. At 1.5 M NaCl, the poly-unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 78.2% of the total fatty acids in the cell. For stationary phaseP. cruentum cultures, a similar relationship existed between fatty acids and NaCl concentration. However, palmitic acid was accumulated up to three-fold more when compared to the exponential culture grown in low salinity. In addition stearic acid was also found in significant quantities.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: temperature ; acclimation ; Eucheuma alvarezii ; Eucheuma isiforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Branch cultures ofEucheuma alvarezii Doty var.tambalang Doty, farmed in the Philippines, andE. isiforme (C. Agardh) J. Agardh var.denudatum Cheney, from the west coast of Florida, were gradually transferred through three temperature regimes over a 6-week period. Photosynthetic responses were measured under a series of irradiances (P-I curves) and temperatures to determine immediate responses of the plants before, during and after completion of the transfers. The Philippine variety did not show acclimation to 18 °C either after gradual transfer from the initial culture temperature of 25 °C or when abruptly transferred from 25 to 18 °C. The Florida variety did show acclimation to 25 °C when gradually transferred from 18 to 22 to 25 °C over the 6-week period, but not if abruptly transferred from 18 to 25 °C. The west coast variety ofE. isiforme from Florida shows a temperature acclimation ability that parallels the seasonal changes in water temperature of its habitat.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: agarose ; Gracilaria ; algae ; polysaccharide ; 13C-NMR ; agar
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of nitrogen availability on the chemical structure of agar polymers isolated fromGracilaria verrucosa strain G-16 was ascertained by sequential solvent extraction and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy. Agar isolated fromG. verrucosa strain G-16 cultured under nitrogen limited conditions showed large non-polar components but produced spectra indicative of only minor amounts of methylation. These agars also produced spectra suggesting the presence of floridean starch. The nitrogen supplemented cultures ofG. verrucosa strain G-16 produced agars of a more polar nature (hot-water soluble) and contained little detectable starch. The data suggest that the higher gelling temperatures of agar from nitrogen limited plants is not due to markedly higher methylation. These data also suggest that nitrogen effects on agar content may not be as significant as previously thought.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied phycology 1 (1989), S. 91-94 
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: acetylene reducing activity ; dinitrogen fixation ; N2-fixing cyanobacteria ; ricefields
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A device forin situ estimation of biological nitrogen fixation in shallow-water ricefields was developed using the acetylene-reducing assay. The device consists of a rigid transparent bottomless plastic bottle provided with an agitation system. Laboratory experiments using flooded pots inoculated withAnabaena UAM 202 indicated that agitation significantly reduced the time needed to detect the production of ethylene by eliminating the slow diffusion of acetylene and ethylene in water. A direct relationship between the abundance of cyanobacteria and the rate of acetylene reduction was observed in laboratory and field experiments. A negative correlation between the amount of combined nitrogen and the abundance of cyanobacteria was observed in the field.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: imino-acids ; alpha-kainic acid ; kainic peptide ; Alsidium helminthocorton ; Corsican Moss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A study ofAlsidium helminthocorton Kütz. (Rhodophyceae) an alga with anti-helminthic activity, led to the separation of free imino-acids identified by IR and1H-NMR spectroscopy as alpha-kainic acid, alpha-kainic acid lactone and alpha-allokainic acid. In addition, a novel peptide was isolated, of 37 amino-acids including two kainic acid residues in its sequence.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: angiotensin converting enzyme ; inhibitor ; microalgae ; peptide ; screening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract As part of the investigation on useful constituents in microalgae, we searched for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities in water-soluble and fat-soluble fractions of sixteen species and strains. Water-soluble fractions of eleven species and fat-soluble fractions of eight species showed inhibitory activities. In particular, the water-soluble fractions of the freshwater cyanophytesMicrocystis spp. showed inhibition at a concentration as low as 0.25 mg ml−1, and that of the halotolerant chlorophyteDunaliella bardawil showed moderate inhibition. The active principles were suggested to be low molecular peptides.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Porphyra ; Bangiales ; Rhodophyta ; New Zealand ; harvesting trials
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Commercial interest in harvesting wild stocks ofPorphyra and concern for this prized resource by the Maori community highlighted the need to investigate the impact of harvest method and timing onPorphyra beds. Harvesting trials were carried out at two locations near Kaikoura (South Island) and one in Wellington (southern North Island) between June 1987 and September 1987. At each of five sampling sites, ten replicate sets of four quadrats were used to test the effects of harvest method and timing on yield and regeneration. The method of harvest had a major effect on the extent of regeneration: in quadrats in which thePorphyra had been cut with basal portions left intact there were harvestable plants within two months, whereas in quadrats which were cleared of allPorphyra there was very little growth after the same period. Harvests in the latter half of thePorphyra growing season gave greater yields at all sites except Wellington. Several species ofPorphyra were found to exist at the Kaikoura sampling sites and a single, different, species at the Wellington site. There were site to site differences in the yields.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: harvesting methods ; seaweed cultivation ; Gymnogongrus ; sand invasion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Every year, several hundred tonnes of dry Gymnogongrus furcellatus are exported from Chile for carrageenan production. The present study provides ecological information for rational harvesting practices, including an understanding of the effects of environmental factors on growth. Field results indicate that the species is abundant in areas where disturbing factors do not destroy the crustose base of the plants, which can survive sand burial, but is grazing sensitive. In central Chile the erect axes have a clear seasonal pattern of growth which, as extrapolated from laboratory experiments, is most affected by seasonal changes in quantum dosage and photoperiod. Laboratory experiments show that vitamins and CO2 additions also influence growth rates significantly. Field data indicate that harvesting in central Chile should be done bi-monthly, within the six most productive months of the year and be stopped before March, when the female gametophytes become fertile. Hand picking is the least destructive harvesting method. Even though the daily growth rate of the species could be raised to 7% in laboratory experiments, tank cultivation appears uneconomical. The cost of some of the factors required for the growth of this species, such as daily vitamin additions, aeration and CO2 supplements, are unlikely to be recovered by the 25% average carrageenan content of this species. In addition, the high light requirements of the species would restrict culture to only 6 months a year at these latitudes. Therefore adequate management of the beds is required for sustained production.
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