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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1690-1692 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Crystals of different barium ferrite phases (M, K, and R phases) were grown by slow cooling and the top seeded solution growth technique, using the (0.4Na2O–0.6B2O3)–BaO–(4.5Fe2O3+1.5CoSnO3) system. It has been demonstrated that different ferrite phases, e.g., the K and R phases, may coexist in the same crystal with an interface that is free from observable misfit dislocations and amorphous zones. The magnetization of these two phases, measured with an applied magnetic field parallel to the crystallographic c axis, had a paramagnetic behavior. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1693-1700 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Under plane shock wave compression, a glass may undergo elastic deformation at the shock wave front, and fail catastrophically at a later time. Since this time delay increases with the distance into the material, the phenomenon has been interpreted as a failure wave. In this article, a new theory of failure formation and propagation in shocked glasses is presented. Stress concentration due to the defects and transient loading conditions on the impact surface is assumed as the origin for initiating heterogeneous microdamage. The progressive percolation of microfissures into the material bulk gives rise to the failure wave phenomenon. Through the failure process, the deviatoric strain energy in the intact material is converted to the volumetric potential energy in the comminuted and dilated material. The state of material damage is measured in terms of the dilated volume of comminuted material at full release. The failure propagation is governed by coupled nonlinear diffusion and time-dependent evolution of the dilated volume. Numerical results are presented and compared to the lateral stress gauge measurements in two shocked glasses. It is shown that the proposed theory and simple modeling can capture the essence of the failure wave phenomenon. The theory also eliminates the ambiguity in the previous modeling work on the failure wave phenomenon in shocked glasses. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1704-1711 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The diffusion of fluid through a porous medium was modeled for a periodic array. The time dependent bulk effective diffusion coefficient D(t) was calculated using Bloch type eigenfunctions. The calculations were made for periodic media composed of octahedron-like obstacles which ranged from completely separated to highly overlapping obstacles (porosity of 3%). The calculation of D(t) involves evaluation of the nuclear magnetic resonance pulsed field gradient spin echo amplitude M(k,t), which is a measurable quantity. The method, which is most effective for long times, produces results which also agree with short time asymptotics. This method is applicable for any periodic microgeometry and virtually any porosity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1701-1703 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this article we report on the temperature dependencies of the longitudinal and shear sound velocities in Ti4AlN3, Ti3Al1.1C1.8, and Ti3SiC2. The velocities are measured using a phase sensitive pulse-echo ultrasonic technique in the 90–300 K temperature range. At room temperature, Young's, ERT, and shear, μRT, moduli and Poisson's ratio of Ti4AlN3 are 310±2, 127±2 GPa, and 0.22, respectively. The corresponding values for Ti3AlC2 are 297.5±2, 124±2 GPa, and 0.2. Both moduli increase slowly with decreasing temperature and plateau out at temperatures below (approximate)125 K. A least squares fit of the temperature dependencies of the shear and Young's moduli of Ti4AlN3 yield: μ/μRT=1−1.5×10−4(T−298), and E/ERT=1−0.74×10−4(T−298), for T〉125 K. The corresponding relationships for Ti3Al1.1C1.8 are: μ/μRT=1−1.2×10−4(T−298), and E/ERT=1−0.84×10−4(T−298) for T〉125 K. The acoustic Debye temperatures calculated for Ti4AlN3 and Ti3AlC2, as well as Ti3SiC2, are all above 700 K, in agreement with values calculated from low temperature heat capacity measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1712-1721 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report a diffuse interface or phase field model for simulating electromigration and stress-induced void evolution in interconnect lines. Our approach is based on the introduction of an order parameter field to characterize the damaged state of the interconnect. The order parameter takes on distinct uniform values within the material and the void, varying rapidly from one to the other over narrow interfacial layers associated with the void surface. The evolution of this order parameter is shown to be governed by a form of the Cahn–Hilliard equation. An asymptotic analysis of the equation demonstrates, as intended, that the zero contour of the order parameter tracks the motion of a void evolving by diffusion under the coupled effects of stresses and the "electron wind" force. An implicit finite element scheme is used to solve the modified Cahn–Hilliard equation, together with equations associated with the accompanying mechanical and electrical problems. The diffuse interface model is applied to simulate a range of problems involving void evolution in interconnect lines. Results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with those computed previously using equivalent sharp interface models. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1722-1726 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate interdiffusion and surface properties of CdS/CdTe bilayers. The films were grown by radio-frequency sputtering and received postdeposition heat treatments similar to the ones employed in CdTe solar cell fabrication. It is found that a CdCl2 anneal strongly enhances both the diffusion of S into the CdTe layer and the surface oxidation. The diffusion of S in CdTe in this process can be described by a constant surface source model with the diffusivity given by D=3.2×10−5 exp(−1.2 eV/kT) cm2 s−1 in the temperature range studied. The change in the chemical composition of the surface following the CdCl2 anneal was analyzed by XPS showing that Te oxides and residual compounds containing Cl were present which could account for the straggling in the RBS spectrum. An HCl etch completely removes oxides and residues leaving a smooth surface. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1727-1733 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetite (Fe3O4) films and multilayers were grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and result in single-phase films grown in registry with a MgO substrate. No evidence of interdiffusion is detected on as-grown films. Both structural and magnetic probes indicate behaviors expected for a magnetite thin film. A thermal stability study of these films was performed by annealing these films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at temperatures below 900 K. Bulk techniques such as x-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirm that the magnesium interdiffuses throughout the entire film, and surface techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/ion scattering spectroscopy show changes in the surface structure and stoichiometry of the film caused by the magnesium intermixing. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polysilicon layers with thicknesses between 8 and 600 nm deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition at temperatures ranging from 560 to 640 °C were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) to determine the layer thicknesses and compositions using multilayer optical models and the Bruggeman effective-medium approximation. The dependence of the structural parameters on the layer thickness and deposition temperature have been investigated. A better characterization of the polysilicon layer is achieved by using the reference data of fine-grained polysilicon in the optical model. The amount of voids in the polysilicon layer was independently measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The SE and RBS results show a good correlation. The comparison of the surface roughness measured by SE and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that independently of the AFM window sizes, a good correlation of the roughness determined by SE and AFM was obtained. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1743-1747 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Epitaxial CoSi2 (001) layers, deposited on Si(001) substrates by molecular beam allotaxy, were used as substrates for diamond deposition in order to realize applications. The nucleation and textured growth of diamond films were compared with those on the Si(001) substrates. The results indicate that in a microwave-plasma chamber diamond can be nucleated with a higher density on CoSi2 at lower temperatures using a bias-enhanced method. High-quality [001]-textured diamond films can be synthesized on CoSi2 (001) using the [001]-textured growth conditions. So far, epitaxial growth of diamond on CoSi2 cannot be observed. Statistically, a rotating angle distribution of diamond grains around the [001] axis in a [001]-textured film shows, however, preferred in-plane orientations of 13°, 22°, 45°, and 77° relative to the CoSi2 [011] axis. The structural and chemical analyses show that no Co and Si element diffusion from the CoSi2 substrate into the diamond film can be detected. The films grown on CoSi2 have similar crystal quality to that of epitaxial films deposited directly on Si. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 1759-1761 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The two-photon absorption coefficient β and the bound electronic nonlinear index γ of CdTe microcrystals doped in glass were measured by the Z-scan technique. It was found that the figure of merit γ/β of the CdTe microcrystals with nanometer size is enhanced compared to that of bulk CdTe. The optical Stark effect in the nanometer-sized CdTe is the possible origin of the enhanced nonlinearity. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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