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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 1 (1986), S. 111-148 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Sexual dimorphism ; Proconsul ; splanchnocranium ; canine variability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract One of the more important sources of variability in primate species is sexual dimorphism. Most Primates heavier than five kilos bodyweight are sexually dimorphic, both in body size and in shape of certain hard tissues. Despite these facts, most of the fossil Primates from East African Miocene deposits were originally perceived as being monomorphic, a perception which has propogated through the literature. Re-examination ofProconsul from various sites in Western Kenya results in the view that it was as dimorphic in its splanchonocranium and in bodyweight as chimpanzees and gorillas. The clearest evidence comes from Rusing Island, where adequate samples are known of two morphs, traditionally identified as two species, but more likely to represent two sexes of a single species,P. nyanzae. Co-occurrence of the two morphs is 100% at the various Rusinga sites. Less complete samples have been collected from the Tinderet sites os Koru and Songhor, yet what is available shows that similar patterns of dimorphism characterise the speciesP. africanus andP. major, and that the co-occurrence of the two morphs in each species is 100%. The identification of fossils taking into consideration the role of sexual dimorphism clarifies many of the old debates in which individual specimens frequently shifted between different species, mainly on the basis of metric rather than morphologic evidence. Consequently, the distribution of the species ofProconsul is rather different after accounting for dimorphism, than it was before.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 1 (1986), S. 23-39 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have examined the size of the canine and postcanine teeth of cebid and catarrhine primates in relation to each other, to jaw size and to body weight. We have found that the canine size of males is large enough to be limited by jaw shape and size. A large contribution of P4 to the postcanine row is associated with smaller canines in males. Neither factor seems to limit canine size in females. The females of a small number of species possess enlarged canines. Much of the variation of the postcanine row can be described by the ratio of the (nominal) crown areas of M1 to M3. This ratio is monomorphic which conforms with the general lack of dietary dimorphism in primates. A brief discussion of the evolution of canine size is offered with a new suggestion to account for canine reduction in male hominids.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 1 (1986), S. 77-91 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: dimorphism ; differential dimorphisms ; target weight ; energy requirement ; lactation ; bimaturation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Among many explanations concerning the origins of dimorphism in Primates, none has received as little attention as the differences in energy requirements of the two sexes. It is hypothesised that among Primates, a common strategy for overcoming the extra metabolic load of pregnency and lactation experienced by females during the greater part of their adult lifetimes, is for them to reduce their bodyweights relative to those of males. Such a strategy allows the mother plus infant combination to weight approximately as much as the species target weight or slightly less, preserving the balance between the species and the environment. Once such body weight dimorphysm had evolved, they might secondarily lead to modifications in behaviour in the species. For example, the now relatively larger males might take on the role of troop protection as a result of their larger size. Such secondarily acquired social and behavioural roles would be expected to show a reasonably strong correlation with the existence of sexual size dimorphism in Primates, even though they may not have been the cause of the dimorphism, but only the result of it. It is evident however, that many dimorphic features in Primates, such as pelage differences, and differential canine size, have been the subject of different selection processes from those which led to the acquisition of differential body size.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Australopithecus ; Hominoidea ; Postcranium ; Sexual Dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The postcranial sample ofA. afarensis can be divided into two size groups. Among the best preserved elements which are represented by both morphs are the distal femur, proximal ulna, and capitate. The difference between the large and small fossil femora is similar to the difference between average male and femaleG. gorilla andP. pygmaeus. The distal femora ofH. sapiens are less sexually dimorphic while those ofP. paniscus, P. troglodytes, andH. lar are not significantly dimorphic at all. Large and small capitates and proximal ulnae ofA. afarensis differ slightly more than the highly dimorphic species of extant Hominoidea. In my sample of Amerindians, the capitate and proximal ulna are also strongly dimorphic. The two species ofPan have insignificant sexual dimorphism in these traits. There results imply that strong sexual dimorphism in body size is the primitive condition for the large bodied hominoids.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 1 (1986), S. 167-181 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Parietal bone ; Homo erectus ; Indonesia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A comparative study of Indonesian parietal bones from Sangiran, Sambungmachan 1 and Ngandong has been undertaken. This study comprises a morphological and metrical analysis of the individual parietal bones, followed by consideration of the biparietal vault. The results are compared with other hominids from earlier and later periods. These hominids were found in China (Sinanthropus II, III, X, XI and XII), in Africa (ER 3733, OH 9, Ternifine, Broken Hill and Saldanha) and in Europe (Arago XLVII, Petralona, Swanscombe, Steinheim, Le Lazaret, La Chaise (Abri Suard) and Cova Negra). These European Middle Pleistocene hominids are attributed toHomo erectus by various authors (Lumley 1973;Hemmer 1972;Spitery 1982;Lumley andFournier 1982) and to an early Neanderthal group, pre-Neanderthal orHomo sapiens sensu lato (Neanderthals+modern humans) by others (Stringer 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984,Wolpoff 1980,Holloway 1982). The discussion about the classification of those hominids is not closed, but it is not the subject of this paper and not our intention to solve it here. So we have chosen to call this fossil material ‘Anteneandertals’ (Lumley 1973). It appears that some morphological metrical features allow us to separate the Sangiran and Ngandong samples. Sambungmachan 1, whose chronological age is not well established, appears to be closer to Ngandong men.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Paleodemography ; Nubia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In a recent articleBocquet-Appel & Masset (1985) renew their criticism of paleodemography and criticizeVan Gerven & Armelagos' (1983) defense of paleodemographic methods. In the present analysis we respond toBocquet-Appel andMasset's criticisms ofVan Gerven andArmelagos and then address the question of whether paleodemographic methods are capable of producing plausible results based on what is known about contemporary human populations. This is done by expanding the life tables previously analysed byVan Gerven and co-workers for the Medieval Christian site of Kulubnarti in Nubia'sBatn el Hajar. The expanded results are then compared to data obtained from contemporary human populations as well as interpreted in light of Nubian culture history.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 1 (1986), S. 221-231 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Sexual dimorphism ; human ; innominate ; forensic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In the adult human innominate, pubis length and sciatic notch width are generally considered to offer the best prospect for reliable sex identification. Population variation in the extent of sexual dimorphism in these features was examined in two temporally distinct European skeletal collections of documented age and sex. (English and Dutch). A complex relationship was found to exist between pubis length and sciatic notch width with body size; these relationships differed both between the sexes and between the groups. Caution is therefore urged in the use of both metric and non-metric standards derived from one population and subsequently applied to other populations of differing origin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ; feeding ; agricultural fruit ; tradition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, began to feed on three agricultural fruit species, guava, mango and lemon. It took them 7–8 years until they began to taste these fruits since the villagers left the park area in 1974. Although adult chimpanzees are conservative in their feeding habits, they are capable of rapidly acquiring new feeding habits, or new traditions, once they notice that the food is suitable.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Harris lines were assessed in 194 right tibiae of prehispanic inhabitants of Gran Canaria, belonging to 52 adult females and 123 adult males. No Harris lines were detected in 45 (23%) of the adult individuals (13 females (25%) and 26 males (21%), these differences being not statistically significant. Female tibiae showed a slightly lower mean number of Harris lines at the distal end than male ones (1,692±1.681 in females vs 1.91±1.825 in males). Ages at which Harris lines were formed showed two peaks, a major one at the age of 1 year, and another between 15 and 16 years in males and between 11–12 and 14–15 years in females. Harris lines were more frequently observed at the distal than at the proximal end of the bone. The relative low number of lines detected in our population when compared with the high prevalence of osteoporosis among the adult population of this island is striking.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 14 (1999), S. 255-259 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: human morphology ; thermoregulation ; Bergmann's rule ; cylinder hypothesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ruff's cylinder hypothesis equates the human body with a cylinder as the simplest possible geometric model and predicts that to fulfil basic thermoregulatory principles populations of different mean height within any given climatic zone will have similar mean bi-iliac breadths. Three problems with Ruff's analysis are identified. First, the equating of the human body with a cylinder is only an approximation and a cylinder may be inappropriate as a descriptor. Second, the small range of readings for the mean pelvic breadths makes it difficult to identify the relation of pelvic breadth with height in subsets. Third, small numbers make it impossible to comment on the relation of bi-iliac breadth and stature for three out of four of Ruff's population subsets. An estimate for a common least squares slope for the combined population samples demonstrates a positive association between bi-iliac breadth and height (coefficient 0.05). It is concluded that Ruff's data are inadequate for rejecting the null hypothesis.
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