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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 1 (1972), S. 3-22 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Cattle and other domestic animals in 5.77 square miles of rural West Bengal were enumerated on three separate occasions during an 18-month period. Feed consumption and productivity measurements involving 80 cattle-day observations were extrapolated to the entire cattle population and an energetic balance sheet was calculated for a 1-year period. The cattle population appears fairly stable despite a high density. The age distribution reveals a demographic imbalance in both the younger and older age groups which contributes toward a more efficient utilization of available feed supplies. One of the major roles of the cattle is to convert items of little human value into products of direct human utility. The gross energetic efficiency of the entire cattle population was approximately 17%. The current management of cattle appears to be appropriate for the ecological framework in which they exist.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 1 (1972), S. 69-80 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Current research on environmental decision-makers at the professional and nonprofessional levels is reviewed. The potential utility of this research for achieving more adaptive man-environment relations in modern industrial societies is examined. A broader framework of research is suggested for viewing the antecedents and consequences of environmental decision-making from an ecological perspective. Mechanisms for promoting research on man-environment relations are considered. In particular, issues in the training of scientific man-power in this interdisciplinary field are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 1 (1972), S. 111-123 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract One component of a complex system operating so as to maintain the Mae Enga people of the New Guinea highlands in equilibrium with their limited resources is the Te, an elaborate cycle of ceremonial exhanges of valuables. It may be viewed as one in a series of material or substantive systems (including cycles) of varying extent, each affecting the others in an intelligible and predictable fashion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 1 (1972), S. 149-159 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Most observers agree upon the existence among traditional agriculturalists of a conservative attitude toward innovations and upon this conservatism being the rational result of a well-adapted set of existing techniques in combination with a marginal level of subsistence. This view, however, fails to take account of the readily demonstrated existence of both individual differences in agricultural practice and systematic experimentation within traditional agricultural communities. Such individuality and experimentation are probably pervasive in traditional societies, and must be seen as an essential component of their adaptive processes, as important as the more familiar processes of traditional transmission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract In assessing the impact of European influence on sociocultural characteristics of the Murapin tribal community of the Western Highlands of Australian New Guinea, the authors have gathered and, where possible, quantified information on family size, polygamy, marital status, religious beliefs, education, linguistic ability, economic development, occupation, housing, clothing, alcohol intake, and dietary patterns. Our findings suggest that the results of contact have not been uniform but that various social characteristics have been influenced at differing rates. European influence has been greatest in religion, less significant in matters of occupation, education, economic development, and housing, and negligible as regards diet. This differential effect of contact affords hope that it will prove possible to discriminate between various social and nutritional factors in their influence on the health status and biological characteristics of the population as the process of acculturation proceeds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 1 (1973), S. 333-345 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract The seas occupy the greater part (70%) of the earth's surface, but their total net primary production is less than that of the land. Depletion of nutrients in the lighted surface waters is responsible for low productivities of most of the open ocean; higher productivities occur in coastal waters and areas of upwelling. A recent estimate of total production for the marine plankon is 50×10 9 metric tons of dry matter per year; the total with benthic production may be 55×109 tons/year. The value for the plankton may be too low; there are persistent problems in measuring productivity with the radiocarbon technique. Because harvestable fish populations are concentrated in a limited area of more productive waters, where they are subject to overharvest and pollution effects, major increase in food production from the seas is not likely.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human ecology 10 (1982), S. 1-45 
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Keywords: demography ; population regulation ; New Guinea ; Tsembaga Maring ; computer simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Self-regulation of human populations has been proposed by various authors, despite the fact that no biological or cultural mechanisms have ever been established. POPREG I, a computer simulation of ritual warfare among the Tsembaga Maring of New Guinea, demonstrates that the self-regulatory mechanism proposed by Rappaport (1968) ignores the demographic consequences of external variables. When the effects of epidemics are taken into account, the regulatory nature of the ritual cycle becomes suspect. Future research in anthropological demography requires careful analysis of both internal and external variables; POPREG I provides the basis for a synthetic model of population dynamics in human societies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Keywords: Shifting cultivation ; tropical forest ecology ; Amazon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Geertz's famous hypothesis that horticulturalists practicing shifting cultivation intercrop their plots to mimic the protective structure of the tropical forest is evaluated in view of data on the structural ecology of the tropical forest and swidden plots in Amazonian Ecuador. The cultivation practices of the Siona-Secoya Indians reveal a three-fold typology of cropping patterns (high-diversity intercropping, low-diversity intercropping, and monocropping), with variation among the types in terms of plot size and distribution, cultigen inventory, structural complexity, and function. These gardens and the tropical forest are compared and analyzed in terms of morphology, ecological characteristics, and human manipulation and utilization. Gardens with high-diversity intercropping show certain similarities to the tropical forest, as Geertz's model predicts, but their highly transient structure does not function as a mature ecosystem. Furthermore, plots with low-diversity intercropping and monocropping show few similarities to the forest. Garden structure is best understood in terms of the economic utilization of tropical cultigens displaying specific habits, rather than by analogy to tropical forest physiognomy and function.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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