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  • 1
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Biogeography ; Ammonites Kimmeridgian ; Environments Sequence stratigraphy ; Western Europe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Kimmeridgian series of the northern Aquitaine margin is representative of the marine sedimentation on the Western European Shelf. It has been used to demonstrate a fundamental relationship between relative sea-level changes and the biogeographic dynamics of the Kimmeridgian ammonites. This synthesis, based on comparative sedimentological and paleobiogeographical studies, shows that the shelf was settled by submediterranean and/or subboreal ammonites during transgressive phases and maximum sea-level rises. Endemic lineages differentiated during the sea-level highstands and the beginning of lowstands. Correlative with the long-term sea-level rise, endemic elements have progressively taken a prominent role within the Kimmeridgian ammonite faunas of the shelf. The patterns of faunal changes have been deduced from studies of ammonite lineages from distinctive biogeographic origins: Rasenioides, Lithacosphinctes, Orthaspidoceras and Gravesia. Compared with subboreal ammonites, it seems that the submediterranean species were more tolerant of changing environments and adapted to new environments more easily. Therefore most of the endemic lineages which settled the Western European area originated in submediterranean faunas.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words North-west Europe ; Kimmeridgian ; Tithonian ; Sequence stratigraphy ; Biostratigraphy ; Clay mineralogy ; Organic matter geochemistry ; Mixed carbonaceous and siliciclastic deposits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  An interdisciplinary approach based on high-resolution physical stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, organic matter analysis and clay mineralogy has been applied to the mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Kimmeridgian/Tithonian deposits of the Boulonnais (north-western France). These rocks are the age-equivalents of some of the offshore marine source rocks of the North Sea and were deposited in an overall storm-dominated homoclinal ramp setting which may represent one of the most shore-proximal sediments of this age cropping out in north-western Europe. Comparison with data from the Yorkshire, Dorset, Lorraine and Aquitaine areas allows the discrimination of three major transgressive-regressive sediment packages with disconformities of interregional extent: (1) from the Baylei Zone to top Eudoxus Zone; (2) from the Autissiodorensis Zone to base Scitulus Zone; (3) from the upper Scitulus Zone to the Pectinatus Zone. The lower two regionally correlative disconformities correspond to the sequence boundaries at the top of the Eudoxus Zone and the top of the Autissiodorensis Zone, formed by high-frequency relative sea-level variations during the periods of maximum transgression of the platform. The latter disconformity (the P1 nodule bed) reflects a major tectonically induced reorganization of the north-west European intrashelf sedimentary basin, characterized by a shift in both the location of the main depocentre and the sources of sediment production.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Saar-Nahe Basin ; Strike-slip basin ; Tectonic subsidence curves ; Variscan tectonics ; Cross-sections ; Isopachs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Permo-Carboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin in south-west Germany and north-east France formed at the boundary between the Rhenohercynian and Saxothuringian zones within the Variscan orogen, where non-marine sediments were deposited in a narrow, structurally controlled basin. The basin has an asymmetrical geometry perpendicular to the South Hunsrück Fault. However, there is a lack of growth of the sediment pile into the fault, and isopach maps show the depocentre always located adjacent to the South Hunsrück Fault, but migrating towards the north-east with time. This pattern is typical of a strike-slip basin, indicating that the South Hunsrück Fault was a dextral strike-slip fault during sedimentation. Tectonic subsidence curves indicate that, during the Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the basin subsided due to thermal relaxation of the lithosphere. A change to very rapid subsidence at the start of the Westphalian continued until late in the Autunian. This was due to mechanical subsidence associated with strike-slip movement on the South Hunsrück Fault. Towards the end of subsidence in the Saar-Nahe Basin, the Grenzlager volcanics introduced a thermal pulse into the crust, leading to thermal cooling and relaxation of the lithosphere.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Andesites ; Plate tectonics ; Great Caucasus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract. During the Jurassic the major tectonic units of the Great Caucasus (Bechasyn, Front Range, Main Range and Southern Slope zone) were affected by intensive magmatic activity. Magmatism within the Bechasyn zone, the northernmost unit, which represents the southern part of the Variscan-consolidated Skythian platform is considered here. With the beginning of the Early Jurassic this zone was reactivated by subsidence, accompanied by the deposition of epicontinental shallow water sediments. The Lower Jurassic portion of this sedimentary pile was intruded by numerous sills which display a clear temporal and spatial evolution. The older basic rocks are lower in the profile than the younger, more acidic rocks. A set of 75 samples, representing all exposed sills and their feeder-dikes, was analyzed for major and 21 trace elements. All samples appear more or less affected by alteration under low greenschist facies conditions. However, these alterations essentially took place on local scales and did not affect the overall chemistry. According to their main element composition the rocks constitute a calc-alkaline series ranging from basaltic--andesitic to rhyolitic. Most of the samples are andesites. Chemically, these andesites closely resemble modern orogenic andesites occurring at convergent plate margins. Altogether, the field evidence and the chemical and mineralogical data obtained show the investigated rocks to be comagmatic and derived from basalt--andesitic initial melts by magmatic fractionation processes. Tholeiitic melts have to be considered as parental magmas, which according to the trace element characteristics of the basalt-andesitic rocks, were generated from an enriched peridotitic mantle source. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios and δ18O values confirm the mantle origin of this rock series. The observed compositional evolution can be explained as a result of olivine and clinopyroxene fractionation of the tholeiitic melts followed by amphibole and plagioclase separation. 40Ar/39Ar measurements on biotite and plagioclase phenocrysts separated from these rocks vary between 190 and 180 Ma and thereby place the magmatic activity in the late Early Jurassic, in good agreement with the stratigraphic observations. Genetically, the calc-alkaline rocks are related to a subduction zone of the Andean type. Their chemical and isotopic compositions and their age setting corroborate the plate tectonic models for the evolution of the Caucasus orogenic belt during the Jurassic.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Magma mixing ; Granite ; Enclaves ; Iberian Massif ; Deformation ; Conduit ; Magma flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Gil-Márquez Complex is an exceptional outcrop of plutonic rocks ranging in composition from diorites to granites emplaced into Devonian terrigenous metasediments of the southernmost part of the Hercynian basement of Iberia. A combined study of this complex, including field geology, petrology, structural geology and geochemistry, reveals that it represents an ancient conduit of magma transport through the continental crust. This conduit allowed the intrusion of magmas of contrasted compositions. Two end-members and several hybrids are identified. The first end-member is a biotite granite and the second is a basaltic magma generated by partial melting of a depleted-mantle source. Both magmas rose through a common channel in which favorable conditions for unstable flow and magma mixing occurred. The observed relations in the Gil-Márquez Complex show that mixing in conduits may be an important mechanism for producing homogeneous hybrid magmas.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words IBERIAN Peninsula ; Variscan suture ; Rb-Sr whole-rock isotopic data ; Protolith ages ; Orthogneisses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  One of the main tectonic boundaries of the Variscan Belt in the Iberian Peninsula is the Ossa-Morena/Central Iberian contact. This contact is marked by a highly deformed unit (Central Unit) which recorded an initial high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphic evolution. Rb-Sr whole-rock isotopic data from three gneissic bodies cropping out in the Central Unit yield two Late Proterozoic ages (690±134 and 632±103 Ma) and an early Palaeozoic age (495±13 Ma), which we interpret as protolith ages. The two Late Proterozoic orthogneisses show initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios typical of mantle-derived materials or those with significant mantle participation (87Sr/86Sr〉0.709). These new radiometric data, together with ages previously published and the structural evolution of the Central Unit, lead to the conclusions that: (1) there are magmatic protoliths of Late Proterozoic and Early Palaeozoic ages; (2) the metamorphic evolution of this area, including the high-pressure event, belongs to the Variscan orogenic cycle; (3) the deformations observed affect the rocks of the entire Central Unit, accordingly they are post-Ordovician, i.e. Variscan; and (4) consequently, the Ossa-Morena/Central Iberian contact is interpreted here as a Variscan suture.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Orthogneisses ; I-type granites ; S-type granites ; Rb-Sr whole rock dating ; Single zircon ; dating ; Spessart Crystalline Complex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Spessart Crystalline Complex, north-west Bavaria contains two orthogneiss units of granitic to granodioritic composition, known as the Rotgneiss and Haibach gneiss, respectively, which are structurally conformable with associated metasediments. The igneous origin of the Rotgneiss is apparent from field and textural evidence, whereas strong deformation and recrystallization in the Haibach gneiss has obscured most primary textures. New geochemical data as well as zircon morphology prove the Haibach gneiss to be derived from a granitoid precursor, which was chemically similar to the Rotgneiss protolith, thus suggesting a genetic link between those two rock units. Both gneiss types have chemical compositions typical of anatectic two-mica leucogranites. They show characteristics of both I- and S-type granites. Rb-Sr whole rock data on the Haibach gneiss provide an isochron age of 407±14 Ma (IR=0.7077±0.0007; MSWD 2.2), which is slightly younger than the published date for the Rotgneiss (439±15 Ma; IR=0.7048±0.0026; MSWD 4.9). Single zircon dating of six idiomorphic grains, using the evaporation method, yielded a mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 410±18 Ma for the Haibach gneiss and 418±18 Ma for the Rotgneiss. Both zircon ages are within analytical error of the Rb-Sr isochron dates and are interpreted to reflect the time of protolith emplacement in Silurian times. Three xenocrystic zircon grains from the Rotgneiss yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2278±12, 2490±13 and 2734±10 Ma, respectively, suggesting that late Archaean to early Proterozoic crust was involved in the generation of the granite from which the Rotgneiss is derived. Although it is assumed that the granitic protoliths of the two gneisses were formed through anatexis of older continental crust, the relatively low 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios of both gneisses may also indicate the admixture of a mantle component. The Rotgneiss and the Haibach gneiss thus document granitic magmatism at an active continental margin during late Silurian times.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Variscan granitoids  ;  Zircon geochronology  ;  Odenwald  ;  Pressure-temperature evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  U–Pb data are presented for zircons from metamorphic rocks of the crystalline Odenwald that comprises part of the Mid-German Crystalline Rise. The Odenwald can be divided into four principal domains with different magmatic and metamorphic histories on the basis of published structural and petrological data and the presented ages. In the eastern (Böllstein) Odenwald the metasedimentary rocks contain zircons derived from basement rocks that exceed 2.2 Ga in age. The intrusion of granitic magmas into these metasedimentary rocks took place before or close to the end of the thermal peak of metamorphism at 375±5 Ma ago. Rapid uplift of the Böllstein Odenwald occurred at about 320 Ma bp, later than in the Bergsträsser Odenwald. The western (Bergsträsser) Odenwald can be subdivided, by geochronological, petrological and especially structural data, into a northern, a central and a southern part. In the northern part basic magmatism has an age of 362±7 Ma. The peak of thermal metamorphism in the southernmost Odenwald was accompanied by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks and the formation of new zircons with ages between 332 and 342 Ma. Probable peak metamorphic conditions, revealed by two samples from the heterogeneous central part, occurred at about 336 Ma, i.e. in the same time span as in the southernmost part, but later than in the Böllstein area and the northern Odenwald. Rapid uplift started earlier in the central and southern part and 10–20 Ma earlier than in the Böllstein Odenwald. Cooling from 500 to 300°  C occurred in the northern part in the time interval between the elevation of the other parts of the Bergstraesser Odenwald and the Böllstein Odenwald. There is no indication for any thermal equilibrium between 2.25 Ga and 375 Ma recorded in the zircons of both areas.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Geologische Rundschau 84 (1995), S. 506-519 
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Peraluminous granite ; Rare-metal granite ; Western Bohemia ; Oberpfalz ; Geochemistry ; Cordierite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Rozvadov Pluton is a complex of mainly Variscan granitoid rocks situated near the Bohemian-Bavarian border between Bärnau, Tachov, Rozvadov and Waidhaus, 25 km ESE of the KTB site. Five mappable units can be distinguished, which intruded as follows: (1) slightly deformed leucocratic meta-aplite/metapegmatite dykes with garnet and tourmaline; (2) a complex of cordierite-bearing granitoids, which have been divided into three facies (a) biotite granite with cordierite (at the margin of the complex), (b) biotite–cordierite granite and (c) cordierite tonalite (in the centre of the complex; (3) fine-grained biotite granite of the Rozvadov type with associated pegmatite bodies; (4) two-mica Bärnau granite; and (5) geochemically specialized albite–zinnwaldite–topaz granite (Křížový kámen/Kreuzstein granite) with indications of Sn–Nb–Ta mineralization and associated phosphorus-rich pegmatite cupolas. Rare earth element data suggest that meta-aplite/pegmatite dykes are the result of a batch partial melting process, whereas the compositional variation of the other rock types was mainly controlled by fractional crystallization. The genesis of the cordierite granitoid suite is best explained in terms of a batch melting of metapelitic source followed by crystallization of a cordierite-rich cumulate and K-feldspar enriched melt. The leucocratic pluton constituents – the meta-aplites and the Bärnau and Křížový kámen granites – are rich in phosphorus (0.5–0.8%). The main carriers of phosphorus are alkali feldspars, especially K-feldspar (up to 0.8% P2O5). The presence of P-rich leucocratic granites is one of the features distinguishing the Variscan granitoids within the Moldanubian zone from the nearly contemporaneous granitoids in the Saxothuringian zone.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Age dating ; Vosges mountains ; Variscan orogeny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  In the Saxothuringian part of the Vosges (France), a first series of Variscan plutonic rocks (diorites to granites) has been intruded by several younger granites. Rocks of both the older generations have been cross-cut by the late orogenic Kagenfels granite. The averages of the hitherto published mineral ages of the earlier rock generations are 331 and 334 Ma, respectively, whereas Rb-Sr and K-Ar dates around 290 Ma have been reported for the Kagenfels granite. Because of the unlikely large age hiatus, a redetermination of the intrusion age of the Kagenfels granite formation appeared to be irrevocable. The newly obtained mineral ages on the Kagenfels granite (K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages as well as single zircon radiogenic 207Pb/206Pb data: 331±5 Ma) are about 40 Ma older than the previous results. They are interpreted as giving the time of emplacement of the Kagenfels granite during the latest Viséan. The mineral ages of the earlier plutonic rocks in this part of the Variscan Orogeny in all probability are not significantly different from their ages of intrusion. Therefore the age concordance of all three granitoid generations constrains a rather narrow time interval of orogenic magmatism close to the Lower-Upper Carboniferous boundary.
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