Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Fluids discharged from subaerial springs along faults on a sediment diapir near the mouth of the Mississippi River are derived from buried marine pore waters which have been extensively altered chemically by processes of bacterial respiration, mineral precipitation and, possibly, by fractionation due to the presence of clays of high exchange capacity. Vertical mass transport of dissolved components in many shallow marine sediments is controlled by long-term compaction, diffusion and bioturbation. In areas of rapid sediment deposition, however, these processes can be overwhelmed by catastrophic episodes of sediment failure, vertical mixing and upward discharge of water, gas and dissolved species.
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