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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To further examine the previously suggested inverse relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in periodontal disease, 1016 samples taken from single or multiple (pooled) subgingival sites were cultured anaerobically and examined for the simultaneous occurrence of the microorganisms. P. gingivalis was isolated from 297 (29%) and Pr. intermedia from 501 (49%) samples. P. gingivalis was found as frequently with (14%) as without (15%) Pr. intermedia. The type of sampling had no effect on the occurrence of P. gingivalis with Pr. intermedia. However, female subjects harboured them in combination more frequently than male subjects. The mean proportions of P. gingivalis in the cultivable flora appeared to be lower when found with than without Pr. intermedia. Whether the detection of the combination, or P. gingivalis alone, has clinical relevance needs further clarification.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes have been associated with periodontal disease and tooth loss since they were first isolated by Burdon in 1928. Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is usually not isolated from children, adolescents or adults with no periodontal breakdown, has been recognized as one of the most important periodontopathogens. Its presence is strongly correlated with deep periodontal pockets, which are assumed to be its main habitat. Correlations have been shown also with attachment loss, clinical inflammation and serum antibody levels, indicating an aetiological role in the periodontal disease. Their pathogenicity in animal models resembling periodontal disease is documented. They are frequently isolated from periodontal abscesses. The relationship between Prevotella intermedia and periodontal disease is not clear. It is frequently isolated from advanced periodontitis, often as the only black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobic species; however, the prevalence in adults with no periodontal breakdown is high. It is found frequently in periodontal abscesses and in acute necrotizing and ulcerative gingivitis. Serogroup I is found predominantly in deep periodontal pockets, whereas all serogroups (I–III) are found in shallow pockets and gingivitis. No conclusive difference in pathogenicity between serogroups has been found. Pr. melaninogenica, Pr. denticola and Pr. loescheii are frequently found in the gingival crevice in preschool children and other age groups with gingivitis, but are seldom found in deep periodontal pockets.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pigmented Prevotella spp. have been connected with oral infections as well as being part of the healthy gingival flora. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pigmented Prevotella spp. in saliva and gingival crevice samples from periodontally healthy adults. Twelve Caucasian female subjects (mean age 28 years, range 21–36 years) with no pockets ≥ 4 mm, nor bleeding after probing were selected for this study. Paraffin-stimulate saliva was collected first; then, a pooled subgingival bacterial sample was taken with a sterile curette from mesiobuccal surfaces of all first molars. The samples were inoculated on to non-selective and selective media and incubated anaerobically. The most frequent species isolated were Pr. melaninogenica, Pr. intermedia and Pr. loescheii, found in 11, ten and nine subjects, respectively. The mean percentages of the total cultivable anaerobic microflora in salivary/subgingival samples were 14.7/0.6 for Pr. melaninogenica, 3.1/5.3 for Pr. intermedia and 2.6/1.2 for Pr. loescheii. Pr. denticola was found in one saliva sample and Pr. corporis, in two subgingival samples only. The number of different pigmented Prevotella spp. in the same mouth was 2–4 (mean 2.75). In conclusion, Pr. melaninogenica, Pr. intermedia and Pr. loescheii seem to be common microorganisms in the periodontally healthy oral cavity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 259 Gram-negative Porphyromonas-like rods isolated from subgingival plaque samples of 16 family-owned dogs with naturally occurring periodontitis were characterized phenotypically by biochemical reactions, metabolic end products and enzymatic activities (API-ZYMTM, RoscoTM). Four distinct groups were found. Group A isolates (63) were asaccharolytic, lipase negative, trypsin positive and produced phenylacetic acid (PAA) from peptone-yeast extract glucose broth. Unlike P. gingivalis strains they were catalase positive. Group B isolates (42) differed from those of group A by a positive lipase reaction and from those of group D by failing to ferment sugars. Group C isolates (88) were asaccharolytic and did not produce PAA. They were α-fucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (β-NAG) and trypsin negative, resembling P. endodontalis, but unlike human isolates, they were catalase positive. Subgroup C.1 isolates (6) differed from those of parent group C by producing minor amounts of PAA, and subgroup C.2 isolates (12) were β-NAG positive. Group D isolates (46) were weakly fermentative, lipase, catalase and trypsin positive, and produced PAA. They resembled the B. (P.) salivosus type strain which, in our hands, fermented weakly glucose, lactose and mannose. Two isolates could not be assigned to any of the previous groups.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Necrotic dental root canal infections are polymicrobial infections dominated by anaerobic bacteria. The number of different species in one canal is usually low, approx. 4–7 species. The species isolated most frequently belong to the genera Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium and Streptococcus. The frequency of isolation of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections varies from 25% to 〉50%. Pr. intermedia is the most commonly found pigmented species, followed by Pr. denticola and two Porphyromonas species, P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis. Several studies have shown that P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis are closely related to the presence of acute symptoms in endodontic infections, whereas other black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are not. However, several other species may also be involved in acute infections. Moreover, Porphyromonas species have occasionally been isolated from cases with no symptoms. Although Porphyromonas spp. are clearly related to symptoms at the beginning of therapy, they are not important for the prognosis of the treatment.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are part of the indigenous oral flora of edentulous subjects with or without dentures. Group I consisted of 11 subjects with dentures (mean age 63.6 years, range 52–75) and Group II consisted of 39 subjects with complete dentures in both jaws (mean age 59.3 years, range 37–80). Two microbial samples for microbiological examination were taken from each subject. One of them was from the dorsum of the tongue and the other was from saliva. Black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes 〉 107 cfu/ml were found in both samples. In 50 edentulous subjects, they were found more commonly from tongue (40%) than from saliva (26%). None of the subjects had Porphyromonas gingivalis. There was no statistically significant difference (P 〉 0.05) between the presence of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes on tongue and in saliva in the two groups. Our results suggested that high levels of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes may belong to the indigenous oral flora in edentulous mouths with or without dentures.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are part of the normal vaginal flora and contribute to a range of superficial and deep genital infections. Prevotella melaninogenica is found in moderate numbers (104−6 cfu/g) in healthy women; the numbers and detection rates increase in anaerobic vaginosis (where it may be a significant contributor to changed microbial metabolic activity that gives the signs and symptoms of this condition) and in other vaginal infective conditions. Pr. melaninogenica is also part of the mixed flora in deep pelvic infections: endometritis, post-partum and post-abortal uterine infections; salpingitis and tubo-ovarian abscesses; PID and pelvic abscesses. Porphyromonas asaccharolytica is probably not a vaginal commensal, but may be isolated from patients with vaginal or pelvic disease. It is more specifically associated with superficial abscesses (e.g. Bartholin's abscess) and ulcers of the genitalia and perineum. P. asaccharolytica was the commonest species isolated from men with genital ulcers of various primary causes and ranging in severity from superficial balanitis/balanoposthitis to synergic gangrene.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antimicrobial activities of Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates were tested against other species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobes as well as against each other. Generally, Pr. intermedia possessed significantly higher antimicrobial activity than P. gingivalis. The strongest activity of P. gingivalis towards Gram-negative anaerobes was directed against Pr. intermedia. Cross-sensitivity between both species was observed with strains from different lesions. Antimicrobial activity towards strains of the same species was detected only with Pr. intermedia. No correlations were found between plasmid content and antimicrobial activity. It was concluded that the inhibitory potency of Pr. intermedia could be one reason for the high proportion of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in the subgingival flora of periodontitis lesions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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