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All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypertension ; cadralazine ; vasodilators ; chlorthalidone ; atenolol ; side-effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antihypertensive efficacy of a new long-lasting vasodilator, cadralazine, and the diuretic chlorthalidone have been compared in hypertensive patients receiving concurrent treatment with atenolol. After a 4-week run-in period with atenolol alone 100 mg/day, two groups of 10 patients whose diastolic blood pressure exceeded 100 mm Hg were given for a period of 65 days either cadralazine 15 mg/day or chlorthalidone 25 mg/day, according to a randomized, double-blind, between-patients design. Compared to atenolol alone, both cadralazine and chlorthalidone induced a statistically and clinically significant decrease in blood pressure. The antihypertensive effect did not differ significantly between groups. Good compensation of the atenolol-induced decrease in heart rate was obtained with cadralazine, whereas during atenolol + chlorthalidone treatment at times the standing heart rate was significantly lower than during treatment with atenolol + cadralazine. Side-effects, many of which were already present during atenolol treatment, occurred with a similar frequency in both groups. It is concluded that atenolol + cadralazine and atenolol + chlorthalidone are equally well tolerated, acceptable and effective in the treatment of hypertension, but that further studies are warranted to explore the potential haemodynamic advantages of the cadralazine + atenolol combination.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: nadolol ; nifedipine ; tachycardia ; cardiovascular response ; healthy volunteers ; pharmacokinetics ; exercise heart rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a placebo controlled exercise protocol using healthy volunteers the effects of nadolol 80 mg and 160 mg orally and of nadolol 80 mg during treatment with nifedipine 20 mg 8 hourly were compared. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced by both nifedipine (p〈0.05) and nadolol (p〈0.01) acting alone. An unexpected finding was that nifedipine alone significantly inhibited exercise tachycardia (p〈0.01) (8 to 12 h post dose). Predictably both doses of nadolol produced significant reduction in exercise tachycardia which was still apparent at 24 h. There was a linear relationship between log10 plasma nadolol concentration and reduction in exercise heart rate. The combined inhibitory effects of nifedipine and nadolol 80 mg on exercise heart rate showed partial additivity but did not summate. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs. The inhibition of exercise tachycardia by nifedipine, not previously documented, is consistent with an effect of the drug on the sinus node, as has been reported in in-vitro studies, and may contribute to the drugs efficacy in angina.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; digitoxin ; cardiac glycosides ; ventilation ; respiration ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight healthy volunteers were studied to ascertain the effect of digoxin and the relatively more lipophylic cardiac glycoside, acetyl-digitoxin on ventilation. Baseline ventilation as well as the response to the inspiration of 2.2% and 4.8% carbon dioxide were assessed. Digoxin produced a depression of minute volume and oxygen consumption whereas acetyl-digitoxin produced the opposite effect. This could be the result of a relatively greater vagomimetic effect with digoxin and a greater symphatomimetic effect with acetyl-digitoxin. These findings might have clinical implications in cardiac patients who have pulmonary disease.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ranitidine ; prazepam ; duodenal ulcer ; short-term treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty out-patients with an active, endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer were entered a double-blind trial of ranitidine + prazepam or ranitidine + placebo. Two drop-outs occurred in the prazepam group and 1 in the placebo group. After 28 days of treatment, the ulcer had healed in 95.6% of the patients on ranitidine + prazepam and 75% of the patients on ranitidine + placebo (p=0.03). Sleepiness was the most frequent side effect, reported by 8 subjects in the prazepam group and by 1 subject in the placebo group. It is concluded that prazepam can be usefully combined with ranitidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: triprolidine ; BW 825C ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; sedation ; intradermal histamine ; human performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The new H1-receptor antagonist BW 825C and triprolidine (2.5 and 5 mg) were administered to 12 healthy male volunteers in a double blind placebo controlled, balanced, crossover design. Histamine antagonism was measured by assessment of flare and weal areas after intradermal injection of histamine. The 2 compounds were approximately equipotent in blocking the flare and weal response to intradermal histamine and had a similar duration of action. Triprolidine impaired performance of vigilance and reaction time (p〈0.05) compared with placebo while BW 825C did not. Drowsiness measured using visual analogue scales followed both triprolidine treatments, but not BW 825C. BW825C had a plasma half-life (t1/2) of 1.7±0.2 h and triprolidine of 4.6±4.3 h. The peak plasma level of BW 825C was approximately 6 times that of triprolidine. It was concluded that BW 825C might be a clinically active H1-antagonist with reduced sedative side-effects.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: calcium entry blockers ; bronchomotor tone ; ethanol ; nifedipine ; flunarizine ; diltiazem ; verapamil ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of various Calcium Entry Blockers (CEBs; nifedipine, flunarizine, diltiazem, verapamil) on ethanol-induced bronchoconstriction was studied in normal healthy volunteers. Nifedipine and diltiazem inhibited the bronchoconstriction and verapamil and flunarizine had no effect. The data favour the general hypothesis of differential tissue sensitivity to the various CEBs. The activity of CEBs on bronchomotor tone may be of therapeutic value in patients in whom bronchodilator activity is recommended in addition to the cardiovascular action.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cefuroxime ; peritonitis ; peritoneal dialysis ; toxicity ; increased permeability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of cefuroxime (250 mg) was studied in patients with renal failure undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). 10 uninfected patients received the drug intravenously and intraperitoneally, while 9 patients with peritonitis were randomly allocated to intravenous or intraperitoneal administration. Samples were taken over the first 6 hour dialysis period. In the infected patients, more drug (p〈0.01) crossed into the peritoneal cavity following intravenous injection and reached the systemic circulation following intraperitoneal administration than in the uninfected group. This increased permeability of the peritoneal membrane during infection may result in unexpected systemic toxicity in patients treated with intraperitoneal antibiotics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: furosemide ; bendroflumethiazide ; congestive heart failure ; slow-release furosemide ; multicentre study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of slow-release furosemide and bendroflumethiazide in the ambulatory treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure were compared in a controlled multicentre study using a randomized, double-blind procedure. In the first trial, slow-release furosemide 60 mg daily was compared with 2.5 mg bendroflumethiazide; in the second trial the daily doses were 30 mg and 2.5 mg, respectively. There were 47 patients in Trial I and 39 in Trial II. The randomised allocation to the treatment regimen was made after a four-week period on bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg daily, and treatment was continued for 12 weeks. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded before, during and at the end of the trial. Adverse effects were few and minor in both medication groups, and there were no significant intergroup differences. It was concluded slow-release furosemide 30 mg or 60 mg daily was as effective as bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg daily for maintenance treatment in mild to moderate congestive heart failure.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: methylprednisolone ; glomerulonephritis ; renal transplants ; intravenous infusion ; plasma- and urine levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) and methylprednisolone (MP) concentrations in plasma and urine were monitored in renal transplant and glomerulonephritis patients who were given i.v. infusions of 0.5 g or 1 g of MPS. A marked individual variation of peak plasma levels of both MPS and MP was observed after the same dose and MPS disappeared from plasma more rapidly than MP. Their clearances from the circulation, however, did not appear to be significantly influenced by the peak plasma levels of the drug, creatinine clearance, administration of previous pulses of MPS or the urinary excretion of unconjugated MPS and MP. Even in patients with profoundly reduced renal function, no accumulation of the drug was apparent when repeated doses of MPS were administered at 48-h intervals.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: erythromycin ; pharmacokinetics ; steady-state ; food effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The steady state absorption of erythromycin from enteric-coated pellets of erythromycin base was compared with that from enteric-coated tablets in a randomized, two-way cross-over study in 24 healthy adult volunteers. A higher mean individual peak concentration (p〈0.01), and a greater mean area under the serum concentration-time (0–8 h) curve (AUC,p〈0.01) was produced by the enteric-coated pellets, when the preparations were administered 1 hour before breakfast. No significant differences in the kinetic parameters between the two preparations were observed when they were taken during a non-standardized breakfast, as concomitant food intake was found to reduce both the peak levels and the AUC-values (p〈0.01) produced by the pelleted preparation.
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