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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed to: determine dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TTBT) bi-weekly for a four month period (June-September 1986) in the Port Annapolis Marina, Mears Marina, Back Creek and Severn River area of Northern Chesapeake Bay; measure DBT, TBT and TTBT for five successive days (Thursday-Monday) to determine possible daily effects (weekday versus weekend) and determine DBT, TBT and TTBT every two hours for one full tidal cycle in the study area. Maximum concentrations of TBT were reported at both Port Annapolis Marina (1801 ng L−1) and Mears Marina (1171 ng L−1) during early June followed by significant reductions in TBT during late summer and early fall. All 4 Back Creek Stations also had highest concentrations of TBT in early June; significant reductions occurred during the next three months. The highest concentration of TBT reported in the Severn River (48 ng L−1) occurred in September. The lowest TBT value (5 ng L-1) at this station occurred in June. TTBT was not detected in any of the samples. The day of week sampled (Thursday-Monday) during the daily experiments was not found to significantly affect TBT concentrations. TBT evaluations every two hours during the tidal cycle demonstrated that values peaked at 1400 and 1600 hr time intervals. Peak concentrations of TBT occurred during a rising tide. The possible consequence of the measured TBT concentrations for aquatic biota are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Heavy metal levels in top-soils, plant litter and mosses from uninhabited areas of southwest Nigeria were used to examine the gradients of metal contamination levels in the area. Correlations of metal levels between the different materials were poor. However, the highest levels of some of the metals were obtained in all the indicator materials within the higher pollution zones. Thus, the materials were all suitable for discerning the pollution zones. Higher levels of most metals were accumulated in mosses than in soil or litter within the lower and higher pollution zones. The extents of accumulation in the higher pollution zone relative to the lower pollution zone showed that the moss was not necessarily more effective in indicating the gradients in metal levels than the top-soil and plant litter.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Irrigation of paddy has been practised for centuries in Bali, based on the use of upland weirs for diverting river waters to irrigate downstreams lands ranging from upland terraces to flat coastal plains. While in earlier times, traditional irrigation practices have met the island's food needs, in recent decades an increasing population has increased food requirements to levels surpassing the productivity of traditional methods. Government assistance programs were initiated beginning in about 1960, and a major new program, called the Bali Irrigation Project, is now being implemented. These programs recognize that little additional farm lands will be available, hence their objective is to increase productivity through intensified agriculture, including the use of high-yield rice varieties and increasing amounts of agricultural chemicals, including both fertilizers and pesticides. The feasibility study for the Bali Irrigation Project included an evaluation of the pollutional effects of agricultural chemicals used in Bali. The study showed that past use of ‘hard’ organochlorides has pervasively polluted the island's soil and water resources and, while the Government's programs now use only relatively degradable chemicals, considerable environmental damage has already occurred and much care will be needed in avoiding the use of hard toxics in the future. The study also indicated no adverse effects from increased use of fertilizers.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Dissolved copper and selected water chemistry parameters were monitored for 11 months in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Dissolved copper concentrations in four recreational marinas, a large harbor, two major river systems, and a heavily used shipping canal ranged from below detectable levels to 80 μg L-1 (\-X=11.7 μg L-1). Dissolved copper was detected 〉91% of the time at five locations. Lowest copper concentrations were found in Potomac River, Baltimore Harbor, Pier One Marina, and C & D Canal (\-X=6–10 μg L-1; slightly higher levels of dissolved copper were found in Choptank River (\-X=12 μg L-1). Highest levels of copper were detected in Port Annapolis, Hartge, and Piney Narrows Marinas (\-X=13–18 μg L-1), with the highest values observed in the study (70 and 80 μg L-1) found in two of these marinas. Copper in the three marinas with highest dissolved copper levels could have been toxic to some of the more sensitive aquatic species. Intensive study of one marina indicated that a likely source of dissolved copper was the recreational boats housed in the marina.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Cattle in the Kempen area (in the province North-Brabant, the Netherlands) were investigated for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper in livers and kidneys. The animals originated from farms located within a 20 km radius around several zinc refinery plants. The local soil is polluted with zinc and cadmium because of a thermal refining process used in the past. Mean cadmium organ concentrations were 2.5 times, and mean lead organ concentrations were 1.5 times higher than the concentrations found in controls. Copper levels tended to be decreased, but zinc levels did not differ from controls. The observed cadmium and lead organ concentrations did not indicate intoxication of the animals, but 22% of the kidneys and 3% of the livers investigated trespassed the maximum tolerance limit of cadmium with regard to human consumption. Continuous control of cadmium organ contents in organs from slaughtercattle kept in cadmium-polluted areas is recommended.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract We compared levels of eight heavy metals in common tern eggs collected in 1982 (n=24) from coastal New Jersey with archived specimens collected from the same colonies in 1971 (N=9). Levels of all metals, except cobalt, showed a significant decrease over the 11 year period, with lead and nickel showing the greatest decline. Mercury levels declined over 50% based on geometric means. Cadmium and mercury showed the lowest levels in both years. Pair-wise correlation coefficients on log-transformed data revealed lower correlations in 1971, whereas most metal pairs showed significant correlations in 1982. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with cobalt, cadmium, and nickel in 1971, but were not correlated with levels of any other metal in 1982.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The characteristics of the distribution of particles by size were investigated for sulphates and selected metals (Pb, Fe, Mn, and Cu) in the air in two urban and an industrial area during the winter and summer periods using an Andersen cascade impactor. In the case of metals, but not sulphates, the character of the area affected the value of mass median diameter. Lowest values were obtained in a sparsely populated urban area, whereas in a densely populated urban area and in the industrial area the values were higher. In the industrial area a high correlation coefficient was found between sulphate and manganese, and between sulphate and lead, as well as a high value of the equivalent Mn2+/SO inf4 sup2- ratio for the total sample. It may therefore be assumed that in the industrial area manganese produces a catalytic effect on SO2 conversion to sulphate. Among the investigated metals lead stands out as a dominant cation which binds to the sulphate ion in the industrial and densely populated areas.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This area has a rate of patients with obstructive chronic lung disease that is the highest in Portugal and the second in Europe. Levels of pollution observed in 1985/86 and 1986/87 allowed evaluating the effects of concentrations lower than those that usually cause acute episodes. It was observed that even low levels of strong acidity can be related with lung diseases, when observed simultaneously with appreciable levels of black smoke; climatic factors have a synergetic effect.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Noise pollution in most European and mainly Greek towns, is a major environmental problem. The annoyance caused by environmental noise is great and the use of a reliable descriptor of noise is important. This paper attempts to evaluate the noise fluctuations at an observation point by introducing a probabilistic model for the system environment-noise. The proposed model considers environmental noise as a stochastic signal neglecting the identity of noise sources as well as all other physical factors of the system. Regression methods were used to fit fluctuating noise levels to a trigonometric series. The use of “power spectrum” linearizes the problem and simplifies the method of regression in searching for the best model. A correcting term of L dn is proposed and the use of the model makes the calculation of the above mentioned term simple.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental monitoring and assessment 11 (1988), S. 193-194 
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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