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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Unequivocal identification of irrigation return water through routine chemical analyses does not appear possible in tropical volcanic islands. Several constituents, nevertheless, will suggest an agricultural source if they are present in large concentrations. Nitrate is the most useful indicator; background concentrations are generally less than 2 ppm but return irrigation water will commonly have concentrations of between 5 and 50 ppm. Sulfate appears to be the next most useful indicator. Calcium, silica, and bicarbonate have also been reported to be significant. Where detailed studies have been made of agricultural water balances, regional ground-water flow directions, and deep-well hydraulics, hydrochemistry can provide critical supporting data for the identification of return irrigation water which could be a potential ground-water pollutant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 1 (1975), S. 131-136 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Once inputs of mercury-bearing effluents to a fluvial system are stopped, levels of contamination will decline slowly to background values. Crystalline mercury phases will dissolve in response to lowered aqueous mercury concentrations, and aqueous Hg(OH)2 will desorb from ferric hydroxide grain coatings as the coatings age to more ordered phases. In the Ottawa River, mercury concentrations in bed sediments are declining by about 50 percent annually.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 1 (1975), S. 137-142 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Environmental geologists have been concerned with deleterious side effects of ground-water development such as enroachment of saline water and subsidence of the land surface. New uses of the subsurface environment, including fresh-water storage in saline aquifers, permanent containment of noxious wastes, and energy storage in the form of superheated water, should be considered. There are many potentially favorable and unfavorable environmental impacts of such uses. New and important research targets are field studies of transport phenomena, osmotic effects of clays, water softening by injecting and later withdrawing water from aquifers. The natural interrelationship of the practice of environmental enhancement and man's nature as a territorial proprietor is preferable to bureaucratic actions for the same purpose.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Cluster analysis of some chemical characteristics of marine sediments and associated waste deposits in the New York Bight reveals the existence of four cluster facies. Cluster facies I is the sediment containing dredged wastes from New York Harbor. Cluster facies II is the widespread sand and gravel deposit of the continental shelf. Cluster facies III is the finergrained material in the Hudson Channel and the material accumulated in the sewage sludge disposal area. Cluster facies IV is not easily identified; it may correspond to some relict sedimentary feature in the area.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 1 (1975), S. 149-154 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A complex graben southeast of Houston, Texas, extends eastwest across the Friendswood-Webster oil field and Interstate Highway 45, through Ellington Air Force Base (EAFB), northeastward through a new residential subdivision, into the Clear Lake oil field, and on to LaPorte, Texas. Some of the faults in this graben system are known to have been active for decades and are represented by scarps several meters high in the deltaic deposits of the Pleistocene Beaumont formation. In the protected environment under two of the buildings at EAFB, one of the faults in this graben occurs as a sinuous fissure 8 to 10 cm wide that is open to a depth of about 35 cm. Another fault system appears to control the shoreline configuration of Clear Lake and the courses of streams tributary to the lake. Rapid urbanization of the surrounding area began in 1962 and damage to buildings and pavements along certain faults in this system became evident about 1970. Although some of the faults are associated with tectonic movements and the production of oil and gas, many of the faults appears to be related to extensive ground-water withdrawal and the consequent dewatering and compaction of the sands and clays in the aquifer.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 1 (1975), S. 167-170 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Bays, lagoons, and estuaries are sites where normal physicochemical processes result in accumulations of sediment and certain chemicals. Changes in water velocity and chemistry, and chemical interactions of sediment, biota, and water are factors that contribute to concentrating trace metals in coastal and lake sediments. To evaluate whether lead concentration is affected by mineralogy, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and a zeolitic tuff were suspended in 10 and 20 mg/l concentrations of lead solutions [Pb(NO3)2] which were pH-adjusted incrementally through a range of 2.5 to 11.0. Samples were centrifuged after 24 hours to separate liquid from suspended sediment. Sediment-free solutions were run as controls. Lead concentrations were determined by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that montmorillonite (Wyoming Bentonite) particles serve as lead adsorption nuclei over a broad pH range. Maximum sorption occurs as the solution reaches a pH of about 7.5. The kaolinite clay from Georgia strongly adsorbs trace amounts of lead at pH ranging from 3.0 to 4.5, where up to 95 percent of the lead is adsorbed by the clay. Little adsorption difference was found between the Fithian illite clay and zeolitic tuff from the Nevada Test Site in comparison to sediment-free solutions which were pH-adjusted. In concentrations of 10 to 20 mg/l montmorillonite and kaolinite clays serve as nucleation sites capable of adsorbing up to 95 percent of trace concentrations of lead within 24 hours. It appears that accumulations of lead in coastal lake and estuarine sediments are significantly influenced by: 1. pH changes which occur as river and coastal waters mix resulting in precipitation of lead, and 2. sorption of lead by suspended clays.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Textural characteristics — mean, dispersion, and skewness — and heavy metal concentrations — Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg — were determined for 41 bottom grab samples collected during July, 1973, at the mouth of the Fox River proximate to a coal-fired electric generating plant. The principal sediment types identified were very fine sand $$(\bar x = 3.08\phi )$$ and medium silt $$(\bar x = 5.54\phi )$$ . Irregular sediment distribution patterns along the western bank of the river reflect the complex interaction of the river currents and the orthogonally injected thermal effluent. Beyond the influence of the discharge plume, a more regular trend of sediment dispersal was identified. Sedimentary processes operative within this shallow environment are subject to considerable modification by wind-induced turbulence. The levels of Cr, Cu, Zn, and Cd were two to four times more concentrated in the Recent sediments than in the underlying glaciolacustrine deposits of red (Valders) clay. Ni concentrations were generally low while Hg was 15 to 35 times higher than background levels. Heavy metals were more concentrated in the fine-grained sediments of the river and shipping channel than in the coarser fractions along the river banks and nearshore environments of the lower Bay. The thermal effluent of the power plant has local but significant physical effects on the sediments in the vicinity of the discharge outlet. The chemical character of the sediments is established principally through upstream sources in the Fox River.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 13 (1989), S. 1-2 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sediments from the Mackenzie Valley — two suspended and one river bottom — were analyzed for major and minor elements, mineralogy, particle size, and ability to release trace metals when subjected to mild leaching. Copper and zinc in suspended sediments and cadmium in bottom sediment occurred largely (70 to 84 percent for Cu, 72 to 98 percent for Zn, 75 to 81 percent for Cd) in a form that could not easily be separated from the sediments by 0.1M HC1 and EDTA solutions. Cadmium was present in suspended sediments in low concentrations, and was present totally in sorbed leachable form. Iron, manganese, cobalt and chromium were separable from the particulate phase by mild leaching. It was found that approximately 70 hours were required for an apparent steady state concentration to be attained in such leachings. Reaction of these sediments with Beaufort Sea water (salinity 22.3 parts per thousand) indicated that both iron and manganese were released from sediments to sea water to a very small degree. Copper, lead, and zinc, however, were absorbed by sediments from sea water.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental geology 13 (1989), S. 3-13 
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Dynamic flow systems and transport of contaminants in karstic aquifers result from the actions of physical and chemical processes involving aqueous systems containing certain contaminants. These processes are elaborated, and pertinent mathematical and chemical equations are discussed, herein. Contaminant transport in karstic aquifers can be mathematically expressed by the basic equations evaluated primarily for the flow in porous, highly permeable aquifers. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and dilution are elaborated as physical processes that effect the movement of contaminants through groundwater in permeable rocks. Physical and chemical mechanisms that govem contaminant movement and groundwater flow through fractured media are proposed as the basis of an approximate scenario of contaminant transport through karstified carbonate rocks.
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