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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hen egg-white lysozyme and three of its basic derivatives obtained by chemical modification were tested for their activity in vitro against a wild strain of herpes simplex virus type 1. Marked inhibition of the cytopathic effect was exhibited by the three chemical derivatives and the heat-inactivated lysozyme, whereas the native enzyme displayed only modest anticytopathic activity. Enzymatic activity did not appear to be necessary for the antiherpes activity of the lysozyme compounds. Instead, other properties such as their basic nature seemed to be relevant to their antiherpes effectiveness in vitro. At the concentrations used, all compounds but one had no significant effect on cell viability and growth. Some of the compounds tested caused formation of deposits on the surface of the cells. Some correlation between deposit formation and antiherpes cytopathic activity was found. The antiherpes efficacy in vitro and toxicity of the modified lysozymes were compared with those of known antiviral agents. The lysozymes were less toxic than the reference antiviral agents, and some of them were also more active.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ammonia oxidation, as measured by nitrite production, was inhibited by 2-chloro-6-trichloromethyl-pyridine (nitrapyrin, N-serve) in the methane-oxidizing bacterium,Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and the autotrophic nitrifying organisms,Nitrosococcus oceanus andNitrosomonas marina. 6-Chloropicolinic acid, a hydrolysis product of nitrapyrin, was ineffective as an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation by either the methanotroph or the autotrophs. Picolinic acid (2-carboxy-pyridine), in contrast, inhibited nitrification by the methane-oxidizing bacterium but not by the autotrophic cultures. Picolinic acid may provide a means for differentiating ammonia oxidation attributable to methanotrophs from that resulting from autotrophs in environmental studies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have measured the effect of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) on photoreactivation of mutations and loss of pyrimidine dimers in structural gene Strep A in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiatedEscherichia coli B/r T-cells. Photoreactivating illumination between 3100 and 4000 Å wavelengths for 45 min on brain-heart infusion (BHI) of B/r T-eliminated 55% of the pyrimidine dimers and 75% of the mutations in gene Strep A. When BHI-PAN medium was employed, there was a 45% loss of dimers and 73% reduction in mutations. Incubation for 3.5 on BHI or BHI-PAN prior to such treatment results in no loss of mutations. These results suggest that the photoreactivity of mutations in gene Strep A is related to the ability of the cells to repair pyrimidine dimers. However, no direct correlation has been made between the observed repair of mutations and repair of pyrimidine dimers. Further experiments on the kinetics of the repair process, designed to elucidate the mechanism of PAN action, show that slope increases with increasing concentration of the drug that follows an enzyme-like pattern.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ozone was found to reduce the numbers of bacteria detectable by plate counts and the numbers of presumptiveLegionella pneumophila (DFA-reactive cells), including those that were INT positive, in test cooling towers. The numbers of DFA-reactiveL. pneumophila eventually reached those of the makeup water (Troy, NY, city water). Microbial slime on the interior tower surfaces andPseudomonas populations in the tower waters were also reduced. Water chemistry parameters measured showed no tendency toward a condition that would cause accelerated deterioration of tower material.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Components of outer membrane preparations, heated saline extracts, and phenolwater lipopolysaccharide extracts obtained from strains ofCampylobacter jejuni representing seven passive hemagglutination serotypes (Penner serotypes 1–4, 13, 16, and 50) were electrophoresed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Tests of gel eluates demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide antigens are involved in serotypingC. jejuni by passive hemagglutination and that other cell surface components have no activity. This finding was confirmed by hemagglutination inhibition. In the typing ofC. jejuni by passive hemagglutination, each serotype is probably defined by the presence of one or more specific lipopolysaccharides. These findings may lead to a clarification of the serotyping nomenclature for those systems that depend on passive hemagglutination. It is recommended that a single internationally agreed numbering system be adopted for lipopolysaccharides derived fromC. jejuni.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The toxicity of copper on a sole nitrate medium containing KH2PO4 as the phosphate source has been studied inNeurospora crassa. Iron counteracted the copper toxicity by suppressing the copper uptake and restored complete growth at a lower iron-copper molar ratio. Nitrite reductase activity was inhibited (75%) in copper toxic cultures, while the nitrate reductase activity was unaltered. Nitrite accumulated in the medium; this indicated decreased conversion of nitrate to ammonia. Alanine transaminase was also inhibited in copper toxicity, resulting in an accumulation of keto acids. Iron could restore the nitrite reductase and the transaminase activities to about 70% of the control value. The accumulation of both nitrite and keto acids disappeared under conditions of reversal of copper toxicity by iron.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of a sudden change in NaCl concentration of the medium on the time course of alterations in growth rate and phospholipid composition of the moderately halophilic bacteriumVibrio costicola has been investigated. This organism and other moderate halophiles are known to contain a larger proportion of negatively charged phospholipids in their membranes when grown at higher salt concentrations. We show for the first time that the change in proportion of phosphatidylglycerol, relative to phosphatidylethanolamine, which occurs after a shift from 1M to 3M NaCl, or vice versa, is essentially completed during that period immediately following the salt shift when growth is zero or very slow, and before the cells have adopted the growth rate appropriate to the new salt concentration. It appears, therefore, that the alteration in membrane phospholipid composition may be a necessary physiological response for adaptation to change in salinity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cyclic pyrophosphate obtained fromMethanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was converted tosn-glycerol 3-phosphate by a stereospecific route. This conversion establishes the structure as cyclic-2,3-diphospho-d-glycerate. The same method was used to determine the cellular content of this metabolite under two conditions: batch culture in a medium containing 2 mM inorganic phosphate and continuous culture with 0.1 mM phosphate in the inflowing medium. The values found were 194±13 and 27.5±1.1 μmol/g dry weight, respectively. Computer modeling indicated that the pyrophosphate group cannot adopt a staggered conformation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A technique for staining fungal nuclei using fluorescence stain Hoechst Dye 33258 in McIlvaine standard buffer of pH 7.26–7.44 is reported. It is a broad-spectrum fungal nuclear staining tool found to be effective onAgaricus bisporus, Alternaria helianthi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.lini, Penicillium binellum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Conidial nuclei ofAlternaria helianthi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.lini, andPenicillium binellum also stained well.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Prototrophic RD mutant cells ofCandida utilis NRRL-Y-1084 and auxotrophic mutant respiratory-competent cells ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae 4003-5Ba his 4 leu 2 can S meth 2 trp 5 ade 1 ura 3 gal were turned into protoplasts to be further fused with the aid of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca2+ ions. Minimal medium containing glycerol as the carbon source was employed for fusion product selection. The respiratory-competent fusion products, mainly oval cells, resembledCandida utilis and had the fermentative abilities of this strain (dextrose, sucrose, raffinose). Five fusion products were analyzed as to their ability to metabolize dextrose, xylose, cellobiose, trehalose, glycerol, succinic acid, citric acid, salycin, and maltose. Fusion products partially restored the respiratory-competentCandida utilis capacity to grow by use of these carbon compounds, and none of theSaccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting abilities were found. Our results would suggest either a partial recombination between parental mitochondria or some occurring phenomenon affecting the cell, membrane function after somatic fusion without concomitant nuclear fusion.
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