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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words:Contingency planning – Decision making – Human error – Metacognition – Stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Emergency situations in industry occur suddenly and often unexpectedly; operators must make critical decisions under stress, and the consequences of errors can be immediate and catastrophic. Training effective performance under stress becomes an important aspect in the management of emergencies. This article proposes a taxonomy of cognitive strategies that enable operators to regulate their thinking and adapt decisions to changes in the demands of the situation. Cognitive strategies, such as, tolerating uncertainty, managing workload, planning for contingencies, and self-monitoring, provide the content of training emergency response. Stress, however, interferes with the learning of strategies, which presents a challenge to the design of training methods. Exposure to stress during training, degree of task decomposition, guidance, contextual variety and feedback are some of the training methods explored to facilitate the acquisition and transfer of cognitive strategies. Diversions from the traditional systems approach to training are pointed out and areas for further training research are identified.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Disability – Human-machine interaction – Ordinary & extra-ordinary interaction – Technology for work – Universal access
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: When specifying, designing and implementing technology for work, it is very important to consider the whole of the potential user group, and not to forget that this might include people with disabilities. Obvious reasons for this are demography, disabled people forming a significant and growing proportion of the workforce, and legal obligations caused by equal opportunities legislation. There are more subtle reasons, however, which link so-called ‘disabled people’ with the rest of the population. The paper notes that most people have some disabilities, sometimes temporarily due to accident, or permanently due to ageing and other processes. In addition it notes that even otherwise fully functioning people can be seriously handicapped by hostile environments, and a parallel is drawn between the human interface needs of disabled people operating in ordinary situations and able-bodied people operating in high workload and stress situations. The paper concludes by suggesting a research agenda for the field on the basis of these considerations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognition, technology & work 1 (1999), S. 162-168 
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Knowledge work – IS design – IT case study – Litigation support
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Irrespective of the frequency to which it is referred, the concept of ‘knowledge work’ remains surprisingly ill defined and generally not well understood. In this paper we address one of the more insightful contributions by Kidd in 1994 and contrast her characterisation with our experience in a case study of a legal team. In general this shows strong correlation with her definitions of knowledge work but also raises interesting questions about some of her secondary characteristics. These lend support to the hypothesis that knowledge work is not a uniform area. Thus, it is inappropriate to generalise too much on attributes that are governed by the domain of expertise in search of a universal definition. However, there is sufficient common ground to believe that only a few major groups exist distinguished mainly by working practice, team and career structures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognition, technology & work 1 (1999), S. 169-178 
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: IT helpdesk – Organisational change – Stakeholders – Technology deployment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: This paper investigates how organisations – as joint cognitive systems – deal with change. This is explored in a case study into the use of web-based technology in an organisation and the ways in which its current and future use may be influenced by the local concerns of the actors with it. The paper looks at some of the factors that need to be taken into account for improving technology, and more specifically, in intranet development. In particular, the paper discusses the case experience in the light of previous research in IT-enabled organisational transformation and contributes to our understanding of human interaction with network technologies in an organisational context.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognition, technology & work 1 (1999), S. 179-196 
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Auditing – Categories – Computerisation – Data modelling – Epistemology – Institutions – Management science – Measurement – Methodology – Morality – Ritual
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: In this polemical essay the authors ask whether computerisation has become the neurosis of our age. By comparing the application of IT methodologies with ritual behaviour within human social institutions, they propose that the so-called rationality of management science, with its tidy benchmarking, auditing, categorisation and performance measurements etc., is actually a pseudo-science. They show that from the position of Nietzschean epistemology, this rationality is merely a false claim to the instrumental efficacy of data modelling, that is indistinguishable from the rain-dancing of primitive tribes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Agents – Artificial intelligence – Man–machine systems – Nuclear plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: This paper has pointed out the necessity of careful decision making by nuclear power plant (NPP) operators based on the critical parameters of an NPP, to maintain safety when these parameters are out of range. Yet under strong time pressure, it is virtually impossible to make optimal decisions in these conditions. The automation of recovery actions may therefore be needed. Considering the requirements for such automation, the paper proposes an autonomous system in collaboration with the human (i.e., an agent system) that will remain effective even during unforeseen conditions. The numerical simulation study showed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The desired relationship between human–machine as the joint system based on a new concept was also proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognition, technology & work 2 (2000), S. 1-6 
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Evolution and revolution – HCI – Human factors – Information systems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Information systems are the glue between people and computers. Both the social and business environments are in a continual, some might say chaotic, state of change while computer hardware continues to double its performance about every 18 months. This presents a major challenge for information system developers.  The term user-friendly is an old one, but one which has come to take on a multitude of meanings. However, in today’s context we might well take a user-friendly system to be one where the technology fits the user’s cognitive models of the activity in hand. This article looks at the relationship between information systems and the changing demands of their users as the underlying theme for the current issue of Cognition, Technology and Work.  People, both as individuals and organisations, change. The functionalist viewpoint, which attempts to freeze and inhibit such change, has failed systems developers on numerous occasions. Responding to, and building on, change in the social environment is still a significant research issue for information systems specialists who need to be able to create living information systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Classification – Genetic algorithms – Genetic programming – Neural networks – Path planning – Optimisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Although computers have been applied in many areas, there are some applications which seem to be more difficult than others to computerise. Typically these are problems for which we do not have a complete understanding, such as computer vision or robot path planning. Traditional development methods cannot account for a poor analysis of a problem and therefore fail to deliver successful systems for ill-defined problems. Three case studies are presented to demonstrate the application of genetic algorithms and genetic programming to demonstrate how these evolutionary techniques can be applied to ill-defined problems, thus diminishing the need for humans to apply themselves to dangerous or mundane tasks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Human–machine system – Human supervisory control – Industrial process – Perceived complexity – Typical operational environment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Industrial processes are becoming more complex owing to technological developments and new opportunities. Technological developments, hardware and software, have become more reliable and system configurations more robust. However, the reliability of operator control actions has not improved at the same pace. Consequently human reliability has become the relatively weakest aspect of automated, operator-supervised systems. Hence, understanding how the human operator experiences increasing complexity may play an important role in task allocation and human–machine system design. In this paper the perceived complexity is studied within four typical operational environments in supervisory control. Mathematical formulations for these four operational environments are proposed, and their properties are analysed. A laboratory system is used to investigate the perceived complexity under various operational environments. The experimental results show a significantly different perceived complexity for the coupled and uncoupled operation environments. Extrapolation of the results revealed that the operator would have perceived the system as extremely complex if he/she would have to operate more than eight strongly interconnected subsystems extensively in 30 minutes. Implications of this study are also addressed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cognition, technology & work 2 (2000), S. 106-115 
    ISSN: 1435-5566
    Keywords: Key words: Human values – Management of change – Value systems – World-view
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract: This paper looks at how human values influence the reception of technology in organisations. It suggests that we need to know what values are and how value systems evolve in order to manage technological change effectively. This proposition is based on research into the issues surrounding performance measurement as part of an information system, the cognition of which contains many parallels with that of technology. The analysis places human values’ theory within the context of systems thinking, where values are taken as system components, their groupings as systems and the expectations and behaviour produced by them as emergence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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