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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromosome research 1 (1993), S. 9-13 
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: rat ; rye ; scanning electron microscopy ; synaptonemal complex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The novel application of scanning electron microscopy to study whole-mount surface-spread synaptonemal complex complements of rye (Secale cereale) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) is described. Scanning electron microscopy is able to resolve the third dimension in such preparations and improve the tracing of the continuity of lateral elements without losing information that could be obtained by conventional transmission electron microscopy. This improvement is likely to benefit detailed studies of chromosome synapsis and karyology, and may provide a means of circumventing technical obstacles inhibiting the use of surface-spreads as substrates forin situ hybridization under the electron microscope.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: aneuploidy ; DNA content ; inversion ; translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Haplopappus gracilis (n=2),Haplopappus revenil (n=4), andHaplopappus wigginsii (n=4) are isolated by F1 hybrid sterility due mainly to translocation heterozygosity. There is no evidence that this can be overcome at the diploid level so that introgression can occur among them. They are also separated geographically, but occasional populations ofH. gracilis andH. ravenil may be brought together along roadways to form sterile hybrids. There were no statistically significant differences in nuclear DNA content among the same or structurally different aneuploidn=2 andn=3 chromosome races or ecotypes ofH. gracilis. Some of theH. gracilis races were not significantly different from one race of the ancestralH. ravenii, and these samples of both species were from plants growing on poor soils in contrast to accessions from normal habitats. How much and which classes of DNA in these species are subject to changes induced by environmental effects is not known. There were no correlations between DNA amounts and altitude, latitude, and longitude.H. wigginsii had a greater amount of DNA per nucleus than eitherH. ravenii orH. gracilis, and its increased DNA content may reflect a more rapid accumulation of noncoding sequences due to facultative self-compatibility not found in the other two species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: brown trout ; fluorescentin situ hybridization ; heterochromatin ; rDNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ribosomal rRNA genes have been mapped by fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) to brown trout chromosomes. One major NOR chromosome pair and 8 novel minor NOR chromosome pairs have been found. Both major and minor NORs were closely related to polymorphic heterochromatin, as revealed by FISH and C-banding. These results are discussed with respect to NOR expression, the relationship between rDNA and heterochromatin, and evolutionary aspects.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: sex chromosomes ; Pongo pygmaeus ; variant Y chromosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An inverted and satellited Y chromosome of almost acrocentric appearance was detected in seven of 14 male orangutans. In the remaining seven animals a submetacentric Y chromosome without NORs occurred. The high frequency with which the satellited Y chromosomes were associated with acrocentric autosomes and the positive AgNO3-staining of their satellite stalks clearly indicate the active state of the NOR on the Y chromosomes. DNA fingerprinting in two orangutan families showed that the inverted and satellited Y chromosomes in carrier orangutan males do not interfere with normal fertility. Within our sample of male orangutans studied, the inverted and satellited Y chromosome is restricted to Sumatran animals; all Bornean specimens possessed the submetacentric Y chromosome. The question arises whether these two kinds of Y chromosome differ constitutively between thePongo pygmaeus subpopulations.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromosome research 1 (1993), S. 141-141 
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: chromosome painting ; immunogold electron microscopy ; non-isotopicin situ hybridization ; telomere probes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Biotinylated repetitive, whole chromosome paint and telomere DNA probes were investigated at the electron microscope level after non-isotopicin situ hybridization and direct immunogold detection. The protocol described allowed the visualization of a biotinylated chromosome 1 specific satellite DNA probe in the light microscope without silver intensification. This sensitive method was exploited to analyse factors contributing to signal strength in immunogold chromosome painting. Furthermore, it allowed us to investigate the distribution of (TTAGGG)n telomere repeats in human metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Telomeric and internal (TTAGGG)n repeats were detected at high spatial resolution in human metaphase chromosomes. In the periphery of lymphocyte interphase nuclei, two types of telomere hybridization signals were observed. They differed remarkably in compactness, indicating two types of chromatin conformation present at the interphase telomeresin situ.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromosome research 1 (1993), S. 87-88 
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: centromere ; concerted evolution ; fish cytogenetics ; Hoplias ; satellite DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The chromosomes of the primitive South American teleost fishHoplias malabaricus have been analyzed by classical cytogenetic (C-, AgNOR-, Hoechst 33258-, and Q-banding) techniques. A highly repetitive DNA family has been cloned and sequenced. It is a tandemly repeated sequence of about 355 bp, yielding an overall base pair composition of 67% AT with long runs of 〉50% As and 70% Ts. Analysis of sequence variation has allowed the further categorization ofHoplias satellite DNA into two evolutionarily related subfamilies A and B, distinguishable by characteristic insertions and deletions within this 355-bp monomer. Subfamily A satellite is found (in diverged form) at the centromeres of mostH. malabaricus chromosomes. Sequence variants are clustered on specific chromosomal subsets. Subfamily B satellite is highly specific for the paracentromeric heterochromatin on one particular chromosome pair by fluorescencein situ hybridization. These results indicate that theHoplias satellite DNA family has evolved in a concerted manner predominantly via recombination events involving homologous, rather than non-homologous chromosome regions. The clones isolated here may be useful for the molecular, genetic, and cytological analysis of the genusHoplias.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: Vicia faba ; chromosome flow sorting ; gene mapping ; PCR ; seed protein genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chromosomes from reconstructed field bean (Vicia faba L.) karyotypes were flow-sorted and the DNA was used for the physical localization of seed storage and nonstorage (USP) protein genes using PCR with sequence specific primers. The data were confirmed and refined by using DNA of microisolated chromosomes of other karyotypes as the target for PCR. The specificity of the PCR products was proved by restrictase digestion into fragments of predicted length or by reamplification using ‘nested’ primers. The genes are located within defined regions of chromosome I (USP=unknown seedprotein genes), II (vicilin genes, legumin B3 genes), III (legumin B4 genes), IV (pseudogenes ψ1) and V (legumin A genes and pseudogenes ψ1). Except for the pseudogene derived from the sequence of legumin B4 gene, all members of each gene family are located in one chromosome region exclusively. This approach proved to be useful for localizing genes that cannot be mapped genetically (due to the lack of allelic variants) and might be applied to integrate physical and genetic maps.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cytogenetic studies of the primate Y chromosomes have suggested that extensive rearrangements have occurred during evolution of the great apes. We have usedin situ hybridization to define these rearrangements at the molecular level.pHU-14, a probe including sequences from the sex determining geneSRY, hybridizes close to the early replicating pseudoautosomal segment in a telomeric or subtelomeric position of the Y chromosomes of all great apes. The low copy repeat detected by the probeFr35-II is obviously included in Y chromosomal rearrangements during hominid evolution. These results, combined with previous studies, suggest that the Y chromosome in great apes has a conserved region including the pseudoautosomal region and the testis-determining region. The rest of the Y chromosome has undergone several rearrangements in the different great apes.
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