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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chemoecology 4 (1993), S. 33-38 
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: chemical defence ; toxicity ; mimicry ; Coccinellidae ; Adalia bipunctata ; Adalia decempunctata ; Exochomus quadripustulatus ; Chilocorus renipustulatus ; Anisosticta 19-punctata ; Parus caeruleus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nestling blue titsParus caeruleus L. were given diets containing homogenized ladybirds, to assess the effects of their chemical defences. The 2spot, 10spot and water ladybirds produced no apparent toxic effects when small numbers were given at regular intervals. The pine and kidney-spot ladybirds slightly inhibit growth and may be toxic to very young nestlings. The Water ladybird is extremely distasteful to this predator, despite its lack of toxicity. The results are discussed with reference to the proposed Müllerian and Batesian mimetic relationships between the ladybird species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: pollination ; semiochemicals ; attractants ; aliphatic alcohols ; aliphatic hydrocarbons ; aliphatic methyl esters ; linalool ; Hymenoptera Aculeata ; Andrena ; Argogorytes ; Orchidaceae ; Ophrys ; Osmia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two closely related forms ofOphrys insectifera were observed in the field to attract different pollinator species selectively.O. i. ssp.insectifera attracted males of two species ofArgogorytes (Sphecidae, Hymenoptera Aculeata) andO. i. ssp.aymoninii attractedAndrena combinata males (Andrenidae, Apoidea, Hymenoptera Aculeata). A third form,O. aff.i. ssp.insectifera, attracted none of these three species. Volatile compounds from flowers and inflorescences of the three forms (originating from Öland, Sweden, and Aveyron, France) were collected, using entrainment, enfleurage, and solvent extraction techniques, and identified by gas chromatography — mass spectrometry. Scent differences between the three forms were confirmed in the amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C11–C19), methyl esters (C14–C18), short chain aliphatic 1-alcohols (C6–C12), and monoterpene alcohols (C10).
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chemoecology 4 (1993), S. 62-62 
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: allelochemical effect ; herbivory ; chemical defence ; ontogenetic variation ; ergoline alkaloids ; lysergol ; elymoclavine ; Ipomoea parasitica ; Heliothis virescens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Lysergol, elymoclavine and three other van Urk-positive alkaloids were identified by 2D chromatography in the seed extract ofIpomoea parasitica. The presence of the same ergoline alkaloids was also demonstrated in vegetative tissue ofI. parasitica. Heliothis virescens larvae reared on a diet containing an alkaloid extract ofI. parasitica showed an increase in the consumption index and a reduction in the effiency of conversion of food. No difference was observed in the approximated digestibility. The percentages of pupation and emergence were reduced and the malefemale ratio was altered in insects fed on a diet containing the alkaloid extract ofI. parasitica or lysergol. The increases in the concentration of ergoline alkaloids inI. parasitica at the seedling stage and at flowering support the theory that these compounds play a defensive role against herbivory in the plant.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: pheromones ; Dictyoptera ; Blaberoidea ; Blattaria ; Blattella germanica ; Blaberus craniifer ; sexual behaviour ; calling behaviour ; glands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Females ofBlattella germanica andBlaberus craniifer produce a volatile sex pheromone attractive at a distance for conspecific males. During the emission of the pheromone, females ofB. craniifer adopt a typical calling posture; we never observe such a stance inB. germanica females. For both species, the glandular structures responsible for pheromonal production are located on the female pygidium. InB. germanica, the thickness of the glandular epithelium is clearly correlated with the attractiveness of females, being maximum for 13 day old females. The functions of the pygidial glands are discussed in both species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: insect-plant interactions ; intraplant variation ; chemical variation ; oviposition ; iridoid glycoside ; catalpol ; aucubin ; Lepidoptera ; Junonia coenia ; Plantaginaceae ; Plantago lanceolata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Chemical analysis of each individual leaf of fivePlantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) plants showed that iridoid glycoside content increased from undetectable in the oldest photosynthetic leaves to over 9% dry weight in the youngest leaves. The relative proportion of the two iridoid glycosides inP. lanceolata also changed with leaf age: older leaves had significantly more aucubin, whereas the youngest leaves had primarily or solely catalpol. Oviposition tests with femaleJunonia coenia (Nymphalidae) butterflies, showed that they laid most of their eggs on new leaves.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: chemical defense ; predator-prey interaction ; synergism ; Coleoptera ; Staphylinidae ; Oxytelinae ; Bledius ; Carabidae ; Dyschirius ; Pogonus ; Dichirotrichus ; Formicinae ; Cataglyphis ; Dermaptera ; Labidura
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The adaptation of defensive secretions to their target organisms was examined for the abdominal gland secretions ofBledius furcatus, B. spectabilis andB. arenarius. Therefore the target organisms of the secretion of theseBledius species (i.e. their predators) had to be identified. At the collection sites examined these were the earwigLabidura riparia, the antCataglyphis bicolor, the flyLispe candicans, different carabids of the generaPogonus, Dichirotrichus, Dyschirius, Bembidion andCalathus and the wading birdsHaematopus ostralegus andCalidris alba. The secretion of the abdominal glands contains the toxin ptoluquinone dissolved in eitherγ-dodecalactone and 1-undecene (B. furcatus andB. spectabilis) or in octanoic acid and octyloctanoate (B. arenarius). The ratio of these solvents is species-specific. Application experiments using some of the natural insect predators (L. riparia, C. bicolor, Pogonus, Di. gustavii, Dyschirius) revealed that these solvent ratios provided a more effective deterrent than other possible ratios. Thus by combining the solvents in certain ratios, the capability of cuticular penetration and therefore the effectiveness of the defensive secretions are adapted to their natural targets.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: strike-induced chemosensory searching ; search behavior ; foraging ; feeding behavior ; tongue-flicking ; Reptilia ; Lacertilia ; Teiidae ; Tupinambis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS) is experimentally demonstrated in a teiid lizard,Tupinambis nigropunctatus. SICS consists of a concurrent post-strike elevation in tongue-flick rate (PETF) and searching movements after voluntary release or escape of bitten prey or removal of prey from the predator's mouth. The results are consistent with previous data showing that PETF and/or SICS occur in all families of scleroglossan lizards and snakes and all families of actively foraging lizards yet studied. The relatively short duration of SICS (2 min) in a lizard having lingual and vomeronasal structure highly specialized for chemosensory sampling and analysis suggests that phylogenetic and ecological factors may be more important than morphology in determining the duration. The greatest known durations occur only in the presumably monophyletic clade containing varanoid lizards and snakes, all of which have highly developed chemical sampling and chemoreceptor apparatus, but in addition feed on prey that has a high probability of being relocated by prolonged scent-trailing. Because only active foragers move through the habitat while tongue-flicking and exhibit lingually mediated prey chemical discrimination, only active foragers may be expected to use SICS. SICS would appear to be useless to an ambush forager and might disrupt its defensive crypticity, rendering it more detectable to predators and prey. Therefore, it may be predicted that SICS is adaptively adjusted to foraging mode.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: Key words.Polyergus rufescens– Dufour's gland – decyl butanoate – slave-making ants – nest usurpation – repellents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary. The dulotic queen ant, Polyergus rufescens, must first penetrate a host colony and kill the resident queen in order to successfully founding a new colony. Successful usurpation by a newly mated queen predictably depends on a dual strategy. Although, it can sneak in by being “chemically insignificant” with respect to cuticular hydrocarbons, it may also need to deter prospective host-worker aggressors. Chemical analysis of Dufour's gland secretion of P. rufescens queens and workers by GS/MS revealed that queen secretion is typified by esters of butanoic acid and acetic acid, of which decyl butanoate comprises over 80%. Butanoates and acetates are also present in the workers' secretion, but these are of higher molecular weight, and octadecyl butanoate represents the major compound. Using synthetic mixtures of queen and worker Dufour's gland, we tested the hypothesis that these secretions modify the aggressive behavior of the host species Formica cunicularia〉. The queen-like synthetic mixture significantly reduced aggression of the host workers towards alien conspecifics, but neither pentane nor the worker-like synthetic mixture showed this effect. Although Dufour's gland content of 〉Polyergus queens was suggested to function as an appeasement pheromone (Topoff et al. 1988; Mori et al. 2000), we hypothesized that it may in fact act as a repellent. In order to test this hypothesis we exposed starved F. cunicularia workers to a droplet of honey on a glass slide applied with one of the following compounds: decyl butanoate (queen major compound), octadecyl butanoate (worker main compound), limonene (a reported ant repellent), and pentane (solvent control). Of these, the workers were repelled only by the decyl butanoate and did not approach the honey. We conclude that during usurpation the queen actively repels aggressive workers by emitting Dufour's gland repellent, comprising the alternative tactic in the usurpation dual strategy. This represents another chemical weapon in the diverse arsenal used by parasites to overcome the host's resistance.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1423-0445
    Keywords: Key words.Pachycoris klugii– phorbol esters – sequestration – aposematic colouring –Jatropha curcas– Scutelleridae – PKC activation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary. The phorbol ester DHPB has been detected in 5th instars and adults of Pachycoris klugii which feed on Jatropha curcas, a producer of phorbol esters with mollusc-, insect-, and vertebrate toxicity. DHPB from Pachycoris activates protein kinase C (PKC) which appears to be the main molecular target for phorbol esters. Phorbol esters of J. curcas exhibit a wide range of acute toxic effects in vertebrates and insects. It is therefore likely that the sequestration of DHPB, which would explain the aposematic colouration of the bugs, confers chemical protection to P. klugii against vertebrate predators.
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