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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 296 (1999), S. 565-573 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Immunohistology ; Immunoprecipitation ; Integrins ; Organoid culture ; Cartilage matrix ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Integrins are cell-surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to extracellular matrix components. The pericellular matrix in cartilage not only is a mechanical framework, but is also important for chondrocyte differentiation and stabilization of the phenotype. The interaction between chondrocytes and pericellular matrix is mediated, in part, by integrin receptors. We have previously demonstrated the presence of β1-integrins in the cartilage matrix of organoid culture of limb buds from 12-day-old mouse embryos by immunohistological methods. In order to corroborate these findings, we have further investigated the distribution of integrins in the cartilage matrix by immunoelectron microscopy and by immunoprecipitation methods. Cartilage tissue of limb buds of 17-day-old mouse embryos was treated with collagenase and the cell-free and cellular protein-free supernatant was removed and used for immunoprecipitation experiments. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies against β1-, α1-, α3-, and α5β1-integrins and collagen type II, followed by immunoblotting with the same antibodies, demonstrated the presence of these integrins and collagen type II in the supernatant. The integrins found in the cartilage matrix could have been either secreted or shed by the cells. The question as to whether they have a function in the cartilage matrix, such as interlinking, in the matrix organization or in the stabilization of matrix components remains to be elucidated.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Cultured epidermis ; Keratinocyte ; Epithelialization ; Wound healing ; Human ; Mouse (NMRI)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Sheets of cultured allogeneic human keratinocytes have been used for the treatment of burns and chronic leg ulcers but there has been no animal assay for the therapeutic action of these cultures. In order to analyze the effects of frozen cultures of human keratinocytes on wound healing, we have developed such an assay based on the rate of repair of full-thickness skin wounds in immunocompetent NMR1 mice. Reepithelialization of the control wounds, originating from the murine epithelium at the edge of the wound, occurred at a constant rate of advance of 150 µm/day. When frozen cultured human epidermal sheets were thawed at room temperature for 5–10 min and applied to the surface of the wound, the murine epithelium advanced at 267 µm/day. Most wounds treated with frozen cultures completely healed after 10 days, whereas most control wounds required 16 days. The accelerated reepithelialization did not depend on the presence of proliferative human keratinocytes in the frozen cultures. The cultures also promoted early formation of granulation tissue and laminin deposition over the surface of the wound bed. This simple assay should permit quantitative analysis of the effects on healing exerted not only by cultured cells, but also by proteins and small molecules.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Gastrointestinal tract ; Respiratory tract ; Urogenital tract ; Immunohistochemistry ; In situ hybridization ; mRNA ; Pig (Swedish Landrace × Yorkshire)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The antisecretory factor, AF, is a 41-kDa protein, cloned and sequenced from a human pituitary library. AF is a potent inhibitor of experimental intestinal hypersecretion in rats and pigs. An antiserum against the C-terminal of the truncated, recombinantly produced AF protein was raised in rabbits. The affinity-purified antiserum was used to study the expression of AF in mucosal membranes and in the pituitary gland of the pig; distinctly stained cells were found in lymphoid cells in the connective tissue of all parts of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. Cytoplasmic AF was demonstrated in endocrine and epithelial cells in the pituitary gland. In situ hybridisation with a digoxigenin-labelled mRNA probe also demonstrated specific cytoplasmic staining in epithelial and lymphoid cells in all of these tissues. The cells stained by either method were similarly distributed topographically within the tissues. The results suggest that a specific defined cell population in these various tissues possesses the capability of both synthesising and storing the AF protein within the cellular cytoplasmic compartment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words  ; Insect brain ; Cell culture ; Circadian rhythm ; Neuropeptide ; PDH ; Leucophaea maderae (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The accessory medulla with its associated pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons appears to be the pacemaker that controls the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. To permit studies at the level of individual, identified, pacemaker neurons, we developed specific long-term primary cell cultures of fully differentiated adult neurons of the accessory medulla. As judged from soma diameter distribution, the cultures contain an unbiased representation of apparently all neuronal types of the accessory medulla. The cultured cells survive and grow processes for more than 2 months with or without additional hemocyte coculturing. However, a strong positive effect on initial outgrowth was observed with hemocyte coculturing. At least six different morphological cell types of the accessory medulla could be distinguished in vitro. Among these only one cell type, the monopolar type C cell, was recognized in vitro with an antiserum against the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing hormone. Thus, the identifiable monopolar type C cells are candidates for circadian pacemaker neurons and will be the focus of further physiological characterizations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Avian pineal organ ; Pinopsin ; Cell differentiation ; Tissue culture ; Immunohistochemistry ; Quail embryo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The avian pineal organ contains several types of photoreceptors with different photopigments: rhodopsin, iodopsin, and pinopsin. We have previously examined the differentiation of both rhodopsin-like and iodopsin-like immunoreactive cells during pineal development in quail embryos to determine the onset of synthesis of specific proteins and their cellular localization. In the present study, we have performed pinopsin immunohistochemistry on in-vivo developing and in-vitro cultured pineal organs of quail embryos. The results were compared with those obtained with rhodopsin and iodopsin immunohistochemistry. In the developing pineal organs, pinopsin immunoreactivity was detected at embryonic day 8, i.e. five days earlier than rhodopsin-like and iodopsin-like immunoreactivities. It was localized exclusively in the protrusions extending into the lumen throughout development, whereas rhodopsin-like and iodopsin-like immunoreactivities were usually found both in cell bodies and processes. These differences were also observed under two different types of culture conditions (dissociated cell culture and organ culture) indicating that, in the avian pineal organ, the expression pattern of the pinopsin gene is basically different from those of the other two pineal photopigments. The present study suggests that pineal cells have a mechanism for the polarized transport of pinopsin molecules.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Metamorphosis ; Imaginal disc ; Sensory neurons ; Immunohistochemistry ; Phormia regina, Drosophila melanogaster (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of the sensory neurons of the legs of the blowfly,Phormia regina has been described from the third instar larva to the late pupa using immunohistochemical staining. The leg discs of the third instar larva contain 8 neurons of which 5 come to lie in the fifth tarsomere of the developing leg. Whereas 2 neurons persist at least to the late pupa, the other cells degenerate. The first neurons of gustatory sensilla arise in the fifth tarsomere at about 1.5 h after formation of the puparium. Most of these sensilla, however, appear within a short time period beginning at about 18 h. The femoral chordotonal sensory neurons first appear at the time of formation of the puparium, as a mass of cells situated in the distal femur. During later pupal development 2 groups of these cells come to lie at the femur-trochanter border, where they become the proximal femoral chordotonal organ of the adult; the remaining cells become the distal femoral chordotonal organ. Other scolopidial neurons appear later in development. The nerve pathways of the late pupal leg are established either by the axons of the cells that are present in the larval leg disc or by new outgrowing processes of sensory neurons. In the tibia, the initial direction of new outgrowth differs in different regions of the segment: proximal tibial neurons grow distally, while distal tibial neurons grow initially proximally.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cilia ; Catecholamine-containing neurons ; FMRF-like immunoreactivity ; Serotonin-containing cells ; Larval tentacles ; Neurotransmitters ; Phoronis muelleri (Phoronida)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Glyoxylic-acid-induced fluorescence of catecholamines and antibodies against serotonin and FMRFamide were used to study the distribution of putative neurotransmitters in the actinotroch larva ofPhoronis muelleri Selys-Longchamps, 1903. Catecholamines occur in the neuropile of the apical ganglion, in the longitudinal median epistome nerves, in the epistome marginal nerves, and in the nerve along the bases of the tentacles. The tentacles have laterofrontal and latero-abfrontal bundles of processes that form two minor nerves along the lateral ciliary band of the tentacles, and a medio-frontal bundle of processes. Monopolar cells are located on the ventro-lateral part of the mesosome. Processes are located along the posterior ciliary band and as a reticulum in the epidermis. Serotonin-like immunoreactive cells and processes are located in the apical ganglion, in the longitudinal median epistome nerves, and as a dorsal and ventral pair of bundles along the tentacle bases. Processes from the latter extend into the tentacles as the medioabfrontal processes. The latero-abfrontal processes form a minor nerve along the ciliary band. The dorsal bundles forms the major nerve ring along the tentacles and processes extend from it to the metasome. Processes are located along the posterior ciliary band. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cells and processes are found in the apical ganglion, in the longitudinal median epistome nerves and as a pair of lateral epistome processes projecting towards the ring of tentacles. In the tentacles, a pair of latero-frontal processes are found; these form a minor nerve along the ciliary band. A band of cells can be seen along the tentacle ring.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Serotonin ; Neuropeptides ; Endocrine cells ; Autonomic innervation ; Gut ; Rectal gland ; Immunohistochemistry ; Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephala)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The occurrence and distribution of endocrine cells and nerves were immunohistochemically demonstrated in the gut and rectal gland of the ratfish Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephala). The epithelium of the gut mucosa revealed open-type endocrine cells exhibiting immunoreactivity for serotonin (5HT), gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP)/FMRFamide, somatostatin, glucagon, substance P or gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). The rectum contained a large number of closed-type endocrine cells in the basal layer of its stratified epithelium; the majority contained 5HT- and GRP-like immunoreactivity in the same cytoplasm, whereas others were immunoreactive for substance P. The rectal gland revealed closed-type endocrine cells located in the collecting duct epithelium. Most of these contained substance P-like immunoreactivity, although some reacted either to antibody against somatostatin or against 5HT. Four types of nerves were identified in the gut and the rectal gland. The nerve cells and fibers that were immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and GRP formed dense plexuses in the lamina propria, submucosa and muscular layer of the gut and rectal gland. A sparse network of gastrin- and 5HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers was found in the mucosa and the muscular layer of the gut. The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of the closed-type endocrine cells in the mucosa of the rectum and rectal gland of the ratfish. These abundant cells presumably secrete 5HT and/or peptides in response to mechanical stimuli in the gut and the rectal gland. The peptide-containing nerves may be involved in the regulation of secretion by the rectal gland.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neurosecretion ; Hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system ; Neurohypophysis ; Neurosecretory terminals ; Neurosecretory granules ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Quantitative ultrastructural techniques were used to study changes in the distribution of intracellular organelles in neurosecretory terminals of the rat neurohypophysis during recovery from a depolarising stimulus in vitro. The volumetric density of neurosecretory granules which, in profiles of nerve terminals sectioned through the area of contact with the basal lamina, was decreased as a result of stimulation, returned to control values within 2 h after cessation of stimulation. We conclude that, even in the absence of the cell body and action potentials propagated from it, granules can migrate quickly within the terminal region of the neurosecretory axons to refill a depleted compartment.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal organ ; Transplantation ; Serotonin ; Tyrosine hydroxylase ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pineal organ of neonatal rats was transplanted to the frontal part of the cerebral cortex or the cerebral interhemispheric fissure of an isogenic adult rat to determine whether pineal differentiation and pinealopetal innervation are affected by aberrant neuronal influences. Transplants were fixed for immunohistochemistry at 1, 2 and 6 months after transplantation. When treated with an anti-serotonin antibody, cells in transplants from both locations showed intense immunoreactivity and a morphology comparable to intact pinealocytes, indicating that the transplanted pinealocytes had differentiated normally. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed that new catecholamine fibers of central nervous origin extended only into the periphery and not into the core of transplants grafted within the cortex. However, numerous catecholamine fibers were found in transplants placed in the interhemispheric fissure. These fibers were often accompanied by blood vessels, suggesting that they derived from sympathetic ganglia. Serotonin fibers, which are densely distributed in the cerebral cortex, were seldom found to enter transplants from both locations. These observations indicate that pineal cells express their characteristic properties even when transferred to a foreign milieu and that they do not receive novel innervation from the central nerves that normally do not innervate the intact pineal body; the transplant thereby retains the property of selective pinealopetal innervation.
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