Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Wind speed was measured at a height of 1 cm above the ground and at several other heights in and above a canopy of tall fescue grass (Festuca arundinacea) using single hot-wire and triple hot-film anemometers. The plant area density in the canopy was concentrated close to the ground, with ∼75% of the plant area standing belowz=15 cm, wherez is height above the ground. The frequency distributions of horizontal wind speeds,s, were sharply skewed towards positive values at all measurement heights, but were most highly skewed near the ground where the coefficient of skewness ranged from 1.6 to 2.9. Above mid-canopy height, the frequency distribution ofs was described reasonably well by a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Average wind speed,S, decreased exponentially with depth into the canopy with an exponential scale length of abouth/2.8, whereh is the height of the canopy. Atz=1 cm, the value ofS was about 11% of the surface-layeru *. The standard deviation of the fluctuations of the vertical and horizontal components of the wind speed also decreased exponentially with depth inside the canopy with a scale length of abouth/2.5. Inside the canopy, the Eulerian integral time scales for the vertical (Γ w ) and horizontal (Γ u ) components of wind speed were about 0.1 s and 1.0 s, respectively, and were approximately constant with height. Above the canopy, these time scales increased sharply and, atz=2.25h, Γ w and Γ u were approximately 1.0 and 3.0s, respectively. Turbulence length scales in the vertical and downwind directions, Γ u and Γ w ·U, respectively, were approximately 1 cm for heights between 1 to 10 cm above the ground inside the canopy, while atz=2.25h, they were about 55 cm and 277 cm. Relatively quiescent periods (lulls) in the air close to the ground were interrupted frequently by gusts. The frequency of occurrence of gusts appears to be correlated with the value of the local shear near the top of the canopy.
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