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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: economic valuation ; ecology ; biological diversity ; tropical forests ; tropical wetlands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The interface between ecology and economics is the valuation of environmental goods, services and attributes. The total economic value of an ecosystem is derived by estimating monetary values for it's direct use, indirect use, option and non-use values. Recent advances have been made in the economic valuation of direct, option and non-use values. Much less attention has been paid to measuring the indirect use value provided by environmental functions. These values may be particularly significant in developing countries. This paper details the challenge presented by valuing environmental functions to ecologists and economists and synthesizes the methodological advances that have occurred. Using tropical forests, wetlands and biodiversity as illustrations, the application of this methodology to valuing the functions of complex natural systems is investigated and existing studies reviewed. Conclusions on further research are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: Myrmecophytes in Amazonia ; coevolution ; Melastomataceae ; Tococa occidentalis ; Myrmelachista ; herbicide ; ant venom
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Populations ofTococa occidentalis (Melastomataceae) and the inhabiting ants (Myrmelachista sp.) were observed for more than eight months in the Peruvian Amazon (Sira mountains). They represent a complex coevolutionary system: the plants offer shelter (leaf domatia, hollow stems) and food (leaf glands), whereas the ants kill all surrounding plants, including large trees up to 10 m, by chemical weapons. Experiments with exposed plants revealed a highly specialized way to attack meristematic tissue and leaf nervature, which leads to a quick decay of the plant individuals. The clearing of the vegetation by the ants allows theTococa population to expand mostly by vegetative shoots to large monocultures (up to 30 m in diameter) free from any other plant species. Artificially introduced plant individuals, from differentT. occidentalis populations, are regarded as a foreign species by the ants. The succession of such aTococa-Myrmelachista system begins with one or a few founder plants on a light place in the midst of the vegetation.Myrmelachista soon inhabits their host plants which otherwise would not survive and begin to clear the place from all foreign plant species.Tococa expands quickly, forming circle shaped populations. Distantly situated canopy trees shade theTococa population after a number of years and cause their decay. The whole place appears contaminated for years and no other plant can establish itself. Some of the consequences of these open places are erosion and a severe influence on the regeneration of the forest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodiversity and conservation 1 (1992), S. 62-62 
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: Maculinea ; Myrmica ; conservation ; re-establishment ; ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Europe's five species ofMaculinea butterfly are examples of endangered species adapted to live in traditional, cultural landscapes. All are threatened with extinction in Western Europe because of recent changes in land use. This is illustrated by an historical account of the extinction of the BritishMaculinea arion populations, despite many conservation attempts. It is shown how the failures proved to be due to ignorance of the key factor forM. arion, its specialization on a single ant host,Myrmica sabuleti. A brief account is given of research that shows how each of the five species is similarly dependent upon a separate hostMyrmica ant species and how each has an interesting and rare specific parasitoid. Steps for the practical conservation of existingMaculinea populations including the obligation, under the Bern Convention, to re-establish nationally extinct species are outlined. The procedure and problems involved in re-establishment are illustrated with reference to the successful programme forM. arion in Britain. The best way of ensuring robust populations ofMaculinea butterflies is to manage habitats to optimize the density and distribution of the required species ofMyrmica host and, secondarily, the distribution of the larval food plant. The value of single species conservation in cultural habitats is discussed. It is concluded that this is possible to achieve and that other rare organisms also often benefit, but only when conservation measures are based on the results of detailed autecological research.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: prokaryotes ; bacteria ; archaea ; food chains ; nutrient cycles ; atmospheric impacts ; mutualisms ; pathogenicity ; identification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A short overview of the biodiversity of prokaryotes (the domains bacteria and archaea) is given, with respect to morpholoy, physiology, and biochemistry. The importance of prokaryotes in food chains, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles, and for the maintenance of a balanced atmosphere is explained and stressed. The involvement of prokaryotes in symbiotic mutualisms and in pathogenicity is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodiversity and conservation 1 (1992), S. 263-266 
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: viruses ; species concept ; nomenclature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The species concept is applicable in virology because viruses have genomes, replicate, evolve, and occupy particular ecological niches. The following definition of virus species was accepted in 1991 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: ‘A virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche’. This definition does not provide a list of diagnostic properties for recognizing members of particular virus species. Furthermore, since a virus species is a polythetic class, it is impossible to use a single property such as a certain level of genome homology as defining property of the species. The implications of this new definition of virus species for future virus classification are discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodiversity and conservation 1 (1992), S. 312-323 
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: lichens ; biomass ; nutrient cycling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Global biodiversity in lichens is discussed with respect to: areas of biodiversity, lichen biomass, food chains, nutrient cycling, carbon sinks, biomonitoring, climate change, conservation, and lichen identification. Examples of each topic are given, and areas for productive future research outlined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodiversity and conservation 1 (1992), S. 293-311 
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: fungi ; molecular biology ; ultrastructure ; secondary metabolites ; plant pathogens ; coevolution ; biodegradation ; symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Diversities in fungi are manifold. Fungi themselves are heterogeneous and constitute at least three unrelated major taxa. Structural diversity reflects, in most cases, adaptive and functional strategies. Diversity in nucleic acids and chemical compounds is very high in several fungal taxa. Fungi play an essential role in the function of ecosystems. The diversity of plant parasites is extremely high and species-dependent associations exist. Saprobic fungi are most important in wood and litter decay and diverse taxa comprise the main decomposers in specific successional niches. Two dominating symbiotic systems have evolved convergently in various fungal groups, notably lichens and mycorrhizas, both remarkably diverse in their heterotrophic partners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodiversity and conservation 1 (1992), S. 334-341 
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: protozoa ; protists ; species numbers ; pathogens ; mutualists ; biomass ; food chains ; biomonitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The unicellular eukaryotes are currently grouped in the kingdom Protista, together with their multicellular relatives. The inclusion of protozoa, algae and water moulds in a single taxon has resulted in nomenclatural problems, academic homelessness, and a reduction in their teaching. There are around 40 000 described protozoan protist species. Protozoa are principally grazers of bacteria, increasing mineralization and making nutrients more available to other organisms; most are aquatic, but they are also widespread animal parasites and symbionts. Their biomass, role in food chains, roles as mutualists and pathogens, and value as biomonitors are reviewed. To assess the role of protozoa in ecosystems more accurately, the current poor taxonomic standards in ecological work on protozoa must be improved. The manpower to respond to existing and new challenges in the field is declining as protozoology disappears from university courses and this problem needs to be addressed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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