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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Municipal refuse along with various solid-waste processing samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In all cases, the samples required drying, particle-size reduction, separation of extraneous material, and extraction with an organic solvent. The extracts were cleaned-up by chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography. The qualitative results obtained indicate that PCBs were present in several of the samples analyzed. These results are consistent with findings, by other investigators, that there is PCB contamination in many parts of the environment and they indicate that disposal of solid waste contributes to this contamination.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Storage of DDT [trichloro-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane] residues by the shrew species,Blarina brevicauda andSorex cinereus, was studied in a 4.05-hectare old-field ecosystem, treated in June, 1969, with36Cl-ring-labeled DDT at a dosage of 0.92 kilograms per hectare. The mean radioactive DDT-derived residue contents ofBlarina liver (10 ppm), muscle (10 ppm), brain (4 ppm), and fat (135 ppm) of resident shrews were the same in 1970 and 1971, and they were not influenced by sex. Significant peaks occurred in the DDT residue content of fat in August, 1970 (243 ppm) and November, 1971 (236 ppm), which may have resulted from the consumption of slugs (Deroceras), whose population peaks coincided with the maximum residue levels of DDT in fat.Blarina released into the treated area accumulate DDT-derived residues in liver, brain, muscle, and fat comparable to the levels found in resident shrews, within 15 to 20 days of exposure to the area. Equilibrium between intake and excretion of DDT apparently occurs inBlarina liver, brain, and muscle within approximately 30 days and, in fat, within 40 days. InSorex, DDT residue levels in muscle and viscera reached peaks during the summer of DDT application (1969) and declined towards the end of the growing season, the pattern being similar to that found for the tissues ofBlarina. However,Sorex, unlikeBlarina, accumulated residue levels of DDT in 1970 and 1971 which were successively greater than the levels present in 1969, indicating that DDT probably was increasing in availability toSorex, with the passage of time. Mean levels of DDT residue in muscle (4 ppm) and viscera (3 ppm) are not influenced by sex but are influenced by breeding condition. Male shrews with scrotal testes and lactating females develop lower levels of DDT in muscle and viscera than males with abdominal testes or nonlactating females.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Diquat (1,1′-ethylene-2,2′-dipyridylium dibromide), a potent contact herbicide useful in aquatic weed control, inhibits aldrin epoxidation, an oxidative transformation catalyzed by microsomal mixed—function oxidases. When live mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) are exposed to sublethal amounts of aldrin in the water for 24 hours, the chlorohydrocarbon residue extracted from the whole fish contains approximately 23 percent of the epoxide, dieldrin. Addition of diquat to the water in final concentration of 8 × 10−4 molar or greater significantly reduces the percent dieldrin in the extracted residue. Underin vitro conditions, diquat inhibits the aldrin epoxidase system prepared from homogenates of various tissues in mosquito fish and goldfish(Carassius auratus); a diquat concentration of 2 × 10−5 molar in enzyme systems prepared from liver, stomach, intestine, kidney, and gill homogenates from goldfish gives 74, 55, 18, 41, and 57 per cent inhibition, respectively. The inhibition is concentration dependent, the molar I50 for liver preparations being 8.0 × 10−6 molar. Under static bioassay conditions, the acute toxicities of aldrin, DDT, and parathion are not affected by diquat but diquat (275 ppm) decreases the time to onset of symptoms and increases the 24—hour mortalities produced by carbaryl, the effects being dose—dependent. In view of the high concentration of diquat required to inhibit oxidationin vivo and its short residual half—life in aquatic environments, as a result of adsorption and non—enzymmatic transformation, the novel interactions demonstrated are probably of little significance under the practical conditions in which diquat is used.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Induction of aldrin epoxidase activity by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Arochlor 1221, 1242, and 1254) was studied with five strains of house flies which differed in their level of microsomal enzyme activity, as measured by the epoxidation of aldrin. The strains with a low basal level of aldrin epoxidase activity are inducible whereas those with a high level of epoxidase activity are not. As an inducer, Arochlor 1254 is the most effective of the three PCBs, followed by Arochlor 1242 and Arochlor 1221, in decreasing order of activity. Thus, PCBs with higher chlorine content are apparently better inducers of the enzyme. A “no-effect” level for enzyme induction by PCBs apparently does not exist because a measurable degree of induction occurrs even after exposure to extremely low doses of PCBs. Differences among house fly strains exist in the dose dependency and in the time course of enzyme induction.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When carbon-14-labeled HEOD (dieldrin) is injected into the American cockroach, German cockroach, and house fly, metabolism takes place forming radioactive metabolites which have been isolated and identified by thin-layer chromatographic methods. The major metabolite of dieldrin in the American cockroach iscis-aldrindiol. This is the first report ofcis-aldrindiol being formed as a dieldrin metabolite and possible mechanisms for its formation are given. Other dieldrin metabolites identified or characterized indicate that both hydrolytic and oxidative systems are important in the metabolism of dieldrin by the three insect species studied. Thein vitro metabolism of HEOD-14C by the fat body from the American cockroach also supports the above conclusion.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rats fed diets containing 0.1 percent of three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Arochlor 1248, Arochlor 1254, Arochlor 1262) for six weeks show a progressive enlargement of the liver. This liver hypertrophy is attributed to proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, development of large membranous concentric arrays, and increase in lipid droplets within the cytoplasm of the affected liver cells. Liver homogenates show increased levels of protein and RNA and reduced concentrations of DNA. Microsomal fractions have increased levels of protein and phospholipids, and reduced levels of cholesterol. Also, there are modifications in the activity of certain hepatic microsomal enzymes. By the sixth week, the animals have progressed from a stimulatory effect on the liver by the PCBs to a stage where regressive hepatic changes are occurring, such as a decreased activity of microsomal enzymes, dissolution of concentric membrane arrays, vesiculation of the endoplasmic reticulum, and accumulation of lipid droplets within the cytoplasm of the affected cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chemical and physical decontamination procedures for dicofol [1,1′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol; Kelthane®], as applied to apples under controlled laboratory conditions, were studied on Red Delicious apple pomace (stems, cores, seeds, and peelings). Oven heating the contaminated pomace at 100°C for 24 hours, with and without excess moisture, removes 59.0% to 81.7% of the total dicofol residues. If the pomace is mixed with dry powdered alkali and heated, the residues are reduced 85.5% to 94.1%. If the pomace is mixed with dry powdered alkali and excess moisture, and heated, the total residues are reduced 98.7% to 99.1%. Vapor washing the pomace with water reduces the dicofol residues from 31.0% to 51.6%. Vapor washing the pomace with isopropanol reduces the dicofol by 65.6%. Cool-air drying, sunlight drying, ultraviolet light drying, and hot-air drying further reduces the total dicofol levels by 43.3%, 30.7%, 24.2%, and 40.6%, respectively, for the water-vapor-washed pomace, and 68.0%, 71.0%, 83.2%, and 94.0%, respectively, on the isopropanol-vapor-washed pomace. Dicofol residues can be effectively reduced on apple pomace by the above physical and chemical decontamination procedures. The decontaminated pomace can be utilized as a valuable feed by-product from apples.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The uptake and the tissue distribution of ethylmercuric chloride (EMC) by inhalation and oral administration were studied in adult female rats. The pulmonary uptake of EMC linearly increases with the time of exposure and is proportional to the concentration of EMC vapor. With the exception of stomach, intestine, and hair, the tissue distribution of203Hg from pulmonary uptake is quite similar to that from oral administration. The biological halflife of EMC in the organs is longer from pulmonary uptake than from oral administration. Kidney and liver convert EMC to in-organic mercury irrespective of the routes of administration. A small amount of203Hg is found in the fetus, and the fetal liver accumulates more203Hg than the fetal kidney.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Laboratory caged bees, as well as bee colonies under field conditions, were fed carbaryl-containing food solutions. A short 10-hour study reveals that the amount of the pesticide chemical residue found in bees compares quite closely with the amount consumed, even though the amount of carbaryl residue found is less than 3 per cent of the total amount of carbaryl consumed after the first 3 hours of feeding. The 10-hour study also shows that several hours can elapse before bees succumb to the pesticide chemical contaminant present in their food supply. In a long-term feeding study, bees were fed carbaryl-fortified solutions for 56 days after which time the bees were fed carbaryl-free solutions. Carbaryl residue found in honey appears to be quite stable and its level even increases with time; however, the primary cause for the increase is believed to be evaporation of the water from the honey stored in the colony. The carbaryl residue content of bee bread correlates well with the amount of residue found in the bees and it occurs in more concentrated levels than in honey throughout the 56-day period. The amount of carbaryl in bees decreases following the termination of the carbaryl fortification but detectable amounts of carbaryl residue are found at low levels, even up to 64 days later. The minimum detectable level of carbaryl residue in bee bread and honey was 〈0.001 ppm and 〈0.0005 ppm in bees.
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