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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Many of the potential technical applications of alcohol oxidase (MOX; EC 1.1.3.13) are limited by the presence of high activities of catalase in the enzyme preparations. In order to circumvent laborious and costly purification or inactivation procedures, the induction of MOX in a catalase-negative mutant of Hansenula polymorpha has been studied. Emphasis was laid on the induction of activities of MOX and the dissimilatory enzymes in continuous cultures grown on various mixtures of formate/glucose and formaldehyde/glucose. In continuous cultures of the catalase-negative mutant grown on these mixtures, MOX can be induced efficiently. To obtain a stable and productive process, the ratio of the substrates is of critical importance. The optimal ratios of the mixtures for the catalase-negative strain for formate/glucose and formaldehyde/glucose were 3:1 and 1–2:1, respectively. Under identical cultivation conditions the wild-type strain showed similar induction patterns for MOX and the dissimilatory enzymes formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FaDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FoDH). The MOX levels in the catalase-negative strain were approx. 50% of those in the wild-type strain.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The detection of bacteria using a thionine mediated microbial fuel cell was examined. On addition of bacteria to the anode compartment of a fuel cell, a rapid increase in the current output was observed. Both the total change in the steady state current (ΔmA) and the initial rate of change of current were proportional to the numbers of bacteria added. Regression analysis of plots of log10 ΔmA against log10 bacteria ml-1 (final concentration) upon the addition of E. coli K12, Lactococcus lactis, coliform sp. A1, Micrococcus sp. M3 but not Pseudomonas sp. P5 gave reasonable correlation coefficients. Determination of the rates of respiration and thionine reduction by E. coli indicated that the transfer of metabolic electrons from the bacteria to the mediator was reasonably efficient (approx. 50%). These results are discussed with respect to the potential application of this technique for the rapid estimation of the bacterial contamination of foods.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary When cultivated in chemically defined medium, Streptomyces clavuligerus produces cephamycin C. This biosynthesis is greatly inhibited when the bacteria develop rapidly in batch culture. The decrease in cephamycin C biosynthesis is paralleled by a decrease in expandase biosynthesis. This negative effect can be observed whatever the limiting growth substrate (glycerol, ammonium or phosphate), a phenomenon which was confirmed when S. clavuligerus was cultivated in a chemostat.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Most sisomicin produced during fermentation by Micromonospora inyoensis remained bound inside the cells. When cells were suspended in buffer solutions containing sodium chloride, the bound antibiotic was increasingly liberated by increasing salt concentration. These results were applied to fermentation cultures and, as a result, up to 46% increase in final product titre was achieved.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary We have constructed the recombinant plasmid for the extracellular production of human immunoglobulin G Fc region (hIgG-Fc) in Escherichia coli. The excretion vector pEXFC10 contained the weakly activated kil gene of plasmid pMB9 and the DNA fragment encoding a fused protein, in which the codons for the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No. 170 penicillinase signal peptide and the hIgG-Fc were fused through the one additional amino acid Ser, which was identical with the N-terminus of alkalophilic Bacillus mature penicillinase. By cultivating E. coli carrying pEXFC10, about 40% of hIgG-Fc was excreted into the culture medium. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the extracellular hIgG-Fc indicated that processing occurred correctly between Ala and Ser. From the sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the nonreducing condition, it was suggested that most of the extracellular hIgG-Fc proteins took the dimeric form via disulfide bonds.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of oxygen availability on d-xylose and D-glucose metabolism by Pichia stipitis, Candida shehatae and Pachysolen tannophilus was investigated. Oxygen was not required for fermentation of d-xylose or d-glucose, but stimulated the ethanol production rate from both sugars. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the highest ethanol yield coefficient (Ye/s) of 0.47 was obtained on d-xylose with. P. stipitis, while under similar conditions C. shehatae fermented d-xylose most rapidly with a specific productivity (qpmax) of 0.32 h-1. Both of these yeasts fermented d-xylose better and produced less xylitol than. P. tannophilus. Synthesis of polyols such as xylitol, arabitol, glycerol and ribitol reduced the ethanol yield in some instances and was related to the yeast strain, carbon source and oxygen availability. In general, these yeasts fermented d-glucose more rapidly than d-xylose. By contrast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented d-glucose at least three-fold faster under similar conditions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The adsorption behaviour of cellulase fromTrichoderma viride on microcrystalline celluloses with different specific surface areas was studied. The adsorption was found to fit a Langmuir isotherm. There was an increase in the maximum adsorption amount (Amax) as the specific surface area of microcrystalline cellulose increased. The values of Amax and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) decreased with increasing temperature. Thermodynamic parameters in adsorption were calculated from K. It was found from the enthalpy of adsorption, that van der Waals-Type interaction was responsible for adsorption of cellulase on microcrystalline cellulose. The adsorption process was exothermic and an adsorption enthalpy-controlled reaction.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Acidogenesis and solventogenesis byClostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-593 has been studied in batch growth, and in sucrose-limited chemostat and recycling fermentor growth. Cells grown in batch culture without pH control primarily produced either butyric and acetic acids, or these acids plus butanol, ethanol and isopropanol in ratios depending on the medium's content of reducing agent, calcium and iron. Cells in chemostat-culture at a mass doubling time (td) of 5.8 h produced primarily butyric and acetic acids at pH 6.8 and these acids plus butanol, ethanol and isopropanol at pH 4.8. Cells grown in a recycling fermentor (in which the td continuously increases) at pH 6.8 entered solventogenesis at a td of 43 h, producing primarily propanol, ethanol and butanol, along with butyric acid, but with greatly decreased production of acetic acid. Although “clostridial form” morphology, succeeded by sporulation, usually accompanied solventogenesis, the association was not invariant so that solventogenesis and sporogenesis can occur separately in this species.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of ammonium ions in the medium on production of thiostrepton byStreptomyces laurentii was investigated. In batch cultures, the excessive initial concentration of ammonium ions inhibited thiostrepton production. Moderate feeding of ammonia accelerated, however, not only microbial growth but also thiostrepton production. Fed-batch cultures with various feed rates of ammonia and a kinetic study clarified the effect of ammonium ion consumption rate on thiostrepton production. A modified kinetic model is proposed that takes product inhibition and the influence of maximum thiostrepton content into account.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The morphological development ofClaviceps paspali immobilized in Ca-alginate gel was examined. During consecutive reincubations, the immobilized mycelia differentiated into swollen, arthrosporoid-like cells, which never appeared during fermentation of free mycelium. Such differentiation could be connected with the improved, prologed vitality and metabolic activity of the immobilized cells.
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