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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 547-549 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A laterally driven electromagnetic microactuator (LaDEM) is introduced, and a micro-optical switch is designed and fabricated as an application. LaDEM offers parallel movement of the microactuator to the silicon substrate surface (in-plane mode). Polysilicon-on-insulator wafers and a reactive ion etching process were used to fabricate high-aspect-ratio vertical microstructures, which allowed the equipping of vertical micromirrors. A fabricated single leaf spring had a width of 1.2 μm, thickness of 16 μm, and length of 920 μm. The resistance of the fabricated leaf spring for the optical switch was 5 Ω. The deflection of the leaf spring started to profoundly increase at about 400 mA, and it showed snap-through phenomenon over that current value. Owing to the snap-through phenomenon, a large deflection of 60 μm was detected at 566 mA. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 226-228 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The frequency upshifting of 0.8 μm picosecond laser pulses was demonstrated using the temporal change of the free carrier density in a ZnSe semiconductor crystal. The crystal was ionized by transverse propagating ps pulses. Shifts of up to 1.6 nm were observed, which agree within 25% with the theory. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A Si/Si p–n junction with very low doping level was made via a standard device fabrication process by implanting As ions at 25 keV into a p-type Si substrate with a boron concentration of 1015 cm−3, followed by heat annealing at 1035 °C for 33 s. To characterize this junction, a pair of 45° wedge-shape cross sections was prepared simultaneously by focused-ion-beam milling and examined using off-axis electron holography. The reconstructed phase images clearly show the phase shift induced by the electrostatic potential drop across the p–n junction, indicating that the junction has been mapped successfully. Quantitative measurements from the phase images give the potential values of 12.21±0.40 and 11.50±0.27 V, respectively, for the n- and p-type sides of the junction, 0.71±0.05 V for the potential drop across the junction and 50.10±3.88 nm for the total electric dead layer thickness. This work demonstrates that electron holography is a powerful technique for characterizing low dopant level p–n junctions in practical devices. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 481-483 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A possible model for the ZnSe growth on GaAs(110) is proposed based on a first-principles pseudopotential method. Our calculations suggest that ZnSe growth on GaAs(110) could be understood in a two-step process: (i) Zn atoms will be adsorbed over Ga and As sites of the GaAs(110) surface, and (ii) the Zn atom over the Ga site will be replaced by a Se atom, followed by layer-by-layer ZnSe growth. We have also investigated Zn-induced features at the GaAs(110) surface, during the initial Zn interaction with the surface. Zn was found to adsorb preferentially at Ga substitutional sites at the subsurface layer and over Ga and As surface atoms. Theoretical STM images show the presence of bright features related to the Zn at Ga substitutional sites in the subsurface layers in agreement with recent experimental works. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 484-486 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Strong photoinduced reflectivity change in the midinfrared region in GaN is observed by femtosecond pump–probe measurements. By comparing the results of simultaneous emission and reflectivity measurements, we show that midinfrared reflectivity spectra are governed by coupled phonon-plasmon modes and spatial inhomogeneity of carrier density. Even when the plasma frequency lies in the far infrared region at low carrier density of 1018 cm−3, the strong plasmon–phonon coupling drives the position of upper phonon–plasmon mode to midinfrared region, allowing us to investigate dynamics of photogenerated free carriers in GaN-based materials by midinfrared reflectivity measurements. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 487-489 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out to investigate the coalescence and electron activation energy in CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures. The results of the AFM images show that uniform CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are formed and that the transformation from CdTe QDs to CdTe quantum wires is caused by the coalescence. The excitonic peaks corresponding to the transition from the ground electronic subband to the ground heavy-hole band in the CdTe/ZnTe QDs shifted to higher energy in comparison with those of the CdTe/ZnTe quantum wires. The activation energy of the electrons confined in the CdTe QDs, as obtained from the temperature-dependent PL spectra, was higher than those in CdTe quantum wells and quantum wires. The present results can help to improve the understanding of coalescence and electron activation energy in CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 574-576 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Efficient light emission was obtained in a silole-based organic light-emitting diode. A high luminous current efficiency of 20 cd/A, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 8%, was achieved. The apparent violation of the upper theoretical limit of 5.5% for the external quantum efficiency of a singlet emitter is discussed. With a suitably designed cathode, a high power efficiency of ∼14 lm/W was obtained. A strong dependence of the power efficiency on the thickness of Alq3 layer is also observed and explained. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 580-582 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A torus knot model is presented to analyze the chiral wave propagation of photonic quantum-ring lasers in a three-dimensional Rayleigh–Fabry–Perot toroidal cavity. The Rayleigh–Fabry–Perot cavity gives rise to peculiar multichromatic spectra with nonequal intermode spacings. In particular, the knot model analysis suggests a strange three-dimensional effective index ellipsoid for the cavity with a large birefringence of neff3D(z)−neff2D(x,y)(approximate)0.4–0.5. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: An efficient and morphologically stable pyrimidine-containing spirobifluorene-cored oligoaryl, 2,7-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrimidine-5-yl]-9,9′-spirobifluorene (TBPSF), as an emitter or a host for blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), is reported. The steric hindrance inherent with the molecular structure renders the material a record-high neat-film photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 80% as a pure blue emitter (PL peak at 430 nm) of low molecular weight, and a very high glass-transition temperature (Tg) of 195 °C. Blue OLEDs employing this compound as the emitter or the emitting host exhibit unusual endurance for high currents over 5000 mA/cm2. When TBPSF is used as a host for perylene in a blue OLED, maximal brightness of ∼80 000 cd/m2 had been achieved, representing the highest values reported for blue OLEDs under dc driving. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 328-330 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Electric, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties have been investigated for ferromagnetic (ferrimagnetic) ordered double perovskites, A2CrReO6 (A=Sr and Ca). Sr2CrReO6 is found to be a metallic ferromagnet with a high Curie temperature (TC=635 K), possibly the highest-TC half metal among the perovskite family. By contrast, Ca2CrReO6 is a ferromagnetic Mott insulator with TC of 360 K. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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