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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Measurement ; Uncertainty ; Analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  It is now becoming recognised in the measurement community that as well as reporting the measured value it is also essential to give its uncertainty. Without a knowledge of the uncertainty, it is impossible for the users of the result to know what confidence can be placed in it and it is also impossible to assess the comparability of different measurements of the same parameter. However, problems arise with the use of such terminology as error, accuracy, inaccuracy and uncertainty that has everyday connotations as well as formal definitions for use in metrology. The paper gives a resume of the reasons why it is important to evaluate and report the uncertainty on a result in a consistent manner. A description is given of the concept of uncertainty, which highlights the difference between it and error, accuracy or inaccuracy. This is followed by a discussion of the recommendations made by the "ISO – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" for the evaluation and reporting of uncertainty. The methodology for evaluating uncertainty is described and the advantages of using suitable reference materials are discussed. Finally, the benefits to both the analytical laboratory and the user of the results from the evaluation and reporting of uncertainty are considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Traceability ; Mole ; Definition ; Measurements ; Chemical metrology ; Calibration ; Validation ; Reference materials
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  By the definition of the mole as a base unit for amount-of-substance measures within the International System of Units (SI), chemists can make chemical measurements in full compliance with established metrological principles. Since the mole requires exact knowledge of the chemical entity, which is often neither available nor of practical relevance to the purpose of the measurement, the SI units of mass or length (for volume) are unavoidable in the expression of results of many chemical measurements. Science, technology, and trade depend upon a huge and ever increasing number and variety of chemical determinations to quantify material composition and quality. Thus, international harmonization in the assessments of processes, procedures, and results is highly desirable and clearly cost effective. The authors, with relevant experience and responsibilities in Europe and America, have found some consensus in the interpretation of the metrological principles for chemical measurements, but believe open discussion should precede wide implementation by chemical communities. In fostering this dialogue, this paper shows, for instance, that more precise interpretation of the definitions for "traceability," "calibration," and "validation" is needed for present-day chemical measurements. Problems that face scientists in making measurements do not all vanish just by adherence to the SI. However, such compliance can improve communication among chemists and metrologists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Quality assurance ; Instrumentation ; Installation qualification ; Acceptance testing ; Validation ; Software ; Performance control ; Performance verification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  The quality process for commercial analytical equipment starts with the selection of the vendor. It is recommended that vendors be selected who are recognized as having quality processes in place for instrument design, development, manufacturing, testing, service, and support, for example, ISO 9001 registration. When the instrument arrives in the laboratory, the installation process should follow well-documented procedures. This includes a visual inspection that the instrument is not damaged and checking that the instrument, documentation and accessories such as cables and tubings are complete. Before the instrument is used it should be verified that it meets functional and performance specification. During operation the instruments should be periodically inspected and tested, verified to meet performance, and calibrated. The instrument should be labeled with the calibration status, indicating the dates of the last successful and the next performance verification and calibration. Defective instruments should be removed from the testing area or should at least be labeled as being "out of order."
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Proficiency ; testing ; Fit for purpose ; Internal quality control ; Harmonised international protocol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  This paper covers the role of proficiency testing schemes in providing an occasional but objective means of assessing and documenting the reliability of the data produced by a laboratory, and in encouraging the production of data that are "fit-for-purpose". A number of aspects of proficiency testing are examined in order to highlight features critical for their successful implementation. Aspects that are considered are: accreditation, the economics and scope of proficiency testing schemes, methods of scoring, assigned values, the target value of standard deviation σp, the homogeneity of the distributed material, proficiency testing in relation to other quality assurance measures and whether proficiency testing is effective. Stress is placed on the importance of any proficiency testing scheme adhering to a protocol that is recognised, preferably internationally. It is also important that the results from the scheme are transparent to both participating laboratory and its "customer".
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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