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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0039-3169
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1626
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 2
    Journal cover
    Unknown
    Birkhäuser bei Springer LINK
    Online: 1.1939 –
    Print: 57.1964 – 164.2007 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 60/6 - 61/4)
    Formerly as: Geofisica Pura e Applicata  (1939–1963)
    Publisher: Birkhäuser bei Springer LINK
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: PAGEOPH
    Abbreviation: Pure Appl Geophys
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-09-19
    Description:    We investigated the development of a distinct later phase observed at stations near the Japan Trench associated with shallow, outer-rise earthquakes off the coast of Sanriku, northern Japan based on the analysis of three-component broadband seismograms and FDM simulations of seismic wave propagation using a heterogeneous structural model of the Japan Trench subduction zone. Snapshots of seismic wave propagation obtained through these simulations clearly demonstrate the complicated seismic wavefield constructed by a coupling of the ocean acoustic waves and the Rayleigh waves propagating within seawater and below the sea bottom by multiple reflections associated with shallow subduction zone earthquakes. We demonstrated that the conversion to the Rayleigh wave from the coupled ocean acoustic waves and the Rayleigh wave as they propagate upward along the slope of seafloor near the coast is the primary cause of the arrival of the distinct later phase at the station near the coast. Through a sequence of simulations using different structural models of the Japan Trench subduction zone, we determined that the thick layer of seawater along the trench and the suddenly rising sea bottom onshore of the Japanese island are the major causes of the distinct later phase. The results of the present study indicate that for realistic modeling of seismic wave propagation from the subduction zone earthquakes, a high-resolution bathymetry model is very crucial, although most current simulations do not include a water column in their simulation models. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0412-1 Authors Shinako Noguchi, Center for Integrated Disaster Information Research, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Japan Takuto Maeda, Center for Integrated Disaster Information Research, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Japan Takashi Furumura, Center for Integrated Disaster Information Research, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Japan Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-04-02
    Description:    High-resolution three-dimensional V P and V P / V S images in the Longtan reservoir area were obtained from local earthquake data by using 3,178 events with total 24,153 P-wave and 23,987 S-wave arrivals collected from 23 seismic stations. The tomographic images show that significant V P heterogeneities can be seen at layers of different depth in the Longtan reservoir area. Low- V P anomalies both beneath and around the main rivers in the reservoir area may be related to the composition of rocks which are mainly deposit carbonate and arenaceous shale, which contributes to water saturation. We deduced that the high porosity rocks beneath the main rivers may be fully saturated with water. The phenomenon that V P is relatively high in the area which is 10–20 km away from the rivers indicates that horizontal saturation of water is limited within a small range of area that is about 10–20 km from the main rivers. The characteristic is significant that seismicity in the Longtan reservoir area is coincident with the distribution of the low- V P area. V P / V S tomographic images show that V P / V S ranges from 1.8 to 2.05 in shallow layers above 4 km depth beneath the Longtan reservoir, suggesting the properties of the rocks are limestone and shale. At the depth of 7 km, the distribution of V P / V S image varies quite remarkably, especially in the dam area. This demonstrates that the range of influence by the saturation of water in the media below the reservoir surface can reach 4–7 km depth in the dam area. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-17 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0300-8 Authors Lianqing Zhou, Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100081 China Cuiping Zhao, Institute of Earthquake Science, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100036 China Zhangli Chen, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100036 China Sihua Zheng, Institute of Earthquake Science, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100036 China Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-04-18
    Description:    Eighteen papers are included in Volume 1 of a PAGEOPH topical issue Tsunamis in the World Ocean: Past, Present, and Future. These papers are briefly introduced. They are grouped into three categories: case studies of earthquake-generated tsunamis; tsunami forecast and hazard assessments; and theoretical and computational modeling of tsunami generation, propagation, and coastal behavior. Most of the papers were presented at the 24th International Tsunami Symposium held 14–16 July 2009 in Novosibirsk, Russia, and reflect the current state of tsunami science. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-6 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0304-4 Authors Kenji Satake, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan Alexander Rabinovich, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada Utku Kânoğlu, Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey Stefano Tinti, Department of Physics, Sector of Geophysics, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-05-22
    Description:    This study examines distinctive features of ground motion parameters in northern Algeria. An initial computation of seismic hazard in terms of horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at different periods, damped at 5%, is carried out for three different types of soils (rock, stiff soils and soft soils) for return periods of 100 and 475 years. In addition, uniform hazard spectra (UHS) are computed for these two return periods at several locations in the region. Then, the UHS computed for different soil types are proposed as a starting point to define elastic design spectra for building-code purposes. We have used the well-known Newmark-Hall approach. As proposed in the most recent International Building Codes, the SA (0.2 s) value is used to establish the spectral region for lower periods (region controlled by acceleration), whereas the SA (1.0 s) value is used to establish the spectral region for intermediate periods (region controlled by velocity). We also obtained important relations, dependent on site condition, between SA (0.2 s), SA (1.0 s) or SA max values, and the PGA, for both return periods of 100 and 475 years. Other relationships between PGA or SA max values have also been derived for return periods of 100 and 475 years, in this case independent of site condition. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-13 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0333-z Authors M. Hamdache, Départment d’Études et Surveillance Sismique, Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et de Géophysique, B.P. 63, Bouzaréah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria J. A. Peláez, Department of Physics, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain A. Talbi, Départment d’Études et Surveillance Sismique, Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et de Géophysique, B.P. 63, Bouzaréah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria M. Mobarki, Départment d’Études et Surveillance Sismique, Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et de Géophysique, B.P. 63, Bouzaréah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria C. López Casado, Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-05-22
    Description:    The Algarve province is located a few hundred kilometres north of the crossing of the E–W Eurasia–Africa plate boundary in an area of diffuse seismicity and broad deformation. It is characterised by a moderate seismicity, with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing loss of lives and significant material damages. The area is affected not only by plate boundary earthquakes but also by moderate to large events generated by local sources. The assessment of onshore local sources is, therefore, of vital importance for an evaluation of the regional seismic hazard. This paper discusses the application of geophysical data to the study of the Carcavai fault zone, an outcropping structure more than 20 km long which is seen to deform sediments of the Plio-Quaternary age. The location of some sectors of the fault zone, as well as the vertical offsets of the structure, are still to be confirmed. In order to estimate these and to study the geometry of the fault zone at depth, geophysical data were acquired together with new geological data. Where the location of the fault was less certain, EM and seismic reflection profiles with coarse spatial sampling were carried out. After the detailed location of the fault zone, seismic reflection profiles with a more dense spatial resolution were acquired. The integrated interpretation of the geological and geophysical data confirmed the presence of a large fault zone. The total fault length is still unknown as its extension offshore is still being studied. Together with estimated values of the throw obtained, this data set has improved understanding the seismic hazard in the area by providing more refined estimates of co-seismic rupture, maximum expected earthquake and return periods. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-18 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0318-y Authors J. Carvalho, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Alfragide, Portugal E. Ramalho, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Alfragide, Portugal R. Dias, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Alfragide, Portugal C. Pinto, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Alfragide, Portugal R. Ressurreição, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Alfragide, Portugal Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-01-17
    Description:    Records of the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake (July, 16, 2007, M w  = 6.6, depth ~17 km) and its aftershocks from seismic vertical arrays deployed at the territory of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant (~15 km from the fault) are used to study the soil behavior down to ~250 m during strong ground motion. Nonlinear models of soil behavior during the main shock and six aftershocks are constructed, and stresses and strains induced by the strong motion in the soil layers at various depths are estimated. The data are processed using the method developed by P avlenko and I rikura (Bull Seismol Soc Am 96(6): 2131–2145, 2003 ) and previously applied for studying the soil behavior in near-fault zones during the 1995 Kobe and 2000 Tottori earthquakes. A rather good agreement between the recorded and simulated acceleration time histories testifies to the validity of the obtained vertical distributions of stresses and strains in soil layers. In the upper, softer layers (~45 m) at the territory of the plant, the shear moduli were reduced by ~30–35% during the main shock and by ~1.5–3% during the aftershocks. The constructed models of soil behavior can be used in scenario earthquake shaking maps of Japan where, based on source modeling parameters, the level of strong motion can be evaluated for the territory of the power plant in future earthquakes with various magnitudes and fault planes. Using methods of stochastic finite-fault modeling of ground motions from the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, we estimated input motion to the soil layers during the main shock and found that it differs from the imposed motion (recorded by the deepest sensor of the vertical array) by slightly decreased (by a factor of ~1.2) low-frequency ( f  〈 10 Hz) spectral components. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-24 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0447-3 Authors O. V. Pavlenko, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Gruzinskaya 10, Moscow, 123995 Russia K. Irikura, Earthquake Motion Research Institute, 4-3-2 Itachibori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0012, Japan Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-02-04
    Description:    Fractures are deformations in rocks with discontinuity. They are important in a number of ways. Their presence significantly influences the strength and engineering properties as well as the hydraulic characteristics of rocks. Fractures may extend to the surface where they are observed and studied at outcrops. On the other hand, they may terminate in the subsurface or may be covered by overburden which makes them impossible to be studied and characterized at the ground surface. There has been an increasing interest in the location and characterization of fractures by earth scientists, engineers and other scientists, both at the surface and the subsurface. However, the unavailability or inaccessibility of good outcrops makes it imperative to develop methods and tools for studying fractures in the subsurface. Geophysical methods such as the resistivity methods have been very useful in this regard. The Azimuthal Square Array Resistivity Survey was used in this project to locate and characterize subsurface fractures in the crystalline rocks at Igarra. Results from the analysis and interpretation of the field data showed that the dominant fracture strike orientation is in the NNW–SSE direction. This compares well with the results of surface geologic mapping data which gave the general fracture strike orientation as N–S; however, the major large and extensive fractures are striking NNW–SSE. This information is very useful in modeling groundwater flow and contaminant transport; planning proper waste management programs as well as the Environmental Impact Assessment analysis for the study area. This study once more illustrates the satisfactory use of non-invasive geophysical methods in characterizing fractures in the subsurface especially where quality outcrops are not available or inaccessible. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-10 DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0443-7 Authors I. I. Obiadi, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria A. G. Onwuemesi, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria O. L. Anike, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria N. E. Ajaegwu, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria E. K. Anakwuba, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria C. M. Nwosu, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria E. O. Akpunonu, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria E. N. Onuigbo, Geological Sciences Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria O. L. Onuba, Geology Department, Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2012-02-11
    Description:    In this paper, the extent to which some improvement can be made in seismicity-based earthquake forecasting methods are examined. Two methods that employ the statistics and locations for past smaller earthquakes to determine the location of future large earthquakes, the pattern informatics (PI) index and the Benioff relative intensity (RI), are employed for both global and regional forecasting. Two approaches for forecast parameter estimation, the TM metric and threshold optimization, are applied to these methods and the results evaluated. Application of the TM metric allows for estimation of both the training and forecast time intervals as well as the minimum magnitude cutoff and spatial discretization. The threshold optimization scheme is employed in order to formulate a binary forecast that maximizes the Pierce’s skill score. The combined application of these techniques is successful in forecasting those large events that occurred in Haiti, Chile, and California in 2010, on both global and regional scales. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-16 DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0457-9 Authors Kristy F. Tiampo, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Robert Shcherbakov, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics Online ISSN 1420-9136 Print ISSN 0033-4553
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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