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  • 101
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: Efficient Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) surveys involve elaborate prior adjustments and operation planning processes based on a consideration of various relevant conditions. We attempted to visualize the distribution and its seasonal variation of the ALB measurable areas around Japan using a remotely sensed dataset of diffused attenuation coefficients, which represents the optical characteristics of the seawater, to help reduce the burden of the operation planning. The results showed that the maximum measurable depth at a certain spot seasonally varies and, subsequently, the distribution of the measurable areas varies as well. The estimated maximum penetration depths have proved to make a useful index for operation planning, while its future verification is required.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution , Refereed
    Format: pp.29-39
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  • 102
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: When thinking about general use in waters, depth information is one of the necessar y pieces of information. By using a Web-GIS system such as the Maritime-domain-awareness (MDA) situational indication linkages, UMISHIRU, this can be effectively achieved. Unfortunately, the UMISHIRU does not itself have the depth information in. In this paper, we describe how to compile the depth data of the J-EGG500 and ETOPO1 and present the depth information in the UMISHIRU for the beginning UMISHIRU user.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution , Refereed
    Format: pp.120-133
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  • 103
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: In recent years, with the spread and improvement in the accuracy of kinematic GNSS positioning, ellipsoidally referenced surveys (ERS) have become practically possible, which in principle do not require tide observations during the bathymetric surveys. In this paper, as the first step of a trial to establish the standard operating procedures for ERS in Japan, we presented the practical operating procedures of bathymetric data processing in ERS and vertical datum model estimation, by using the existing bathymetric data in Tokyo Bay. In this case, the validity of the ERS operating procedures was verified by comparing the depths in the ERS procedures with those in the conventional procedures with tidal reduction.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution , Refereed
    Format: pp.16-28
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  • 104
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: The Maritime-domain-awareness (MDA) Situational Indication Linkages, UMISHIRU, operated by the Japan Coast Guard, is a Web-GIS (Geographic Information System) featuring more than 200 items of marine information. Since being upgraded from the former Japan Marine Cadastre in 2019, UMISHIRU has covered global-scale information items, but it can overlay the parallels and meridians to a limited extent on the map. This paper describes a method for beginners to draw parallels and meridians beyond the limited range, and likewise to draw other geographic lines.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution , Refereed
    Format: pp.134-141
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  • 105
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: IHO S-63“IHO Data Protection Scheme” is the standard for protecting S-57 ENCs from piracy and unauthorized use. It has been used worldwide. Part 15 of the IHO S-100“Universal Hydrographic Data Model” is the upgraded version of S-63 and will be used for S-100 products, not only for ENCs, in the near future. This article gives comparisons between them and offers some considerations.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution , Refereed
    Format: pp.142-149
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  • 106
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    Geological Survey of Canada
    In:  EPIC3ICAM-9 International Conference on Arctic Margins, Ottawa, Canada, 2022-06-12-2022-06-15Ottawa, Canada, Geological Survey of Canada
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: We present a regional seismic data set across the southeastern Lomonosov Ridge (LR) serving as pre-site survey for the upcoming drilling project IODP-377 (ArcOP). The overall goal of this drilling campaign is to recover a com¬plete stratigraphic sedimentary record of the southern ridge to meet the highest priority paleoceanographic objective, the continuous long-term Cenozoic climate history of the central Arctic Ocean. The seismic surveys provide basic information for the drilling, as the identification of undisturbed strata, location of slumps or hiatuses, depth-calculations of target reflectors, age estimations, and suggestions on the type of sedimentary rocks inferred from interval velocities of seismic units. On the LR the seismic lines confirm the presence of 1600 m thick, undisturbed, parallel sedimentary layers. 10 drilling locations can be proposed to recover the entire Miocene sedimentary sequence or even down to sediments of Lower Eocene age at about 900 mbsf. A prominent high-amplitude-reflector sequence (HARS) within the strata can be used to directly correlate to previous seismostratigraphic models for the eastern Arctic Ocean. Four major seismic units were identified which provide constraints on the coupled evolution of tectonic processes, palaeoceanography, and glaciation history of the Arctic Ocean. First, Mesozoic strata on the LR, its faulted flanks and the initial Amundsen Basin were covered with syn-rift sediments of Paleocene to early Eocene age. Numerous vertical faults indicate differential compaction of possibly anoxic sediments deposited in the young, still isolated Eurasian Basin. The second stage, as indicated by a prominent high-amplitude-reflector sequence covering the ridge, was a time of widespread changes in deposition conditions, likely controlled by the ongoing subsidence of the LR and gradual opening of the Fram Strait. Episodic incursions of water masses from the North Atlantic probably were the consequences and led to the deposition of thin sedimentary layers of different lithology. The third stage is marked by continuous deposition since the early Miocene. At that time, the ridge no longer posed an obstacle between the Amerasia and Eurasia Basins and pelagic sedimentation was established. Drift bodies, sediment waves, and erosional structures indicate the onset of circulation. Lastly, a sequence of high-amplitude reflectors marks the transition to the early Pliocene large-scale Northern Hemisphere glaciations. In a future step, the link of drilling data to the seismic net via synthetic seismograms shall enable a spatial extrapolation of findings, and serve to improve the seismostratigraphic models.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 107
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    In:  EPIC3DGP-28, International Polar Conference, 2022-05-01-2022-05-05Potsdam
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: The Lomonosov Ridge and Fram Strait represent prominent morphologic features in the Arctic Ocean. Their tectonic evolution control ocean circulation, sedimentation environment, glacial processes and ecosystem through time. The poster presents an overview on a set of seismic surveys across the Lomonosov Ridge, and into the adjacent Amundsen and Makarov/Podvodnikov Basins. The data image up to 2300 m thick sedimentary sequences that provide constraints on the Paleoceanography of the Arctic Ocean. Prominent reflectors, reflector configuration, as well as the reflection pattern of seismic units were correlated with coring information and magnetic anomalies to establish a seismostratigraphic model. In the early Cenozoic the LR still was above or close to sea level and experienced erosion of its Mesozoic core strata. Its crest, faulted flanks and the initial Amundsen Basin were covered with syn-rift sediments of Paleocene to early Eocene age likely eroded off the Barents-Kara and Laptev Sea shelves. The connection to North Atlantic waters via the Fram Strait was not yet established, and anoxic conditions prevailed in the young, still isolated Eurasian Basin. Also, the LR was above or close to sea level and posed an obstacle for water exchange between the Eurasian and Amerasian basins. The time between early Eocene and late Oligocene, as indicated by a regional and prominent high-amplitude-reflector sequence (HARS) was an era of widespread changes in depositional conditions, likely controlled by the ongoing subsidence of the LR and gradual opening of the Fram Strait. Episodic incursions of water masses from the North Atlantic and erosion of the ridge’s crest probably were the consequences, and led to the deposition of sediments of strongly different lithology. The seismic units above the HARS show reflection characteristics and thicknesses similar all over the southeastern Arctic Ocean indicating that basin-wide pelagic sedimentation prevailed at least since late Oligocene. Drift bodies, sediment waves, and erosional structures indicate the onset of a modern ocean circulation system and paleo-bottom current activity in the early Miocene in the Arctic Ocean. At that time, the LR no longer posed an obstacle between the Amerasia and Eurasia Basins. Finally, a drape of high-amplitude reflectors is associated with the onset of glacio-marine deposition since the Pliocene.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 108
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: Future sea-level predictions require that the history and physical state of the Antarctic ice sheet is well understood and constrained by observations. Much of the ice sheets’ ice-dynamic properties are governed by processes at the ice-bed interface which can be imaged with radar sounding surveys. Moreover, certain processes at the ice-sheet base can have an effect all the way to the ice surface, which in turn can be observed with satellites. Here we use a combination of ultra-wideband radio-echo sounding data, satellite radar and laser altimetry data to characterize the evolution of the subglacial morphology of the Jutulstraumen drainage basin (western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). Based on the classification of the bed topography, we reconstruct the step-by-step modifications the subglacial landscape has experienced since the beginning of the glaciation of Antarctica, 34 million years ago. In addition, between 2017 and 2020, we find evidence of active episodic cascade-like subglacial water transport along the subglacial valley network. The combination of these observations will represent an important step towards a better understanding of large-scale ice-sheet dynamics in western Dronning Maud Land.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 109
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: Phytoplankton in the sunlit layer of the ocean act as the base of the marine food web fueling fisheries, and also regulate key biogeochemical processes. Phytoplankton composition structure varies in ocean biomes and different phytoplankton groups drive differently the marine ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Because of this, variations in phytoplankton composition influence the entire ocean environment, specifically the ocean energy transfer and the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. As one of the algorithms deriving phytoplankton composition from space borne data, within the framework of the EU Copernicus Marine Service (CMEMS), EOF-PFT algorithm was developed using multi-spectral satellite data collocated to an extensive in-situ PFT data set based on HPLC pigments and sea surface temperature data (Xi et al. 2020, 2021; https://marine.copernicus.eu/). By using multi-sensor merged products and Sentinel-3 OLCI data, the algorithm provides global chlorophyll a data with per-pixel uncertainty for diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and prokaryotic phytoplankton spanning the period from 2002 until today. Due to different lifespans and radiometric characteristics of the ocean color sensors, the consistency of the PFTs is evaluated to provide quality-assured data for a consistent long-term monitoring of the phytoplankton community structure. As current commonly used phytoplankton carbon estimation methods rely mostly on the backscattering property of phytoplankton, which could vary dramatically for different phytoplankton taxa, as a perspective of this study, phytoplankton carbon may be better estimated in a way that accounts for phytoplankton taxonomy.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 110
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: Phytoplankton in the sunlit layer of the ocean act as the base of the marine food web fueling fisheries, and also regulate key biogeochemical processes such as exporting carbon to the deep ocean. Phytoplankton composition structure varies in ocean biomes and different phytoplankton groups drive differently the marine ecosystem. As one of the algorithms deriving phytoplankton composition from space borne data, within the framework of the EU Copernicus Marine Service (CMEMS), OLCI-PFT algorithm was developed using multi-spectral satellite data collocated to an extensive in-situ PFT data set based on HPLC pigments and sea surface temperature data (Xi et al. 2020, 2021). It provides global PFT retrievals including chlorophyll a estimations of diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and prokaryotic phytoplankton spanning the period from 2002 until today, by using multi-sensor merged products and OLCI data. These PFT products with per-pixel uncertainty are publicly available on the CMEMS. Due to different lifespans and radiometric characteristics of the ocean color sensors, it is crucial to evaluate the CMEMS PFT products to provide quality-assured data for a consistent long-term monitoring of the phytoplankton community structure. In this study, using in-situ phytoplankton data (HPLC pigment data further evaluated with microscopic, flow cytometry, molecular and hyperspectral optical data) collected from expeditions since 2009 in the tropical, temperate and polar (mainly Fram Strait within the PEBCAO network) regions, we aim to 1) validate the CMEMS PFT products and investigate the continuity of the PFTs data derived from different satellites, and 2) deliver two-decade consistent PFT products for times series analysis. For the latter we determine inter-annual trends and variation of the surface phytoplankton community structure targeting some key sub-regions (e.g.,east Fram Strait) that have been observed being influenced by the changing marine environment.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 111
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    In:  Hermann Löscher Das Erzgebirgische Bergrecht des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts Urkundenbuch 1
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: Entwurf der Bergordnung für den Schneeberg von Kurfürst Ernst und Herzog Albrecht von Sachsen vom 12. Mai 1477. In 9 Artikeln wird versucht die zu diesem Zeitpunkt chaotischen Zustände auf dem Schneeberg zu regeln. Der Schneeberg wird in Viertel aufgeteilt. In den 10 Paragraphen des Anhangs werden die Viertelmeister genannt und die Eide der Viertelmeister, Schichtmeister, Hutleute und Steiger aufgeführt, sowie die 22 Schichtmeister namentlich verzeichnet.
    Description: source
    Keywords: ddc:343.077 ; ddc:622
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book , updatedVersion
    Format: 9
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  • 112
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: The Miocene period saw substantially warmer Earth surface temperatures than today, particularly during a period of global warming called the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; ∼17–15 Ma). However, the long‐term drivers of Miocene climate remain poorly understood. By using a new continuous climate‐biogeochemical model (SCION), we can investigate the interaction between volcanism, climate and biogeochemical cycles through the Miocene. We identify high tectonic CO2 degassing rates and further emissions associated with the emplacement of the Columbia River Basalt Group as the primary driver of the background warmth and the MMCO respectively. We also find that enhanced weathering of the basaltic terrane and input of explosive volcanic ash to the oceans are not sufficient to drive the immediate cooling following the MMCO and suggest that another mechanism, perhaps the change in ocean chemistry due to massive evaporite deposition, was responsible.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: The Miocene period was much warmer than today, with the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO, roughly 17–15 million years ago) especially warm. Due to the high surface temperatures, comparisons to projected climatic conditions as a result of anthropogenic climate change have been drawn. However, the drivers of climate during the Miocene are not well understood. By using a new type of climate model, we investigate the impact volcanic eruptions had on the period, and link the extreme warmth of the MMCO with greenhouse gas release from the eruption of the Columbia River Basalts Group (CRBG). We find weathering of the CRBG does not explain the cooling at the end of the MMCO, and so discuss other potential explanations such as evaporite deposition.
    Description: Key Points: A new climate‐biogeochemical model allows investigation of drivers of climate change in the Miocene. Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) degassing is sufficient to have caused the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO). Weathering of CRBG insufficient to drive cooling after the MMCO. This may be linked to evaporite deposition and changes to marine chemistry.
    Description: UK Natural Environment Research Council
    Description: French Research Agency (ANR)
    Keywords: ddc:551
    Language: English
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  • 113
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: Entwurf der Bergordnung für den Schneeberg von Kurfürst Friedrich und den Herzögen Johann und Georg von Sachsen um 1490. Mit den in 9 Paragraphen gefassten Regelungen wird versucht den Bergbau auf den Schneeberg mit Subventionen, Erlass oder Senkung des Zehnten, Erstattung der Hüttenkost und Prämierung des Auffindens neuer Silbererzgänge, den Bergbau neuen Schwung zu verleihen. Diese von den Räten aufgesetzte Bergordnung wurde aber von den Landesherren abgelehnt. Auch ohne die Zustimmung der Landesherren wurde die Ordnung von den Räten in Kraft gesetzt.
    Description: source
    Keywords: ddc:343.077 ; ddc:622
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book , updatedVersion
    Format: 6
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  • 114
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: Due to the still enormous burden of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the subsurface worldwide, the safe recovery of a wide variety of buried weapons and ammunition requires efficient and reliable detection methods. Using a deep learning approach applied to magnetic field data distributed areal along the surface, we aim to achieve a more accurate localization of UXO and small magnetically effective objects in general by detecting the specific signature of their magnetic anomaly. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we developed a deep convolutional neural network that performs image segmentation in different potential measurement scenarios. In this process, the sought small-scale target signals should be distinguished from different background fields containing, e.g., several types of noise. For this purpose, extensive synthetic data sets were generated first using numerical simulations of the magnetic dipole fields of multiple objects. The resulting multi-dipole scenarios and corresponding masks are then passed to the network, which is trained on a test and validation set to produce a representative model for the trained simulation examples. At the end of the training process, this model is supposed to be able to predict yet unknown examples from an evaluation set. Subsequently, the prediction quality of the resulting model needs to be analyzed to fine-tune the parameters of the assumed network architecture or even the architecture itself. The poster we present deals with the generation and preprocessing of appropriate training data, the applied network architecture, and preliminary results of the first evaluation stages.
    Description: poster
    Language: English
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  • 115
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: Plate divergence along mid‐ocean ridges is accommodated through faulting and magmatic accretion, and, at overlapping spreading centers (OSC), is distributed across two curvilinear overlapping ridge axes. One‐meter resolution bathymetry acquired by autonomous underwater vehicles, combined with distribution and ages of lava flows, is used to: (a) analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of flows, faults, and fissures in the OSC between the distal south rift zone of Axial Seamount and the Vance Segment, (b) locate spreading axes, (c) calculate extension, and (d) determine the proportion of extension accommodated at the surface by faults and fissures versus volcanic extrusion over a period of ∼1300–1450 years. Our study reveals that in the recent history of the ridges, extension over a distance of 14 km across the Axial/Vance OSC was asymmetric in proportion and style: faults and fissures across 1–2 km of the Vance axial valley accommodated ∼3/4 of the spreading, whereas dike‐fed eruptions contributed ∼1/4 of the extension and occurred across 4 km of the south rift of Axial Seamount.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Along mid‐ocean ridges, oceanic plates separate through the formation and growth of faults and the emplacement of dikes supplying lava flows. Where segments overlap in a zone of separation, these processes are distributed along two spreading axes separated by 2–30 km kilometers. We combine 1‐m resolution bathymetry collected by autonomous underwater vehicles and the age of large lava flows to (a) analyze the distribution of faults and lava flows where Axial Seamount overlaps with the Vance Segment, (b) define the current plate boundary, (c) calculate the speed of plate separation, and (d) determine the proportion and locations of fault extension versus flow emplacement. Our study shows that during the last ∼1300–1450 years, fault formation and growth along the Vance Segment are the main contributor to plate separation. In contrast, the emplacement of dikes and lava flows along Axial Seamount account only for ∼1/4 of the plate separation.
    Description: Key Points: Autonomous underwater vehicle mapping of an overlapping spreading center reveals the proportion of faulting and eruptions that occurred during the last ∼1300–1450 years. Faulting at the Vance Segment accommodates ∼3/4 of the spreading and magmatic accretion along Axial Seamount south rift accounts for ∼1/4. The spreading axis is 〈250 m wide along the Vance Segment but ∼4 km wide along the south rift of Axial Seamount.
    Description: David and Lucile Packard Foundation (PF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000008
    Keywords: ddc:551.8 ; ddc:551.13
    Language: English
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  • 116
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: Rock glaciers are receiving increased attention as a potential source of water and indicator of climate change in periglacial landscapes. They consist of an ice‐debris mixture, which creeps downslope. Although rock glaciers are a wide‐spread feature on the Tibetan Plateau, characteristics such as its ice fraction are unknown as a superficial debris layer inhibits remote assessments. We investigate one rock glacier in the semiarid western Nyainqêntanglha range (WNR) with a multi‐method approach, which combines geophysical, geological and geomorphological field investigations with remote sensing techniques. Long‐term kinematics of the rock glacier are detected by 4‐year InSAR time series analysis. The ice content and the active layer are examined by electrical resistivity tomography, ground penetrating radar, and environmental seismology. Short‐term activity (11‐days) is captured by a seismic network. Clast analysis shows a sorting of the rock glacier's debris. The rock glacier has three zones, which are defined by the following characteristics: (a) Two predominant lithology types are preserved separately in the superficial debris patterns, (b) heterogeneous kinematics and seismic activity, and (c) distinct ice fractions. Conceptually, the studied rock glacier is discussed as an endmember of the glacier—debris‐covered glacier—rock glacier continuum. This, in turn, can be linked to its location on the semiarid lee‐side of the mountain range against the Indian summer monsoon. Geologically preconditioned and glacially overprinted, the studied rock glacier is suggested to be a recurring example for similar rock glaciers in the WNR. This study highlights how geology, topography and climate influence rock glacier characteristics and development.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Climate change has begun to impact all regions of our planet. In cold regions, such as high‐mountain areas, rising temperatures lead to massive melting of glaciers. Besides this evident loss of ice, permafrost, a long‐term ice resource hidden in the subsurface, has started to thaw. Rock glaciers as visible permafrost‐related landforms consist of an ice‐debris mixture, which makes them creep downslope. Due to this movement and their recognizable shape, rock glaciers are permafrost indicators in high‐mountain areas. We investigate one rock glacier in the western Nyaingêntanglha Range (Tibetan Plateau) using field and remote sensing methods to understand its development and to know the current state of its ice core. Our main outcome is, that the heterogeneous creeping behavior, the properties of the debris cover as well as the internal distribution of ice are the results of a continuous development from a glacier into today's rock glacier. In particular, the high ice content in particular sections points to such a glacial precondition. The debris layer covering the internal ice attenuates the effect of climate warming. This makes the rock glacier and similar rock glaciers found in the northern part of the mountain range important future water resources for the semiarid region.
    Description: Key Points: Geophysical and remote sensing methods in concert reveal the morphostructure, ice fraction, and kinematics of the studied rock glacier. Rock glacier characteristics are controlled by geology, topography and climate on the Tibetan Plateau. The studied rock glacier is conceptually interpreted as the endmember of a glacier—debris‐covered glacier—rock glacier continuum.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: ddc:551.31 ; ddc:555
    Language: English
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  • 117
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: Cenozoic climate changes have been linked to tectonic activity and variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we present Miocene and Pliocene sensitivity experiments performed with the climate model COSMOS. The experiments contain changes with respect to paleogeography, ocean gateway configuration, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as well as a range of vertical mixing coefficients in the ocean. For the mid‐Miocene, we show that the impact of ocean mixing on surface temperature is comparable to the effect of the possible range in reconstructed CO2 concentrations. In combination with stronger vertical mixing, relatively moderate CO2 concentrations of 450 ppmv enable global‐mean surface, deep‐water, and meridional temperature characteristics representative of mid‐Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) reconstructions. The Miocene climate shows a reduced meridional temperature gradient and reduced seasonality. In the case of enhanced mixing, surface and deep ocean temperatures show significant warming of up to 5–10°C and an Arctic temperature anomaly of 〉12°C. In the Pliocene simulations, the impact of vertical mixing and CO2 is less important for the deep ocean, which we interpret as a different sensitivity dependence on the background state and mixed layer dynamics. We find a significant reduction in surface albedo and effective emissivity for either a high level of atmospheric CO2 or increased vertical mixing. Our mixing sensitivity experiments provide a warm deep ocean via ocean heat uptake. We propose that the mixing hypothesis can be tested by reconstructions of the thermocline and seasonal paleoclimate data indicating a lower seasonality relative to today.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Cenozoic climate changes have been associated with tectonic changes and altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we present Miocene and Pliocene computer simulations where we changed paleogeography, ocean gateways, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as vertical mixing in the ocean. We show that the effect of ocean mixing on temperature is comparable to the respective effect of a possible range of CO2 concentrations. In combination with stronger vertical mixing, relatively moderate CO2 concentrations of 450 ppmv allow surface and deep‐water temperatures representative for reconstructions of the climate optimum of the mid‐Miocene. In the Pliocene simulations, the influence of vertical mixing and CO2 is less important than in the Miocene. We provide a possible mechanism of ocean heat absorption, albedo, and emissivity changes including a deeper oceanic mixing layer and a lower seasonality in the Miocene compared to today.
    Description: Key Points: Miocene experiment with standard mixing and atmospheric CO2 of 600 ppm captures large‐scale temperature characteristics of the mid‐Miocene. With enhanced ocean mixing the temperature characteristics and meridional temperature gradient can be reproduced with a CO2 level of 450 ppm. Miocene shows a strong warming at polar latitudes and reduced seasonality, vertical mixing, and CO2 are less important for the Pliocene.
    Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003207
    Description: Helmholtz Association (亥姆霍兹联合会致力) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100009318
    Description: Helmholtz Climate Initiative RE‐KLIM
    Keywords: ddc:550.78
    Language: English
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  • 118
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , notRev
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  • 119
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Thesis , notRev
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  • 120
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    In:  EPIC3Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 289(1972), pp. 20212735, ISSN: 0962-8452
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Description: Phytoplankton employ a variety of defence mechanisms against predation, including production of toxins. Domoic acid (DA) production by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. is induced by the presence of predators and is considered to provide defence benefits, but the evidence is circumstantial. We exposed eight different strains of P. seriata to chemical cues from copepods and examined the costs and the benefits of toxin production. The magnitude of the induced toxin response was highly variable among strains, while the costs in terms of growth reduction per DA cell quota were similar and the trade-off thus consistent. We found two components of the defence in induced cells: (i) a ‘private good’ in terms of elevated rejection of captured cells and (ii) a ‘public good’ facilitated by a reduction in copepod feeding activity. Induced cells were more frequently rejected by copepods and rejections were directly correlated with DA cell quota and independent of access to other food items. By contrast, the public-good effect was diminished by the presence of alternative prey suggesting that it does not play a major role in bloom formation and that its evolution is closely associated with the grazing-deterrent private good.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 121
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Description: In waters off Península Valdés (PV), Argentina, southern right whales (SRW, Eubalaena australis) are occasionally exposed to domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Domoic acid toxicity in marine mammals can cause gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, alterations in hematologic and endocrine variables, and can be fatal in extreme cases. In this study, we validated an enzyme immunoassay to quantify fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm) in 16 SRW fecal samples from live and dead stranded whales in PV from 2013 to 2018 and assessed fGCm levels associated with DA exposure. Overall, fGCm levels were significantly lower in SRWs with detectable fecal DA (n = 3) as compared to SRWs with undetectable fecal DA levels (n = 13). The highest fecal DA was observed in a live lactating female, which had low fGCm compared to the other lactating females studied. The highest fGCm was observed in a lactating female with undetectable DA; interestingly, at the time of sample collection, this female was sighted with two calves, an extremely unusual occurrence in this species. Though the sample size of these exceptionally rare breeding-season fecal samples was unavoidably small, our study provides evidence of potential adrenal alterations in whales exposed to an environmental neurotoxin such as DA.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 122
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: "Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung" , notRev
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  • 123
    Publication Date: 2022-04-18
    Description: In March 2013, the Springtime Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE) was carried out in the Fram Strait region and over Svalbard to investigate atmospheric convection and boundary layer modifications due to interactions between sea ice, the atmosphere, and open water. A major goal was the observation of marine cold-air outbreaks (MCAOs), which are typically characterised by the transport of very cold air masses from the ice-covered ocean over a relatively warm water surface and which often affect local and regional weather conditions. During STABLE, MCAOs were observed on 4 d within a period displaying a strongly northward-shifted sea ice edge north of Svalbard and, thus, with an unusually large Whaler's Bay polynya. The observations mainly consisted of in situ measurements from airborne instruments and of measurements by dropsondes. Here, we present the corresponding data set from a total of 15 aircraft vertical profiles and 22 dropsonde releases. Besides an overview of the flight patterns and instrumentation, we provide a detailed presentation of the individual quality-processing mechanisms, which ensure that the data can be used, for example, for model validation. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the individual quality-processing mechanisms, and we briefly present the main characteristics of the MCAOs based on the quality-controlled data. All 37 data series are published on the World Data Center PANGAEA (Lüpkes et al., 2021a, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.936635).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 124
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Description: Die Nutzung landwirtschaftliche Nutzung der Hochmoore führt zu hohen Freisetzungsraten an Treibhausgasen. Gegenüber der Deutschen Hochmoorkultur (Grünland auf Hochmoor) lassen sich die Freisetzungsraten durch Tiefumbruch verringern. Ein Torfverlust von 1 cm entspricht bei den hier durchgeführten Berechnungen einer Freisetzung von ca. 25 t CO2/ha/a. Die geringsten Freisetzungsraten von 2,5 t CO2/ha/a werden bei als Grünland genutzten Sandmischkulturen, besandeten Hochmooren (ohne Einp ügen von Torfen) und bei Baggerkuhlungen erwartet. Die hohen Torfverluste in den ersten Jahren bei der Anlage einer Sandmischkultur lieÿen sich vermeiden, wenn anfangs nur geringere Torfanteile in die Krume gelangen (6-8%), wie bei der Tiefp ugsanddeckkultur, die bisher für Niedermoore getestet wurde. Durch Messungen der aktuellen Freisetzung von Treibhausgasen auf Tiefumbruch ächen sind diese Berechnungen zu überprüfen. Liegen Torfe im Unterboden ganzjährig im Wasser, dann sind Torfverluste auszuschlieÿen. Eine langfristige landwirtschaftliche Nutzung ist mit der Anlage von Tiefumbruchkulturen möglich. Ein vollständiger Erhalt der Torfe ist nur durch eine Wiedervernässung zu erzielen, entweder Nutzungsaufgabe und Herrichtung als Naturschutz äche oder Paludikultur, beide sicherlich nur auf geringeren Flächenanteilen.
    Description: report
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 125
    Publication Date: 2022-04-20
    Description: Kreislaufwirtschaft beschreibt ein Konzept, bei dem Abfall und Verschmutzung nicht per se im Wirtschaftsdesign vorausgesetzt werden. Sie greift damit die Ursachen der derzeit global dringlichsten Querschnittsthemen nachhaltiger Entwicklung mit dem Ziel auf, verantwortungsvoll mit Ressourcen, Wertstoffen, Produkten und der Umwelt umzugehen. Entstehen soll damit eine Welt, in der kein Müll produziert wird. Das Konzept verfolgt dabei einen multidimensionalen Ansatz und umfasst alle Wirtschaftsbereiche - von der Ressourcengewinnung über die Produktion, die Lagerung und den Konsum bis hin zur Entsorgung beziehungsweise zum Recycling. Mithilfe der Kreislaufwirtschaft können multiple Nachhaltigkeitsziele der Agenda 2030 schneller erreicht werden, weshalb sie als ein zentraler Baustein nachhaltiger Entwicklung gilt.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 126
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 127
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Description: Um einen angemessenen Beitrag zu einer Begrenzung des weltweiten Temperaturanstiegs auf 1,5 Grad Celsius zu leisten, müsste Deutschland und damit auch der Gebäudesektor schon bis 2035 treibhausgasneutral sein. Greenpeace hat daher das Wuppertal Institut beauftragt, ein Sechs-Punkte-Sofortprogramm für erneuerbare Wärme und effiziente Gebäude zu erarbeiten, mit dem dieses Ziel erreichbar wird. Das Sofortprogramm sieht vor, dass in drei zentralen Bereichen jeweils eine ordnungsrechtliche Maßnahme mit einer spezifischen, dazu passenden finanziellen Fördermaßnahme kombiniert wird: 1) Ausstiegsgesetz für fossile Heizungen und Förderung für elektrische Wärmepumpen und Solarthermie. 2) Pflicht und Förderung für die energetische Sanierung ineffizienter Gebäude mit ökologischen Kriterien. 3) Gesetz mit Zielen sowie förderlichen Bestimmungen und dazu passende Förderung für Erneuerbare-Wärmenetze: Ausbau und Umstieg auf grüne Wärmeerzeugung. So erhöht das Sofortprogramm die energetische Sanierungsrate auf drei bis vier Prozent pro Jahr und führt dazu, dass schon 2035 fast zwei Drittel der Gebäude mit Wärmepumpen und etwa ein Viertel mit Nah- und Fernwärme aus erneuerbaren Energien beheizt werden und ein Drittel zusätzlich mit thermischen Solaranlagen ausgestattet wird.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 128
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: contributiontoperiodical , doc-type:contributionToPeriodical
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  • 129
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: Der Diskurs um die Transformation des Energiesystems ist in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt über wissenschaftlich fundierte Szenarien geführt worden, die aus verschiedenen gesellschaftlichen Perspektiven in Auftrag gegeben wurden. Der Vergleich von vier im Jahr 2021 erschienenen Studien zeigt auf, wo weitgehende Einigkeit über die erforderlichen Strategien zur Erreichung der Klimaneutralität bis 2045 besteht, und wo die größten Differenzen liegen.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 130
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: The Glasgow climate conference marked a symbolic juncture, lying half-way between the adoption of the UNFCCC in 1992 and the year 2050 in which according to the IPCC special report on the 1.5°C limit net zero CO2 emissions need to be reached, globally, in order to maintain a good chance of achieving the 1.5°C limit. This article undertakes an assessment of what the UNFCCC and in particular the Paris Agreement and its implementation process have actually achieved so far up to and including the results of the Glasgow conference. The article discusses efforts at ambition raising both within and outside the formal diplomatic process, the finalization of the implementation rules of the Paris Agreement, as well as progress on gender responsiveness, climate finance, adaptation and loss and damage. In summary, the Paris Agreement and its implementation can be considered a success as it is having a discernible impact on the behavior of parties as well as on non-party actors. However, significant further efforts will be required to actually achieve the objectives of the Agreement.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 131
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: Deutschland soll bis 2045 klimaneutral werden. So steht es im verschärften Klimaschutzgesetz, das im Juni 2021 vom Bundestag verabschiedet wurde. Die deutsche Industrie verursacht derzeit knapp ein Viertel der Treibhausgasemissionen, etwa ein Drittel davon entfällt auf die Eisen- und Stahlproduktion. Um das Klimaziel zu erreichen, müssen somit große CO2-Einsparungen in der Stahlindustrie realisiert werden.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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  • 132
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Wuppertal : SCI4climate.NRW
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: Die vorliegende Darstellung vergleicht fünf ausgewählte aktuelle Klimaschutzszenarien für Deutschland in Hinblick auf zentrale Entwicklungen im Energiesystem bis Mitte des Jahrhunderts. Die fünf Szenarien sind zwischen April und Oktober 2021 erschienen und beschreiben unterschiedliche Pfade, wie Klimaneutralität in Deutschland bis zum Jahr 2045 bzw. 2050 erreicht werden könnte. Die Szenarien wurden von verschiedenen Organisationen in Auftrag gegeben und von unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen Instituten bzw. Beratungsunternehmen erarbeitet. Im vorliegenden Vergleich werden verschiedene Kenngrößen des Energiesystems auf Energieangebots- sowie Energienachfrageseite betrachtet. Die Gegenüberstellung der jeweiligen Entwicklungen in den Szenarien soll aufzeigen, in welchen Bereichen die Studien auf dem Weg zur Klimaneutralität ähnliche Entwicklungen vorsehen und in welchen Bereichen es derzeit noch deutlich abweichende Vorstellungen über die genaue Ausgestaltung der Energiesystemtransformation gibt.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 133
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: Der Kelpwald ist ein artenreiches und produktives Ökosystem, welches von der Öffentlichkeit wenig Aufmerksamkeit erhält. Deshalb wurde in der vorliegenden Bachelorarbeit das Ökosystem Kelpwald für den Biologieunterricht in der gymnasialen Oberstufe aufgearbeitet. Dazu wurde ein Versuch über die Fortpflanzung der großen Braunalgen im Rahmen einer forschend-experimentellen Lernumgebung entwickelt. Dabei ist die zentrale Problematik, der Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren auf die Fortpflanzung der großen Braunalgen (Kelps). Durch das selbstständige Forschen der Schülerinnen und Schüler sollen aktuelle Diskurse der Biologie und der Naturwissenschaften in den Unterricht integriert werden können und Themen einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung Raum finden. Für den Versuch wurden die Rahmenbedingungen entwickelt. Es bleibt abzuwarten, ob sich diese theoretischen Überlegungen in der Praxis bestätigen. Außerdem wurden verschiedene Unterrichtsstunden erarbeitet, die die Ökologie und die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung des Kelpwaldes thematisieren. Die ersten vier Unterrichtsstunden, die sich mit der Ökologie des Kelpwaldes auseinandersetzen, konnten mit einer Klasse durchgeführt werden, wodurch die Schülerinnen und Schüler ihr Wissen über Ökosysteme und Umweltfaktoren auf den Kelpwald anwenden konnten. Die Rückmeldung der Schülerinnen und Schüler zu dem Unterricht war positiv. Einige Schülerinnen und Schüler betonten, dass der Kelpwald für sie ein neues Ökosystem sei und bewerteten die Abwechslung als positiv. Das beiliegende Material bildet die Grundlage für Lehrkräfte, das Ökosystem Kelpwald anhand verschiedener Themen in ihren Unterricht zu integrieren, um so Wissen über die Meere zu vermitteln.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Thesis , notRev
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  • 134
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: Thermal characteristics of kelp species have been studied in many ways, but potentially persistent effects of temperature across generations are yet poorly understood. In this context, the effect of thermal priming on fertility and growth of the N-Atlantic kelp species Laminaria digitata was investigated within and across life cycle generations in a two-step common garden experiment. Using vegetative clonal gametophytes from cold (5°C) and warm (15°C) pre-experimental cultivation (3 years), we first quantified gametogenesis and recruitment over two weeks at a common temperature of 10°C. Then, recruited sporophytes were transferred to a temperature gradient spanning the tolerance range of the species from 0°C to 20°C. We hypothesized that a warm gametophyte preexperimental cultivation promotes performance of sporophytes at warm temperatures and vice versa. Interestingly, gametogenesis speed and sporophyte recruitment were higher in gametophytes following cold compared to warm pre-experimental cultivation, which indicates carry-over effects of temperature within the gametophyte generation. Compared to warm pre-experimental cultivation of gametophytes, a cold preexperimental cultivation enhanced growth of juvenile Laminaria digitata sporophytes by more than 69% at the extreme low and high temperatures of 0 and 20°C. This is the first evidence for a cross-generational effect between gametophyte parents and offspring sporophytes. As cold gametophyte cultivation increased the trait performance of gametogenesis, recruitment and thermal tolerance of juvenile sporophytes, priming of early life cycle stages may be used to increase resilience and productivity of kelps in marine forest restoration efforts and kelp mariculture.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 135
    Publication Date: 2022-03-30
    Description: Investigation of the vertical distribution of nutrients is an important component in studying the entire ecosystem of the Black Sea. Biogenic elements play a crucial role in the primary production in the sea coastal zone and are among the main indicators of the ecological state of marine waters. Any changes in nutrient regime are reflected in biological marine plankton communities. This work was aimed at the investigation of the seasonal vertical dynamics of biogenic elements in the northeastern part of the Black Sea near the city of Gelendzhik in 2019. To determine concentration of nutrients, the methods standard to the practice of marine hydrochemical studies have been used. As a result of this investigation, it has been found that nitrate and ammonium forms of nitrogen, and mineral phosphorus have well-defined concentration maxima that correspond to certain values of conditional density. There is one deep maximum in the vertical distribution of nitrates; on average, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen is 5.57 μmol/L. Vertical profile of phosphates has an upper maximum (average concentration of 1.39 μmol/L), a minimum (1.19 μmol/L) and a lower maximum (6.64 μmol/L) of concentrations. Seasonal changes in climatic conditions, coastal runoff and rate of phytoplankton consumption determine the dynamics of nutrient concentrations in the photic layer of marine waters.
    Description: Исследование вертикального распределения биогенных элементов является важной составляющей изучения всей экосистемы Черного моря. Биогенные элементы имеют большое значение для первичной продукции в прибрежной зоне моря и являются одним из главных показателей экологического состояния морских вод. Любые изменения режима биогенных элементов отражаются на биологических морских планктонных сообществах. Целью данной работы являлось исследование сезонной вертикальной динамики биогенных элементов в северо-восточной части Черного моря в районе г. Геленджик в 2019 г. Для определения концентрации биогенных веществ применялись методы, являющиеся стандартными в практике морских гидрохимических работ. В результате проведенного исследования было выявлено, что нитратная, аммонийная форма азота и минеральный фосфор имеют хорошо выраженные максимумы концентраций, которые соответствуют определенным значениям условной плотности. В вертикальном распределении нитратов имеется один глубинный максимум; концентрации нитратного азота в среднем составляют 5,57 мкмоль/л. Для вертикального профиля фосфатов характерен верхний максимум (средняя концентрация — 1,39 мкмоль/л), минимум (1,19 мкмоль/л) и нижний максимум концентраций (6,64 мкмоль/л). Сезонные изменения климатических условий, береговой сток и скорость потребления фитопланктоном обуславливают динамику концентраций биогенных веществ в фотическом слое морских вод.
    Description: Published
    Description: Refereed
    Keywords: Nitrate nitrogen ; Nitrite nitrogen ; Ammonium nitrogen ; Silicon ; Mineral phosphorus ; Plankton ; Aquatic communities ; Primary production ; НИС «Ашамба» ; R/V Ashamba ; Seasonal variations ; Сезонные изменения ; Вертикальное распределение ; Первичная продукция ; Водные сообщества ; Кремний ; Нитратный азот ; Нитритный азот ; ASFA_2015::B::Biogenic material ; ASFA_2015::V::Vertical distribution ; ASFA_2015::N::Nitrogen compounds
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.7-17
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  • 136
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2022-03-30
    Description: Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenose Dolphin) - MCZ 16475 - female - length unknown - Pelvic location - Harvard University
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 137
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2022-03-30
    Description: Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenose Dolphin) - UMA 4825 - male 2.75 m - Pelvic location - UMASS Amherst
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 138
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2022-03-30
    Description: Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenose Dolphin) - MCZ 7899 - male - length unknown - Pelvic location - Harvard University
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 139
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Description: Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWSs) represent a technical-scientific challenge aimed at improving the chance of the population exposed to the earthquake shaking of surviving or being less affected. The ability of an EEWS to affect the risk and, in particular, vulnerability and exposure, may determine serious legal responsibilities for people involved in the system, as scientists and experts. The main question concerns, in fact, the relationship between EEWSs and the predictability and avoidability of earthquake effects-i.e., the ground shaking affecting citizens and infrastructures - and the possibility for people to adopt self-protective behavior and/or for industrial infrastructures to be secured. In Italy, natural disasters, such as the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, teach us that the relationship between science and law is really difficult. So, before EEW’s become operational in Italy, it is necessary to: 1) examine the legislative and technical solutions adopted by some of the international legal systems in countries where this service is offered to citizens; 2) reconstruct the international and European regulatory framework that promotes the introduction of EW systems as life-saving tools for the protection of the right to life and understand whether and how these regulatory texts can impose an obligation on the Italian legal system to develop EEWS; 3) understand what responsibilities could be ascribed to the scientists and technicians responsible for managing EEWS in Italy, analyzing the different impact of vulnerability and exposure on the predictability and avoidability of the harmful event; 4) reflect on the lessons that our legal system will have to learn from other Countries when implementing EEW systems. In order to find appropriate solutions, it is essential to reflect on the opportunity to provide shared and well-structured protocols and creating detailed disclaimers clearly defining the limits of the service. A central role must be recognized to education, because people should not only expect to receive a correct alarm but must be able to understand the uncertainties involved in rapid estimates, be prepared to face the risk, and react in the right way.
    Description: This work has been carried out within the Project ART-IT (Allerta Rapida Terremoti in Italia), funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (Progetto Premiale 2015, DM. 850/2017).
    Description: Published
    Description: 685153
    Description: 1SR TERREMOTI - Sorveglianza Sismica e Allerta Tsunami
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: earthquake, early warning, criminal liability, negligence, risk ; Early warning, criminal law, human rights
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 140
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Description: The evolution and state of geological structure at Earth's surface is best understood with an accurate characterization of the subsurface. Here we present seismic tomographic images of the Italian lithosphere based on ground motion recordings and characterized by compressional and shear wavespeed structure at remarkable resolution, corresponding to a minimum period of ∼10 s. Enhanced accuracy is enabled by state-of-the-art three-dimensional wavefield simulations in combination with an adjoint-state method. We focus on three primary findings of our model Im25. It highlights the distribution of fluids and gas (CO2) within the Italian subsurface and their correlation with seismicity. It illuminates Mt. Etna volcano and supports the hypothesis of a deep reservoir (∼30 km) feeding a shallower magma-filled intrusive body. Offshore of the eastern Italian coast, it reveals that the Adriatic plate is made of two distinct microplates, separated by the Gargano deformation zone, indicating a complex lithosphere and tectonic evolution.
    Description: Published
    Description: 69
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 141
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Eastern South Pacific southern right whales (ESPSRW) are a subpopulation of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) off the coasts of Peru and Chile recognized by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered as a result of heavy whaling efforts in the late 18th to 20th centuries. Most recent population estimates put their numbers around 50 individuals. To test for the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring of this population, we recorded five months of continuous acoustic data (January 2012-June 2012) off the southwestern tip of Isla de Chiloé. To test for trends in occurrence, we identified a total of 11,313 individual ESPSRW upsweep calls, which have been associated with maintaining contact with conspecifics. Calls increased over the course of the deployment and peaked between April and June, indicating an increase in use of the habitat consistent with the concurrent blue whale migration in the area. A clear diel pattern in which upsweep calls were predominately detected during dusk and night hours was identified, indicating that ESPSRW are likely foraging during daylight hours, as upsweep calls are known to be inversely related to foraging behavior. We also quantified noise levels in the frequency range of their communication (100 Hz third octave) to understand the change in active space whales may be experiencing. We measured noise levels from 90 dB re 1 µPa to 111 dB re 1 µPa (5th and 95th percentile), a 21 dB fluctuation that results in an order-of-magnitude decrease in active space area. We identified sources of high noise at or above the 75th percentile as predominately blue and humpback whale calls (occurring in 71.6% of total sampled minutes) and ship noise (occurring in 69.4% of total sampled minutes). Ship noise was responsible for outliers in excess of 140 dB re 1 µPa. In a population as diminished as ESPSRW, such disruptions of their communication range could result in significant barriers to maintaining contact with conspecifics. Passive acoustic monitoring is a powerful tool for monitoring populations as rarely sighted as ESPSRW. Understanding trends in presence and behavior as well as potential sources of disruption of their calling behavior is vital to determining conservation measures that will be most effective toward helping this critically endangered population.
    Description: Support from a private foundation in Chile, Fundacion MERI
    Keywords: Eastern South Pacific southern right whales ; marine bioacoustics ; Chile ; diel patterns ; upsweep calls ; marine conservation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Dataset
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  • 142
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: This paper analyses the potential of digital information technology to enable the reliable provision of product information along the plastics supply chain. The authors investigate the possible contribution of a product passport equipped with decentralised identifiers and verifiable credentials to overcome information deficits and information asymmetry in the circular plastics economy. Through this, high-quality plastics recycling could be enabled on a larger scale than currently possible.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 143
    Publication Date: 2022-04-05
    Description: Um den Klimawandel begrenzen zu können, wird zunehmend der Einsatz von Direct Air Capture (DAC) zur Erzeugung von Negativemissionen diskutiert. Anhand von Kosten sowie dem Flächen-, Wasser- und Energieverbrauch werden in diesem Artikel mögliche Implementierungspfade der DAC-Technologie, aufbauend auf einem bestehenden Klimaneutralitätsszenario für Deutschland, analysiert. Während die technische Realisierung machbar sein sollte, stellt der hohe Flächen- und Energiebedarf eine kritische Größe dar.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 144
    Publication Date: 2022-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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  • 145
    Publication Date: 2022-04-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 146
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  EPIC3Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, Springer, 3(6)
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 147
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: Past efforts to synthesize and quantify the magnitude and change in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems across the rapidly warming Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) have provided valuable information but were limited in their geographical and temporal coverage. Furthermore, these efforts have been based on data aggregated over varying time periods, often with only minimal site ancillary data, thus limiting their potential to be used in large-scale carbon budget assessments. To bridge these gaps, we developed a standardized monthly database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes (ABCflux) that aggregates in situ measurements of terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its derived partitioned component fluxes: gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration. The data span from 1989 to 2020 with over 70 supporting variables that describe key site conditions (e.g., vegetation and disturbance type), micrometeorological and environmental measurements (e.g., air and soil temperatures), and flux measurement techniques. Here, we describe these variables, the spatial and temporal distribution of observations, the main strengths and limitations of the database, and the potential research opportunities it enables. In total, ABCflux includes 244 sites and 6309 monthly observations; 136 sites and 2217 monthly observations represent tundra, and 108 sites and 4092 observations represent the boreal biome. The database includes fluxes estimated with chamber (19 % of the monthly observations), snow diffusion (3 %) and eddy covariance (78 %) techniques. The largest number of observations were collected during the climatological summer (June–August; 32 %), and fewer observations were available for autumn (September–October; 25 %), winter (December–February; 18 %), and spring (March–May; 25 %). ABCflux can be used in a wide array of empirical, remote sensing and modeling studies to improve understanding of the regional and temporal variability in CO2 fluxes and to better estimate the terrestrial ABZ CO2 budget. ABCflux is openly and freely available online (Virkkala et al., 2021b, https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1934).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 148
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: We studied heavy and light mineral associations from two grain-size fractions (63–125 μm, 125–250 μm) from 18 permafrost sites in the northern Siberian Arctic in order to differentiate local versus regional source areas of permafrost aggradation on the late Quaternary time scale. The stratigraphic context of the studied profiles spans about 200 ka covering the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7 to MIS 1. Heavy and light mineral grains are mostly angular, subangular or slightly rounded in the studied permafrost sediments. Only grains from sediments with significantly longer transport distances show higher degrees of rounding. Differences in the varying heavy and light mineral associations represent varying sediment sources, frost weathering processes, transport mechanisms, and postsedimentary soil formation processes of the deposits of distinct cryostratigraphic units. We summarized the results of 1141 microscopic mineral analyses of 486 samples in mean values for the respective cryostratigraphic units. We compared the mineral associations of all 18 sites along the Laptev Sea coast, in the Lena Delta, and on the New Siberian Archipelago to each other and used analysis of variance and cluster analysis to characterize the differences and similarities among mineral associations. The mineral associations of distinct cryostratigraphic units within several studied profiles differ significantly, while others do not. Significant differences between sites as well as between single cryostratigraphic units at an individual site exist in mineral associations, heavy mineral contents, and mineral coefficients. Thus, each study site shows individual, location-specific mineral association. The mineral records originate from multiple locations covering a large spatial range and show that ratios of heavy and light mineral loads remained rather stable over time, including glacial and interglacial periods. This suggests mostly local sediment sources and highlights the importance of sediment reworking under periglacial regimes through time, including for example the formation of MIS 1 thermokarst and thermo-erosional deposits based on remobilized MIS 3 and 2 Yedoma Ice Complex deposits. Based on the diverse mineralogical results our study supports the viewpoint that Yedoma Ice Complex deposits are mainly results of local and polygenetic formations (including local aeolian relocation) superimposed by cryogenic weathering and varying climate conditions rather than exclusive long distance aeolian transport of loess, which would have highly homogenized the deposits across large regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 149
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: We present a high-resolution airborne radar data set (EGRIP-NOR-2018) for the onset region of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). The radar data were acquired in May 2018 with the Alfred Wegener Institute's multichannel ultra-wideband (UWB) radar mounted on the Polar 6 aircraft. Radar profiles cover an area of ∼24 000 km2 and extend over the well-defined shear margins of the NEGIS. The survey area is centered at the location of the drill site of the East Greenland Ice-Core Project (EastGRIP), and several radar lines intersect at this location. The survey layout was designed to (i) map the stratigraphic signature of the shear margins with radar profiles aligned perpendicular to ice flow, (ii) trace the radar stratigraphy along several flow lines, and (iii) provide spatial coverage of ice thickness and basal properties. While we are able to resolve radar reflections in the deep stratigraphy, we cannot fully resolve the steeply inclined reflections at the tightly folded shear margins in the lower part of the ice column. The NEGIS is causing the most significant discrepancies between numerically modeled and observed ice surface velocities. Given the high likelihood of future climate and ocean warming, this extensive data set of new high-resolution radar data in combination with the EastGRIP ice core will be a key contribution to understand the past and future dynamics of the NEGIS. The EGRIP-NOR-2018 radar data products can be obtained from the PANGAEA data publisher (https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.928569; Franke et al., 2021a).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 150
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Wiley
    In:  EPIC3Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, Wiley, 127(3), pp. 1-18, ISSN: 0148-0227
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Fram Strait in the northern North Atlantic is a key region for marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs), southward discharges of polar air under northerly air flow, which have a strong impact on air-sea heat fluxes, boundary layer processes and severe weather. This study investigates climatologies and decadal trends of Fram Strait MCAOs of different intensity classes based on the ERA5 reanalysis product for 1979–2020. Among striking interannual variability, it is shown that the main MCAO season is December through March, when MCAOs occur around 2/3 of the time. We report on significant decadal MCAO decreases in December and January, and a significant increase in March. While the mid-winter decrease is mainly related to the different paces of warming between the surface and the lower atmosphere, the increase in March can be related to changes in synoptic circulation patterns. As an explanation for the latter, a possible feedback between retreating Barents Sea sea ice, enhanced cyclonic activity and Fram Strait MCAOs is postulated. Exemplifying the trend toward stronger MCAOs during March, the study details the recordbreaking MCAO season in early 2020, and an observational case study of an extreme MCAO event in March 2020 is conducted. Thereby, radiosonde observations are combined with kinematic air back-trajectories to provide rare observational evidence for the diabatic cooling and drying during the MCAO preconditioning phase.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 151
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Impurities in polar ice do not only allow the re- construction of past atmospheric aerosol concentrations but also influence the physical properties of the ice. However, the localisation of impurities inside the microstructure is still un- der debate and little is known about the mineralogy of solid inclusions. In particular, the general mineralogical diversity throughout an ice core and the specific distribution inside the microstructure is poorly investigated; the impact of the mineralogy on the localisation of inclusions and other pro- cesses is thus hardly known. We use dust particle concen- tration, optical microscopy, and cryo-Raman spectroscopy to systematically locate and analyse the mineralogy of micro- inclusions in situ inside 11 solid ice samples from the up- per 1340 m of the East Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. Micro-inclusions are more variable in mineralogy than pre- viously observed and are mainly composed of mineral dust (quartz, mica, and feldspar) and sulfates (mainly gypsum). Inclusions of the same composition tend to cluster, but clus- tering frequency and mineralogy changes with depth. A va- riety of sulfates dominate the upper 900 m, while gypsum is the only sulfate in deeper samples, which however contain more mineral dust, nitrates, and dolomite. The analysed part of the core can thus be divided into two depth regimes of different mineralogy, and to a lesser degree of spatial distri- bution, which could originate from different chemical reac- tions in the ice or large-scale changes in ice cover in north- east Greenland during the mid-Holocene. The complexity of impurity mineralogy on the metre scale and centimetre scale in polar ice is still underestimated, and new methodological approaches are necessary to establish a comprehensive un- derstanding of the role of impurities. Our results show that applying new methods to the mineralogy in ice cores and recognising its complexity, as well as the importance for lo- calisation studies, open new avenues for understanding the role of impurities in ice cores.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 152
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Recently, a significant increase in the atmospheric moisture content has been documented over the Arctic, where both local contributions and poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes can play a role. This study focuses on the anomalous moisture transport events confined to long and narrow corridors, known as atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are expected to have a strong influence on Arctic moisture amounts, precipitation, and the energy budget. During two concerted intensive measurement campaigns – Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) and the Physical feedbacks of Arctic planetary boundary layer, Sea ice, Cloud and AerosoL (PASCAL) – that took place at and near Svalbard, three high-water-vapour-transport events were identified as ARs, based on two tracking algorithms: the 30 May event, the 6 June event, and the 9 June 2017 event. We explore the temporal and spatial evolution of the events identified as ARs and the associated precipitation patterns in detail using measurements from the French (Polar Institute Paul Emile Victor) and German (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) Arctic Research Base (AWIPEV) in Ny-Ålesund, satellite-borne measurements, several reanalysis products (the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA) Interim (ERA-Interim); the ERA5 reanalysis; the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2); the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2); and the Japanese 55-Year Reanalysis (JRA-55)), and the HIRHAM regional climate model version 5 (HIRHAM5). Results show that the tracking algorithms detected the events differently, which is partly due to differences in the spatial and temporal resolution as well as differences in the criteria used in the tracking algorithms. The first event extended from western Siberia to Svalbard, caused mixed-phase precipitation, and was associated with a retreat of the sea-ice edge. The second event, 1 week later, had a similar trajectory, and most precipitation occurred as rain, although mixed-phase precipitation or only snowfall occurred in some areas, mainly over the coast of north-eastern Greenland and the north-east of Iceland, and no differences were noted in the sea-ice edge. The third event showed a different pathway extending from the north-eastern Atlantic towards Greenland before turning south-eastward and reaching Svalbard. This last AR caused high precipitation amounts on the east coast of Greenland in the form of rain and snow and showed no precipitation in the Svalbard region. The vertical profiles of specific humidity show layers of enhanced moisture that were concurrent with dry layers during the first two events and that were not captured by all of the reanalysis datasets, whereas the HIRHAM5 model misrepresented humidity at all vertical levels. There was an increase in wind speed with height during the first and last events, whereas there were no major changes in the wind speed during the second event. The accuracy of the representation of wind speed by the reanalyses and the model depended on the event. The objective of this paper was to build knowledge from detailed AR case studies, with the purpose of performing long-term analysis. Thus, we adapted a regional AR detection algorithm to the Arctic and analysed how well it identified ARs, we used different datasets (observational, reanalyses, and model) and identified the most suitable dataset, and we analysed the evolution of the ARs and their impacts in terms of precipitation. This study shows the importance of the Atlantic and Siberian pathways of ARs during spring and beginning of summer in the Arctic; the significance of the AR-associated strong heat increase, moisture increase, and precipitation phase transition; and the requirement for high-spatio-temporal-resolution datasets when studying these intense short-duration events.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 153
    Publication Date: 2022-02-28
    Description: Despite global warming and Arctic sea-ice loss, on average the Antarctic sea-ice extent has not declined since 1979 when satellite data became available. In contrast, climate model simulations tend to exhibit strong negative sea-ice trends for the same period. This Antarctic sea-ice paradox leads to low confidence in 21st-century sea-ice projections. Here we present multi-resolution climate change projections that account for Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies. The high-resolution configuration simulates stable September Antarctic sea-ice extent that is not projected to decline until the mid-21st century. We argue that one reason for this finding is a more realistic ocean circulation that increases the equatorward heat transport response to global warming. As a result, the ocean becomes more efficient at moderating the anthropogenic warming around Antarctica and hence at delaying sea-ice decline. Our study suggests that explicitly simulating Southern Ocean eddies is necessary for providing Antarctic sea-ice projections with higher confidence.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 154
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , notRev
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  • 155
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: A breeding colony of notothenioid icefish (Neopagetopsis ionah, Nybelin 1947) of globally unprecedented extent has been discovered in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The colony was estimated to cover at least �240 km2 of the eastern flank of the Filchner Trough, comprised of fish nests at a density of 0.26 nests per square meter, representing an estimated total of �60 million active nests and associated fish biomass of 〉60,000 tonnes. The majority of nests were each occupied by 1 adult fish guarding 1,735 eggs (±433 SD). Bot- tom water temperatures measured across the nesting colony were up to 2�C warmer than the surrounding bottom waters, indicating a spatial correlation between the modified Warm Deep Water (mWDW) upflow onto the Weddell Shelf and the active nesting area. Historical and concurrently collected seal movement data indicate that this concentrated fish biomass may be utilized by predators such as Weddell seals (Lep- tonychotes weddellii, Lesson 1826). Numerous degraded fish carcasses within and near the nesting colony suggest that, in death as well as life, these fish provide input for local food webs and influence local biogeo- chemical processing. To our knowledge, the area surveyed harbors the most spatially expansive continuous fish breeding colony discovered to date globally at any depth, as well as an exceptionally high Antarctic sea- floor biomass. This discovery provides support for the establishment of a regional marine protected area in the Southern Ocean under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) umbrella.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 156
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: This paper presents a review of academic sources concerning the issue of age estimation in crayfish. It describes several popular methods for estimation of the age composition of a crayfish population: age and length composition of a population, the relationship between age and lipofuscin content in nervous tissues, and counting of “growth bands”. It has been established that the most promising method for crayfish age estimation is the one based on the identification of “growth bands”. Analysis of the other methods has also shown their viability; however, for consistent age determination in crayfish, they need further elaboration.
    Description: В статье представлен обзор литературных источников по проблеме определения возраста раков. В статье дается описание популярных методов определения возрастной структуры популяции ракообразных: размерно-возрастная структура популяций, связь возраста с концентрацией липофусцина в неврологических тканях, подсчет «полос роста». Выявлено, что перспективным методом определения возраста ракообразных является способ, основанный на обнаружении полос роста. Анализ других методов показал, что они также имеют значительный потенциал, но нуждаются в дальнейшей проработке проверки возраста ракообразных.
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Pontastacus cubanicus ; Astacus leptodactylus cubanicus ; Cherax quadricarinatus ; Growth bands ; Age-length composition ; Lipofuscin ; Nervous tissues ; Размерно-возрастная структура ; Длиннопалый рак ; Липофусцин ; Полосы роста ; ASFA_2015::C::Crayfish fisheries ; ASFA_2015::A::Age composition ; ASFA_2015::A::Age determination
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.63-65
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  • 157
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: This paper considers the consequences of the low-water cycle for the water content of the Don River, leading to an imbalance in the ecosystems of the Lower Don River and the Azov Sea and to the deterioration of the environmental conditions for aquatic biological resources. An assessment of the possible effect of the partial transfer of the Volga River runoff to the basin of the Don River amounting to 1.8 or 5.0 km3 and the impact of such transfer on the formation of the Azov Sea salinity and the desalinated areas in the Taganrog Bay has been conducted.
    Description: В работе рассмотрены последствия маловодного цикла в изменении водности р. Дон, приведшие к дисбалансу в экосистемах Нижнего Дона и Азовского моря и к ухудшению условий среды обитания водных биологических ресурсов. Проведена оценка возможного эффекта от переброски части стока р. Волга в бассейн р. Дон в объемах 1,8 или 5,0 км3 и влияния дотаций на формирование солености Азовского моря, площадей опресненных зон в Таганрогском заливе.
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Low-water cycle ; Desalinated areas ; River basins ; Annual distribution ; Маловодный цикл ; Опресненные зоны ; Бассейны рек ; Межгодовое распределение стока ; ASFA_2015::R::River discharge ; ASFA_2015::R::River flow ; ASFA_2015::S::Salinity effects
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.66-72
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  • 158
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: This work presents the results of the investigation of the influence the biogenic substances exercise on the primary production of organic matter by phytoplankton in the Azov Sea in 2019–2020. The analysis of the oxygen regime and the development of kill events has been conducted. During the investigated period, the changes in the oxygen regime of the Azov Sea were observed over the course of time. The content of ammonium nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as nitrate and total ones, in the Azov Sea influences the level of organic matter primary production by phytoplankton to a considerable degree. At present, as the result of low river flow volume, the concentration of biogenic substances is decreasing, which, in turn, leads to the decrease in the primary production of organic matter. The equations describing the relationship between the primary production and the content of biogenic substances are considered.
    Description: В работе представлены результаты исследования влияния содержания биогенных веществ на первичное продуцирование органического вещества фитопланктоном в Азовском море в 2019–2020 гг. Проведен анализ кислородного режима и особенностей формирования заморов. В исследуемый период прослежена динамика изменения кислородного режима Азовского моря. Концентрации аммонийного, нитратного, а также общего азота и фосфора в Азовском море оказывают существенное влияние на уровень первичного продуцирования органического вещества фитопланктоном. В современный период в связи с низким объемом речного стока снижается концентрация биогенных веществ, что приводит к снижению первичного продуцирования органического вещества. Рассмотрены уравнения зависимости первичной продукции от концентрации биогенных элементов.
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Oxygen regime ; River runoff ; Nitrogen ; Primary production ; Кислородный режим ; Речной сток ; Азот ; Нитраты ; Nitrаtes ; ASFA_2015::B::Biogenic material ; ASFA_2015::O::Organic matter ; ASFA_2015::P::Phytoplankton
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.82-89
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  • 159
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: The monitoring results for the oil pollution of the Azov Sea water in the summer and autumn seasons of 2018–2020 are presented. The identified concentrations of petroleum products are given based on the total content of the main petroleum components: hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. The concentrations of petroleum products in the water ranged from 〈0.02 to 0.85 mg/dm3 in the summer season, and from 〈0.02 to 0.11 mg/dm3 in the autumn season. In some years, the weighted average values of the content of petroleum products in water exceeded the maximum allowable level: by 2.4 times in the summer season, and by 1.2 times in autumn. Based on the averaged data for the investigated period, the most severe water pollution was recorded in the central area of the Taganrog Bay and the sea itself. The highest influx of petroleum products occurs to the eastern parts of the Taganrog Bay and the sea in the autumn season, and to the southern part of the sea in summer. Along with the petroleum products identified in water, the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons in the organs and tissues of the investigated fish was recorded in the roach, captured in the Taganrog Bay in the summer and autumn seasons of 2018. In other examined pelagic fish species of the Azov Sea (anchovy, Black Sea sprat, zander), content of petroleum products ranged at the level of determination limit.
    Description: Представлены результаты мониторинга нефтяного загрязнения воды Азовского моря в летний и осенний периоды 2018–2020 гг. Обнаруженные концентрации нефтепродуктов приведены по суммарному содержанию основных нефтяных компонентов — углеводородов, смол и асфальтенов. Концентрации нефтепродуктов в воде варьировали в летний период от 〈0,02 до 0,85 мг/дм3, в осенний период — от 〈0,02 до 0,11 мг/дм3. В различные годы средневзвешенные концентрации нефтепродуктов в воде превышали предельно допустимую норму летом до 2,4 раза, осенью — в 1,2 раза. Согласно усредненным за рассматриваемый период данным, более значительное загрязнение воды отмечалось в центральных районах Таганрогского залива и собственно моря. Наибольшее поступление нефтепродуктов происходит в осенний период в восточные районы Таганрогского залива и собственно моря, в летний период — в южный район моря. На фоне обнаруженных концентраций нефтепродуктов в воде максимальное содержание нефтяных углеводородов в органах и тканях исследованных рыб отмечено у тарани, выловленной в Таганрогском заливе в летний и осенний период 2018 г. У других обследованных видов пелагических рыб Азовского моря (хамса, тюлька, судак) концентрации нефтяных углеводородов варьировали на уровне предела определения.
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Сlupeonella cultriventris ; Еngraulis encrasicolus ; Sander lucioperca ; Rutilus rutilus ; Environmental monitoring ; Resins ; Seasonal variations ; Fish organs ; Animal tissues ; Water column ; Органы рыб ; Водная толща ; Ткани животных ; Сезонные изменения ; ASFA_2015::P::Pelagic fish ; ASFA_2015::O::Oil pollution ; ASFA_2015::P::Petroleum hydrocarbons
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.73-81
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  • 160
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: Geological maps are complex to produce through intensive and expensive field studies. Comparisons of geophysical data with geological conditions are difficult and often only qualitatively possible. The following work therefore examines an automated procedure to better reconcile this information. For this purpose, the terracing method, and a cluster analysis of potential field (gravity and magnetic field) and petrophysical data from the Karasjok and Ligurian Sea regions are used to interpret this geophysical measurements in a geological way. Two different tectonic regions were selected: (1) The Karasjok region is located in Northern Norway, where the Karasjok Greenstone Belt (KGB) dominates geological settings, consisting of abundant ultramafic intrusions, komatiites, gabbroic intrusions, amphibolites and migmatites. (2) The Ligurian-Provençal basin, part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, which is located between the French-Italian coastline and the island of Corsica. Geologically the area is characterised by the spreading zone in the Western Mediterranean. The high-resolution Airborne Gravity Gradient Survey and aeromagnetic datasets of the Karasjok region cover an area of 20 km x 30 km with a data resolution of 50 m. The dataset of the Ligurian basin cover a much larger area with the resolution of 5 km. Data constraints come from former LOBSTER and LISA campaigns and a study in the research group at CAU Kiel, new compilation of the AlpArray Gravity Research Group (AAGRG), besides data of the ICGEM Potsdam (disturbance) and the GOCE mission. By aid of the terracing algorithm, the boundaries of the anomalies are to be sharpened and regions with constant field amplitude were generated. For this purpose, a shape index-based algorithm was applied, which uses the shape index calculated at each field point to grade the function. Through an iterative process and the variation of parameters, the terracing result is refined. The resulting data sets are then further processed using a cluster analysis method. Here, the k-mean algorithm for domain classification is used to divide the geophysical measurement data into groups (cluster) of similar properties. The number of clusters k is specified and the data points are assigned to the respective clusters through an iterative process. Using the data of the datasets mentioned above the results of this applications are successfully compared with the corresponding geological maps of the two areas.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), SPP "MB-4D"
    Description: https://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2020.045 (Zahorec et al., 2021) via GFZ Data Services
    Description: poster
    Keywords: Clustering ; terracing ; gravity field ; Liguro-Provencial Basin ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: map
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  • 161
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: Three devastating earthquakes of MW ≥ 5.9 activated a complex system of high-angle normal, antithetic, and sub-horizontal detachment faults during the 2016–2017 central Italy seismic sequence. Waveform cross-correlation based double-difference location of nearly 400,000 aftershocks illuminate complex, fine-scale structures of interacting fault zones. The Mt. Vettore–Mt. Bove (VB) normal fault exhibits wide and complex damage zones, including a system of bookshelf faults that intersects the detachment zone. In the Laga domain, a comparatively narrow, shallow dipping segment of the deep Mt. Gorzano fault progressively ruptures through the detachment zone in four subsequent MW ∼ 5.4 events. Reconstructed fault planes show that the detachment zone is fragmented in four sub-horizontal, partly overlaying shear planes that correlated with the extent of the mainshock ruptures. We find a new, deep reaching seismic barrier that coincides with a bend in the VB fault and may play a role in controlling rupture evolution.
    Description: Published
    Description: e2021GL092918
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 162
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV
    Description: Published
    Description: 4T. Sismicità dell'Italia
    Keywords: sismicità strumentale ; mappa sismicità ; sismicita 1980 2020 ; eventi sismici ingv ; eventi magnitudo 2.0 ; rete sismica nazionale ; rsn ingv ; irpinia basilicata ; umbria settentrionale ; umbria marche ; siracusa ; molise ; emilia romagna ; amatrice accumuli ; norcia ; montereale
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: web product
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  • 163
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: The Veselovsky Reservoir is surrounded by agricultural land, where the use of pesticides is an integral part of the production cycle. By transferring with the air masses or seeping through the soil, pesticides can enter the water of the water bodies of fisheries importance, be deposited in bottom sediments, and negatively affect the vital activity of hydrobionts. The aim of the study was to detect the content of 20 active ingredients of the pesticides of modern classes most widely used in agriculture in the region, the half-life of which can exceed six months. It was found that the concentrations of pesticide active ingredients in the living environment of hydrobionts in the Veselovsky Reservoir are by more than an order of magnitude lower than the established maximum allowable concentrations (MAC), which indicates the relative safety of the environment for hydrobionts.
    Description: Веселовское водохранилище находится в окружении земель сельскохозяйственного назначения, где применение пестицидов является неотъемлемой частью производственного цикла. При переносе ветром или просачивании сквозь почву эти вещества попадают в воду водоемов рыбохозяйственного назначения, оседают в донных отложениях и могут негативно влиять на жизнедеятельность гидробионтов. В процессе исследования определяли 20 наиболее используемых в сельском хозяйстве региона действующих веществ (ДВ) пестицидов современных классов, период полураспада которых может превышать полгода. Установлено, что концентрации ДВ пестицидов в среде обитания гидробионтов Веселовского водохранилища более чем на порядок ниже установленных предельно допустимых концентраций (ПДК), что указывает на относительную безопасность среды для жизнедеятельности гидробионтов.
    Description: Published
    Description: Non Refereed
    Keywords: Pesticides ; Bottom sediments ; Пестициды ; Донные осадки ; Сельское хозяйство ; Agriculture
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: Journal Contribution
    Format: pp.90-94
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  • 164
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: The continental margin of the Ross Sea has been consistently sensitive to the advance and retreat of the Ross Ice Sheet (RIS) between the interglacial and glacial periods. This study examines changes of the glaciomarine sedimentation on the continental slope and rise to the eastern side of Hillary Canyon in the central Ross Sea, using three gravity cores collected at increasing water depths. Besides older AMS 14C ages of bulk sediments, based on the analytical results, sediment lithology was divided into units A, B1, and B2, representing Holocene, deglacial, and glacial periods, respectively. The sedimentation rate decreased as the water depth increased, with a higher sedimentation rate in the deglacial period (unit B1) than the Holocene (unit A). Biological productivity proxies were significantly higher in glacial unit B2 than in interglacial unit A, with transitional values observed in deglacial unit B1. Biological productivity generally decreased in the Antarctic continental margin during the glacial period because of extensive sea ice coverage. The higher biogenic contents in unit B2 are primarily attributed to the increased transport of eroded and reworked shelf sediments that contained abundant biogenic components to the continental slope and rise beneath the advancing RIS. Thus, glacial sedimentation on the continental slope and rise of the central Ross Sea was generally governed by the activity of the RIS, which generated melt-water plumes and debris flows at the front of the grounding line, although the continental rise might have experienced seasonally open conditions and lateral effects due to the bottom current.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 165
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) is the infrastructure that provides access to the seismic‐waveform archives collected by European agencies. This distributed system is managed by Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology. EIDA provides seamless access to seismic data from 12 data archives across Europe by means of standard services, exposing data on behalf of hundreds of network operators and research organizations. More than 12,000 stations from permanent and temporary networks equipped with seismometers, accelerometers, pressure sensors, and other sensors are accessible through the EIDA federated services. A growing user base currently counting around 3000 unique users per year has been requesting data and using EIDA services. The EIDA system is designed to scale up to support additional new services, data types, and nodes. Data holdings, services, and user numbers have grown substantially since the establishment of EIDA in 2013. EIDA is currently active in developing suitable data management approaches for new emerging technologies (e.g., distributed acoustic sensing) and challenges related to big datasets. This article reviews the evolution of EIDA, the current data holdings, and service portfolio, and gives an outlook on the current developments and the future envisaged challenges.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1788-1795
    Description: 4IT. Banche dati
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seismic waveforms