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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (83,670)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (25,032)
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  • 101
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: histamine ; polyamines ; cytochrome P450 ; cell growth ; cell proliferation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Histamine and polyamines have been implicated in the mediation of cell proliferation. Our previous work linked the growth-modulatory effects of histamine with its binding to intracellular sites in microsomes and nuclei of various tissues. In this study, we identify cytochrome P450 enzymes as a major component of microsomal intracellular sites in hepatocytes and demonstrate that polyamines compete with high affinity for histamine binding to them. Spectral measurement of histamine binding to P450 in liver microsomes resolved high and intermediate affinity binding sites (Ks1 = 2.4 ± 1.6 μM; Ks2 = 90 ± 17 μM) that corresponded to microsomal binding sites (Kd1 = 1.0 ± 0.9 μM; Kd2 = 57 ± 13 μM) resolved by 3H-histamine binding; additional low affinity (Kd3 ∼ 3 mM), and probably physiologically irrelevant, sites were resolved only by 3H-histamine radioligand studies. As determined spectrally, treatment of microsomes with NADPH/carbon monoxide decreased histamine binding to P450 by about 90% and, as determined by 3H-histamine binding, abolished the high affinity sites and reduced by 85% the number of intermediate sites. Spermine competed potently for 3H-histamine binding: in microsomes, Ki = 9.8 ± 5.8 μM; in nuclei, Ki = 13.7 ± 3.1 μM; in chromatin, Ki = 46 ± 33 nM. Polyamines inhibited the P450/histamine absorbance complex with the rank order of potency: spermine 〉 spermidine ≫ putrescine. In contrast, histamine did not compete for 3H- spermidine binding in nuclei or microsomes, suggesting that polyamines modulate histamine binding allosterically. We propose that certain P450 isozymes that modulate gene function by controlling the level of oxygenated lipids, represent at least one common intracellular target of growth-regulatory endogenous bioamines and, as shown previously, of exogenous growth-modulatory drugs including antiestrogens, antiandrogens, and certain antidepressants and antihistamines. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:233-243, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 102
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: butyrate ; isobutyramide ; prostate cancer ; LNCaP ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Progression to androgen independence remains the main obstacle to improving survival and quality of life in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Induction of differentiation may serve as a rational basis for prevention of progression to androgen independence by modulating gene expression activated by castration or upregulated during androgen-independent progression. The objectives of this study were to characterize the in vitro effects of sodium butyrate on human prostate cancer cell growth, PSA gene expression, and differentiation in the LNCaP tumor model and to determine whether tumor progression in vivo is delayed by isobutyramide, an orally bioavailable butyrate analogue with a longer half-life. The effects of isobutyramide on LNCaP tumor growth and serum PSA levels in both intact and castrate male mice were compared to controls. At concentrations 〉 1 mM, butyrate induced dose-dependent changes towards a more differentiated phenotype, G1 cell cycle arrest, and an 80% decrease in LNCaP cell growth rates. PSA gene expression was increased threefold by butyrate, indicative of differentiation-enhanced gene expression. The half-life of isobutyramide in athymic mice was determined by gas chromatography to be 4 h. During a 4 week period in intact-placebo mice, tumor volume and serum PSA increased 4.1- and 6.6-fold, respectively, compared to twofold and 2.7-fold increases in tumor volume and serum PSA in intact-treated mice. During a 7 week period in castrate-placebo mice, tumor volume and serum PSA levels increased 2.4-fold and fourfold, respectively, compared to a 50% reduction in tumor volume and a twofold increase in serum PSA above nadir levels in castrate mice treated with adjuvant isobutyramide. Isobutyramide treatment induced pronouced morphological changes in LNCaP tumor cells, with loss of defined nucleoli and dispersion of chromatin distribution. LNCaP tumor PSA mRNA levels actually increased threefold, indicative of differentiation-enhanced gene expression. This study demonstrates that butyrate causes LNCaP cell cycle arrest and increased PSA gene expression, both indicative of differentiation. The combination of castration and adjuvant isobutyramide was synergistic in delaying tumor progression. Decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased PSA gene expression induced by isobutyramide results in disconcordant changes in serum PSA and tumor volume and reduces the utility of serum PSA as a marker of response to therapy. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:271-281, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 103
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear matrix ; TGF-β1 ; bone ; osteoblast differentiation ; mineralization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Nuclear matrix protein (NMP) composition of osteoblasts shows distinct two-dimensional gel electrophoretic profiles of labeled proteins as a function of stages of cellular differentiation. Because NMPs are involved in the control of gene expression, we examined modifications in the representation of NMPs induced by TGF-β1 treatment of osteoblasts to gain insight into the effects of TGF-β on development of the osteoblast phenotype. Exposure of proliferating fetal rat calvarial derived primary cells in culture to TGF-β1 for 48 h (day 4-6) modifies osteoblast cell morphology and proliferation and blocks subsequent formation of mineralized nodules. Nuclear matrix protein profiles were very similar between control and TGF-β-treated cultures until day 14, but subsequently differences in nuclear matrix proteins were apparent in TGF-β-treated cultures. These findings support the concept that TGF-β1 modifies the final stage of osteoblast mineralization and alters the composition of the osteoblast nuclear matrix as reflected by selective and TGF-β-dependent modifications in the levels of specific nuclear matrix proteins. The specific changes induced by TGF-β in nuclear matrix associated proteins may reflect specialized mechanisms by which TGF-β signalling mediates the alterations in cell organization and nodule formation and/or the consequential block in extracellular mineralization. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:291-303, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 104
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69 (1998), S. 282-290 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: estrogen modulation ; osteoblastic cells ; plasma membrane receptors ; nuclear receptors ; gap junction communication ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Two osteoblastic cell populations, calvarial and marrow stromal cells, were exposed to estrogen derivatives in vitro. The hormonal effect was monitored by following intracellular Ca+2 levels [Ca+2]i and gap-junction communication. We measured fast changes in intracellular Ca+2 levels in response, of these cells, to the steroid hormones. The changes were dose dependent revealing maximal activity at 100 pM by 17-β-Estradiol and 1 nM by estradiol-CMO. Additionally, the effect of estrogen, on functional coupling of the cells, was measured using fluorescence dye migration and counting the number of neighboring cells coupled by gap junctions. An uncoupling effect was demonstrated in response of these cells to estrogen treatment. The quick stereospecific effect was achieved in the presence of 17-β-estradiol but not in the presence of 17-α-estradiol. These results suggest the involvement of plasma membrane receptors in addition to the already known nuclear receptors in transducing the hormone effects in the osteoblastic cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:282-290, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 105
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69 (1998), S. 326-335 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: copper ; human endothelial cells ; angiogenesis ; growth factors ; cell proliferation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Copper ions stimulate proliferation of human umbilical artery and vein endothelial cells but not human dermal fibroblasts or arterial smooth muscle cells. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells for 48 h with 500 μM CuSO4 in a serum-free medium in the absence of exogenous growth factors results in a twofold increase in cell number, similar to the cell number increase induced by 20 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor under the same conditions. Copper-induced proliferation of endothelial cells is not inhibited by 10% fetal bovine serum or by the presence of antibodies against a variety of angiogenic, growth, and chemotactic factors including angiogenin, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, macrophage/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Moreover, despite the previous observations that copper increased total specific binding of 125I-angiogenin to endothelial cells, binding to the 170 kDa receptor is not changed; hence, the mitogenic activity of angiogenin is not altered by copper. Copper-induced proliferation, along with early reports that copper induces migration of endothelial cells, may suggest a possible mechanism for the involvement of copper in the process of angiogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:326-335, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 106
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: VAT-1 ; Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica ; ATPase ; Mus musculus ; gene structure ; Ehrlich ascites tumor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Recently, interest has focused on the human gene encoding the putative protein homologous to VAT-1, the major protein of the synaptic vesicles of the electric organ of the Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica, after it has been localized on chromosome locus 17q21 in a region encompassing the breast cancer gene BRCA1. Chromosomal instability in this region is implicated in inherited predisposition for breast and ovarian cancer. Here we describe isolation and biochemical characterization of a mammalian 48 kDa protein homologous to the VAT-1 protein of Torpedo californica. This VAT-1 homolog was isolated from a murine breast cancer cell line (Ehrlich ascites tumor) and identified by sequencing of cleavage peptides. The isolated VAT-1 homolog protein displays an ATPase activity and exists in two isoforms with isoelectric points of 5.7 and 5.8. cDNA was prepared from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, and the murine VAT-1 homolog sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and partially sequenced. The known part of the murine and the human translated sequences share 97% identity. By Northern blots, the size of the VAT-1 homolog mRNA in both murine and human (T47D) breast cancer cells was determined to be 2.8 kb. Based on the presented data, a modified gene structure of the human VAT-1 homolog with an extended exon 1 is proposed. VAT-1 and the mammalian VAT-1 homolog form a subgroup within the protein superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:304-315, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 107
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoprogenitors ; mineralization ; marrow stroma ; Src ; tyrosine kinase dexamethasone ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Src protein is essential for the regulation of bone turnover primarily via bone resorption because it is required in osteoclast differentiation and function. We followed temporal changes of Src protein abundance in marrow stromal cells induced to mineralize by dexamethasone (DEX), growth in cold temperature, or both. Given the tyrosine kinase function of Src and its numerous substrates, profiles of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins were followed as well. On day 11 of stimulation, specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at 30°C decreased under DEX relative to 37°C cultures, in accord with increased cell counts. Mineralization per well under DEX increased by 25% at 37°C, whereas at 30°C it increased by more than threefold regardless of the DEX stimulation. At 30°C, on a per cell basis mineralization increased 2.5 and 3 times with and without DEX, respectively. Cultures at 37°C showed a general drop per cell of many phosphotyrosine-containing proteins on day 3 relative to days 1 and 2 in both DEX-stimulated and nonstimulated cultures; several proteins did recover (recuperate) thereafter. On days 1 and 2, the phosphotyrosine signal was higher in several proteins under DEX stimulation; this trend became inverted after day 3. The changes in abundance per cell of Src protein (pp60src) followed a similar trend, and in addition a truncated Src molecule, p54/52src, was detected as a putative cleavage product presumably representing its carboxy terminus. The pp60src was most abundant, relative to its truncated product, in day 7 nonstimulated cultures, whereas under DEX stimulation the truncated species pp54/52src showed the highest relative abundance on days 7. At 30°C, DEX stimulation accentuated the increase in Src protein on day 3, showed no change on day 7, and returned to increase Src protein on day 10. Potassium ionophorvalinomycin, considered to select against mineralizing osteoprogenitors at 30°C, showed on day 10 in the absence of DEX a relative increase in truncated Src protein compared to both DEX-stimulated and nonstimulated cultures in the absence of valinomycin. On day 7 of DEX stimulation, the presence of valinomycin resulted in low p54/52src. Among phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, a 32-34 kDa band, as yet unidentified, showed the most concordant changes with mineralization induction. P32-34 decreased by DEX on days 2 and 8 and increased by low temperature alone or combined with DEX on day 3. On day 7, p32-34 did not change under DEX, but valinomycin selected cells with less phoshpotyrosine-containing p32-34. Taken together, high Src abundance at the start of osteogenic induction followed by a decrease 1 week later is probably related to energy metabolism-dependent induction of mineralization. This is in temporal accord with the increase in Src truncation and fluctuation in mitochondrial membrane potential (which affects mineralization). The reported binding of amino-terminal Src oligopeptide to p32 ADP/ATP carrier in the mitochondrial inner membrane raises the question of its possible involvement in mitochondria-regulated mineralization. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:316-325, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 108
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: AML/CBF/PEBP2 ; CBFa1 ; differentiation ; osteoblasts ; regulatory elements ; transforming growth factor-β ; receptor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Organization of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor (TRI) promoter predicts constitutive transcription, although its activity increases with differentiation status in cultured osteoblasts. Several sequences in the rat TRI promoter comprise cis-acting elements for CBFa (AML/PEBP2α) transcription factors. By gel mobility shift and immunological analyses, a principal osteoblast-derived nuclear factor that binds to these sites is CBFa1(AML-3/PEBP2αA). Rat CBFa1 levels parallel expression of the osteoblast phenotype and increase under conditions that promote mineralized bone nodule formation in vitro. Fusion of CBFa binding sequence from the TRI promoter to enhancer-free transfection vector increases reporter gene expression in cells that possess abundant CBFa1, and overexpression of CBFa increase the activity of transfected native TRI promoter/reporter plasmid. Consequently, phenotype-restricted use of cis-acting elements for CBFa transcription factors can contribute to the high levels of TRI that parallel osteoblast differentiation and to the potent effects of TGF-β on osteoblast function. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:353-363. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 109
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: architectural transcription factor ; nuclear matrix ; osteoblast ; parathyroid hormone ; type I collagen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In connective tissue, cell structure contributes to type I collagen expression. Differences in osteoblast microarchitecture may account for the two distinct cis elements regulating basal expression, in vivo and in vitro, of the rat type I collagen α1(I) polypeptide chain (COL1A1). The COL1A1 promoter conformation may be the penultimate culmination of osteoblast structure. Architectural transcription factors bind to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and bend it, altering interactions between other trans-acting proteins. Similarly, nuclear matrix (NM) proteins bind to the minor groove of AT-rich matrix-attachment regions, regulating transcription by altering DNA structure. We propose that osteoblast NM architectural transcription factors link cell structure to promoter geometry and COL1A1 transcription. Our objective was to identify potential osteoblast NM architectural transcription factors near the in vitro and in vivo regulatory regions of the rat COL1A1 promoter. Nuclear protein-promoter interactions were analyzed by gel shift analysis and related techniques. NM extracts were derived from rat osteosarcoma cells and from rat bone. The NM protein, NMP4, and a soluble nuclear protein, NP, both bound to two homologous poly(dT) elements within the COL1A1 in vitro regulatory region and proximal to the in vivo regulatory element. These proteins bound within the minor groove and bent the DNA. Parathyroid hormone increased NP/NMP4 binding to both poly(dT) elements and decreased COL1A1 mRNA in the osteosarcoma cells. NP/NMP4-COL1A1 promoter interactions may represent a molecular pathway by which osteoblast structure is coupled to COL1A1 expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:336-352. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 110
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: homeobox ; mammary gland ; morphogenesis ; basement membrane ; gene expression ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Homeobox-containing genes encode transcriptional regulators involved in cell fate and pattern formation during embryogenesis. Recently, it has become clear that their expression in continuously developing adult tissues, as well as in tumorigenesis, may be of equal importance. In the mouse mammary gland, expression patterns of several homeobox genes suggest a role in epithelial-stromal interactions. Because the stroma and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to influence both functional and morphological development of the mammary gland, we asked whether these genes would be expressed postnatally in the gland and also in cell lines in culture and whether they could be modulated by ECM. Using a polymerase chain reaction-base strategy five members of the Hox gene clusters a and b were shown to be expressed in cultured mouse mammary cells. Hoxa-1 and Hoxb-7 were chosen for further analysis. Hoxb-7 was chosen because it had not been described previously in the mammary gland and was modulated at different stages of gland development. Hoxa-1 was chosen because it was reported previously to be expressed only in mammary tumors, and not in normal glands. We showed that culturing the mammary epithelial cell lines SCp2 and CID-9 on a basement membrane (BM) that was previously shown to induce a lactational phenotype was necessary to turn off Hoxb-7, but a change in cell shape, brought about by culturing the cells on an inert substratum such as polyHEMA, was sufficient to downregulate Hoxa-1. This is the first report of modulation of homeobox genes by ECM. The results provide a rationale for the differential pattern of expression in vivo of Hoxa-1 and Hoxb-7 during different stages of development. The culture model should permit further in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in how ECM signaling and homeobox genes may interact to bring about tissue organization. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:377-391, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 111
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: IGF ; IGFBP ; zinc ; IGFBP-3 ; IGFBP-5 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of multivalent cations on [125I]-IGF binding to cell-associated IGFBPs was investigated using human fibroblasts. The major cell-associated binding site for [125I]-IGF-I is IGFBP-3 and for [125I]-IGF-II are IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5. Lanthanum and chromium did not affect either [125I]-IGF-I or [125I]-IGF-II binding to cell-associated IGFBPs. By contrast, zinc (Zn2+), gold (Au3+), and cadmium (Cd2+) depressed binding of both ligands. Ligand binding resulted in nonlinear Scatchard plots. Assuming a pre-existent asymmetric model with high- (KaHi) and low- (KaLo) affinity sites, Zn2+ lowered both KaHi and KaLo. Au3+ eliminated KaHi. Assuming that the nonlinear plots were caused by ligand-induced negative cooperativity, Zn2+ and Cd2+ lowered both Ke and Kf (affinity of unoccupied and saturated IGFBPs, respectively). Au3+ eliminated Ke and reduced Kf. Zn2+ was active at serum levels in lowering IGF binding. Zinc, gold, and cadmium bind to similar regions within proteins (a zinc-binding motif) indicating similar mechanisms of action. A zinc-binding motif is present in the IGFBPs, but not in the IGFs. We demonstrate for the first time that the trace nutrient zinc and related multivalent cations decrease IGF binding to fibroblast-associated IGFBPs by lowering the affinity of the IGF-IGFBP interaction. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:364-375, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 112
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: perforin ; cell cycle ; apoptosis ; T lymphocyte ; DNA synthesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes secrete a pore-forming cytolysin, perforin, that damages membranes of target cells. They also ligate Fas receptors on target cells and provoke apoptotic death. A20 (B lymphoma) and P815 (mastocytoma) cell lines were examined for their susceptibility to perforin-mediated lysis and to Fas-induced apoptosis after blockade of the cell cycle at the G1/S interface. Cells were arrested at the G1/S interface by inhibition of DNA synthesis with thymidine or aphidicolin. Subsequently, the treated cells were incubated either with CTL cytotoxic granules or the Fas-specific monoclonal antibody Jo-2. We show that arrest of the cell cycle at the G1/S interface markedly reduced the susceptibility of target cells to perforin-mediated lysis. In contrast, growth arrest with thymidine or aphidicolin increased susceptibility of A20 and P815 cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Susceptibility to lysis by intact CTLs was not affected significantly by blockade of target cells with aphidicolin or thymidine. When cells surviving exposure to perforin-containing granules were isolated on Ficoll density gradients and cell-cycle profiles were examined by flow cytometry, the ratio of G1 to G2cells increased among the survivors exposed to granules in contrast to controls incubated with buffer alone. The data suggest that cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle are less susceptible to the perforin pathway than cells in G2and S phases but are more susceptible to the Fas pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:425-435, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 113
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: chondrocytes ; cyclooxygenase-2 ; c-Jun N-terminal kinase ; protein kinase A ; cAMP response element ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The involvement of serine/threonine protein phosphatases in signaling pathways that control the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in human chondrocytes was examined. Okadaic acid (OKA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP-1) and 2A (PP-2A), induced a delayed, time-dependent increase in the rate of COX-2 gene transcription (runoff assay) resulting in increased steady-state mRNA levels and enzyme synthesis. The latter response was dose dependent over a narrow range of 1-30 nmol/L with declining expression and synthesis of COX-2 at higher concentrations due to cell toxicity. The delayed increase in COX-2 mRNA expression was accompanied by the induction of the proto-oncogenes c-jun, junB, junD, and c-fos (but not FosB or Fra-1). Increased phosphorylation of CREB-1/ATF-1 transcription factors was observed beginning at 4 h and reached a zenith at 8 h. Gel-shift analysis confirmed the up-regulation of AP-1 and CRE nuclear binding proteins, though there was little or no OKA-induced nuclear protein binding to SP-1, AP-2, NF-κB or NF-IL-6 regulatory elements. OKA-induced nuclear protein binding to 32P-CRE oligonucleotides was abrogated by a pharmacological inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), KT-5720; the latter compound also inhibited OKA-induced COX-2 enzyme synthesis. Calphostin C (CalC), an inhibitor of PKC isoenzymes, had little effect in this regard. Inhibition of 32P-CRE binding was also observed in the presence of an antibody to CREB-binding protein (265-kDa CBP), an integrator and coactivator of cAMP-responsive genes. The binding to 32P-CRE was unaffected in the presence of excess radioinert AP-1 and COX-2 NF-IL-6 oligonucleotides, although a COX-2 CRE-oligo competed very efficiently. 32P-AP-1 consensus sequence binding was unaffected by incubation of chondrocytes with KT-5720 or CalC, but was dramatically diminished by excess radioinert AP-1 and CRE-COX-2 oligos. Supershift analysis in the presence of antibodies to c-Jun, c-Fos, JunD, and JunB suggested that AP-1 complexes were composed of c-Fos, JunB, and possibly c-Jun. OKA has no effect on total cellular PKC activity but caused a delayed time-dependent increase in total PKA activity and synthesis. OKA suppressed the activity of the MAP kinases, ERK1/2 in a time-dependent fashion, suggesting that the Raf-1/MEKK1/MEK1/ERK1,2 cascade was compromised by OKA treatment. By contrast, OKA caused a dramatic increase in SAPK/JNK expression and activity, indicative of an activation of MEKK1/JNKK/SAPK/JNK pathway. OKA stimulated a dose-dependent activation of CAT activity using transfected promoter-CAT constructs harboring the regulatory elements AP-1 (c-jun promoter) and CRE (CRE-tkCAT). We conclude that in primary phenotypically stable human chondrocytes, COX-2 gene expression may be controlled by critical phosphatases that interact with phosphorylation dependent (e.g., MAP kinases:AP-1, PKA:CREB/ATF) signaling pathways. AP-1 and CREB/ATF families of transcription factors may be important substrates for PP-1/PP-2A in human chondrocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:392-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 114
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: YKL40 ; purification ; guinea pig ; chondrocytes ; biochemical characterization ; regulation ; insulin-like growth factors ; osteoarthritis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to purify, characterize, and study the regulation at the chondrocyte level of the guinea pig (gp) homologue of human (R) YKL40, a putative marker of arthritic disorders. Studying YKL40 in guinea pigs is of particular interest, as age-related osteoarthritis develops in this species spontaneously. Both N-terminal sequencing and total amino acid composition of gpYKL40 purified from the secretion medium of cultured articular chondrocytes indicate a high degree of identity with hYKL40. gpYKL40 was found to contain complex N-linked carbohydrate, as demonstrated by N-glycosidase F and endoglycosidase F digestion. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated the presence of a major band at pI 6.7. The secretion of gpYKL40 by confluent articular chondrocytes in the extracellular medium was studied by immunoblotting. gpYKL40 was released by chondrocytes continuously over a 7 day period and did not appear to be degraded by proteinases, as its signal intensity in cell-free medium at 37°C did not decrease with time. Thus, gpYKL40 displays high stability and accumulates in extracellular medium without reaching a steady-state level. Among the main factors known to regulate cartilage metabolism, IL-1β, TNF-α, bFGF, or 1,25(OH)2D3 did not alter the basal level of gpYKL40, and retinoic acid had a slight inhibitory effect; TGF-β and IGF-I and -II dose-dependently and inversely modulated this basal level. TGF-β at 5 ng/ml decreased extracellular gpYKL40 2.9-fold, whereas IGF-I and IGF-II at 50 ng/ml increased extracellular gpYKL40 3.6- and 3.4-fold, respectively. The present biochemical and biological findings give new insights for studying the function of YKL40 in cartilage. J. Cell Biochem. 69:414-424, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 115
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Adriamycin ; rat hepatoma ; ρ° cells ; multidrug resistance ; P-glycoprotein ; Sandoz SDZ PSC 833 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Rat hepatoma cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ° cells) were used as a model system to examine the possible roles of mitochondrial DNA as a target for the DNA-acting anticancer drug Adriamycin (doxorubicin). The ρ° cells were 45-fold less sensitive to Adriamycin than the parental ρ+ cells containing mitochondrial DNA. Other non-DNA-acting drugs also exhibited similar behaviour, and this was shown to be due to a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in the ρ° cells. This was indicated by confocal microscopy where ρ+ cells exhibited thirteenfold higher cellular levels of Adriamycin than ρ° cells. Upregulation (tenfold) of P-glycoprotein in ρ° cells was also confirmed by Northern dot blot analysis. Since the MDR phenotype is present in ρ° cells and upregulation of P-glycoprotein is maintained in these cells, ρ° cells are not a good model system for drug-DNA studies (where the drug is susceptible to extrusion by P-glycoprotein), and any such results obtained with this system must be treated with considerable caution. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:463-469, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 116
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: aorta ; mineralization ; calcification ; hydroxyapatite ; inhibitors ; arteriosclerosis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Mineralization of aorta is known to occur late in life and appears to be a pathological phenomenon. In vitro studies revealed that the matrix prepared from the thoracic aorta pieces after their extraction with 3% Na2HPO4 and 0.1 mM CaCl2 were mineralized under physiological conditions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength of the media to form matrix-bound mineral phase resembling hydroxyapatite in nature. However, the matrix identically prepared from the unextracted rabbits aortae failed to mineralize under identical assay conditions. The addition of the aorta extract in the assay system inhibited the above mineralization process. Standard biochemical techniques, e.g., dialysis, ion exchange, and molecular sieve chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography were employed to isolate, purify, and characterize the potent inhibitory biomolecules from the aorta extract. The inhibitory activity of the aorta extract was found to be primarily due to the presence of three biomolecules having molecular weights of 66, 45, and 27-29 kDa. The above inhibitory biomolecules loosely associated with aorta may be involved in the control of calcification associated with arteriosclerosis. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:287-297, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 117
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: PEPCK ; adipocytes ; transcription ; fatty acids ; fibrates ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) exerts a glyceroneogenic function in adipocytes in which transcription of its gene is increased by unsaturated fatty acids and fibrates. We used cultured rat adipose tissue fragments and 3T3-F442A adipocytes to show that the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione BRL 49653, a ligand and an activator of the γ isoform of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARγ), is a potent inducer of PEPCK mRNA. In 3T3-F442A adipocytes, the effect of BRL 49653 is rapid and concentration dependent, with a maximum reached at 1 μM and a half-maximum at 10-100 nM. PEPCK mRNA is similarly induced by the natural ligand of PPARγ, the 15-deoxy-Δ12-14 prostaglandin J2. These observations strongly suggest that PPARγ is a primary regulator of PEPCK gene expression in adipocytes. Dexamethasone at 10 nM repress induction of PEPCK mRNA by 1 μM BRL 49653, 0.32 mM oleate, or 1 mM clofibrate, in a cycloheximide-independent manner. The antiglucocorticoid RU 38486 prevents dexamethasone action, demonstrating involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor. Stable transfectants of 3T3-F442A adipocytes bearing -2100 to +69 base pairs of the PEPCK gene promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene respond to 1 μM BRL 49653 or 1 mM clofibrate by a large increase in CAT activity, which is prevented by the simultaneous addition of 10 nM dexamethasone. Hence, in adipocytes, glucocorticoids act directly through the 5′-flanking region of the PEPCK gene to repress, in a dominant fashion, the stimulation of PEPCK gene transcription by thiazolidinediones and fibrates. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:298-308, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 118
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nucleolus ; nuclear import ; ribosomal protein L5 ; ribonucleoprotein particles ; ribosome assembly ; TFIIIA ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In Xenopus laevis oocytes, 5S RNA is stored in the cytoplasm until vitellogenesis, at which time it is imported into the nucleus and targeted to nucleoli for ribosome assembly. This article shows that throughout oogenesis there is a pool of nuclear 5S RNA which is not nucleolar-associated. This distribution reflects that of oocyte-type 5S RNA, which is the major 5S RNA species in oocytes; only small amounts of somatic-type, which differs by six nucleotides, are synthesized. Indeed, 32P-labeled oocyte-type 5S RNA showed a degree of nucleolar localization similar to endogenous 5S RNA (33%) after microinjection. In contrast, 32P-labeled somatic-type 5S RNA showed significantly enhanced localization, whereby 70% of nuclear RNA was associated with nucleoli. A chimeric RNA molecule containing only one somatic-specific nucleotide substitution also showed enhanced localization, in addition to other somatic-specific phenotypes, including enhanced nuclear import and ribosome incorporation. The distribution of 35S-labeled ribosomal protein L5 was similar to that of oocyte-type 5S RNA, even when preassembled with somatic-type 5S RNA. The distribution of a series of 5S RNA mutants was also analyzed. These mutants showed various degrees of localization, suggesting that the efficiency of nucleolar targeting can be influenced by many discrete regions of the 5S RNA molecule. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:490-505, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 119
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Cordyceps sinensis ; adrenal cells ; steroidogenesis ; signal pathway ; PKC ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cordyceps sinensiscontains a factor that stimulates corticosteroid production in the animal model. However, it is not known whether this drug acts directly on the adrenal glands or indirectly via the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. In the present study, we used primary rat adrenal cell cultures to investigate the pharmacological function of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis(CS) and thesignaling pathway involved. Radioimmunoassay of corticosterone indicated that the amount of corticosterone produced by adrenal cells is increased in a positively dose-dependent manner by CS, reaching a maximun at 25 μg/ml. This stimulating effect was seen 1 h after CS treatment and was maintained for up to 24 h. Concomitantly, the lipid droplets in these cells became small and fewer in number. Immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody, A2, a specific marker for the lipid droplet capsule, demonstrated that detachment of the capsule from the lipid droplet occurs in response to CS application and that the period required for decapsulation is inversely related to the concentration of CS applied. The mechanism of CS-induced steroidogenesis is apparently different from that for ACTH, since intracellular cAMP levels were not increased in CS-treated cells. However, combined application with calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, completely blocked the effect of CS on steroidogenesis, suggesting that activation of PKC may be responsible for the CS-induced steroidogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:483-489, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 120
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: enterocytes ; 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 ; tyrosine phosphorylation ; MAP kinase activation ; VDRnuc ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The steroid hormone 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) generates biological responses in intestinal and other cells via both genomic and rapid, nongenomic signal transduction pathways. We examined the hypothesis that 1α,25(OH)2D3 action in chick enterocytes may be linked to pathways involving tyrosine phosphorylation. Brief exposure of isolated chick enterocytes to 1α,25(OH)2D3 demonstrated increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins (antiphosphotyrosine immunoblots of whole cell lysates) with prominent bands at 42-44, 55-60, and 105-120 Kda. The 42-44 Kda bands comigrated with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (immunoblotting with anti-MAP kinase antibody) The response occurred within 30 s, peaked at 1 min, and was dose-dependent (0.01-10 nM), with maximal stimulation at 1 nM (three- to fivefold). This effect was specific for 1α,25(OH)2D3 since its metabolic precursors 25(OH)D3and vitamin D3 did not increase MAP kinase tyrosine phosphorylation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, blocked 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase, while staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, attenuated the hormone's effects by 30%. We have evaluated the ability of 1α,25(OH)2D3 analogs, which have complete flexibility around the 6,7 carbon-carbon bond (6F) or which are locked in either the 6-s-cis (6C) or the 6-s-trans(6T) shape(s), to activate MAP kinase. Thus, two 6F and one 6C analog stimulated while one 6T analog did not stimulate MAP kinase tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, 1β,25(OH)2D3, a known antagonist of 1α,25(OH)2D3-mediated rapid responses, blocked the hormone effects on MAP kinase. We conclude that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and analogs which can achieve the 6-s-cis shape (6F and 6C) can increase tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase in chick enterocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:470-482, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 121
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: apoptosis ; p53 ; pRb2/p130 ; E2F ; transcriptional control ; leukemia ; protein phosphatases ; colon cancer ; retinoblastoma ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A significant portion of published literature is dedicated to describing the cloning and the characterization of proteins involved in the progression of the cell cycle, which govern cell growth both in cancer and normal ontogenesis. With this abundance of information, the cascading pathways of molecular events that occur in the cell cycle are proving to be exceedingly complicated. The purpose of this conference was to attract the leading clinical and basic science investigators in the growth control field with a final goal to determine how this current wealth of knowledge can be used to impact upon patient care and management by the design of novel adjuvant therapeutics specifically targeted at tumor cells and the identification of molecular diagnostic and/or prognostic markers in an efficient and cost effective manner. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:1-7, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 122
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: immunocytochemistry ; breast cancer ; monoclonal antibody ; subcellular localization ; confocal microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The arsenite-stimulated human ATPase (hASNA-I) protein is a distinct human ATPase whose cDNA was cloned by sequence homology to the Escherichia coli ATPase arsA. Its subcellular localization in human malignant melanoma T289 cells was examined to gain insight into the role of hASNA-I in the physiology of human cells. Immunocytochemical staining using the specific anti-hASNA-I monoclonal antibody 5G8 showed a cytoplasmic, perinuclear, and nucleolar distribution. Subcellular fractionation indicated that the cytoplasmic hASNA-I was soluble and that the perinuclear distribution was due to association with the nuclear membrane rather than with the endoplasmic reticulum. Its presence in the nucleolus was confirmed by showing colocalization with an antibody of known nucleolar specificity. Further immunocytochemical analysis showed that the hASNA-I at the nuclear membrane was associated with invaginations into the nucleus in interphase cells. These results indicate that hASNA-I is a paralogue of the bacterial ArsA protein and suggest that it plays a role in the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a nucleolar component. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:1-10, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 123
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: homeobox ; breast ; ligase chain reaction ; transcription ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Homeodomain-containing proteins regulate, as transcription factors, the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and malignant transformation. We report here the molecular cloning of a mutated HOXB7 transcript encoding a truncated homeodomain-containing protein in MCF7 cells. This is a new example of mutation affecting the coding region of a HOX gene. In addition, we detected two HOXB7 transcripts in several breast cell lines and demonstrated that both normal and mutated alleles were expressed at the RNA level in MCF7 cells as well as in a variety of breast tissues and lymphocytes, suggesting that a truncated HOXB7 protein might be expressed in vivo. Using transient co-transfection experiments, we demonstrated that both HOXB7 proteins can activate transcription from a consensus HOX binding sequence in breast cancer cells. Our results provide evidence that HOXB7 protein has transcription factor activity in vivo and that the two last amino acids do not contribute to this property. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:46-54. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 124
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoblast ; marrow stromal cell ; osteoblastic differentiation ; dexamethasone ; bone tissue engineering ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the effects of the time course of addition of osteogenic supplements dexamethasone, β-glycerolphosphate, and L-ascorbic acid to rat marrow stromal cells, and the exposure time on the proliferation and differentiation of the cells. It was the goal of these experiments to determine the time point for supplement addition to optimize marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation. To determine this, two studies were performed; one study was based on the age of the cells from harvest, and the other study was based on the duration of exposure to supplemented medium. Cells were seen to proliferate rapidly at early time points in the presence and absence of osteogenic supplements as determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of replicating cells. These results were supported by cell counts ascertained through total DNA analysis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production at 21 days were highest for both experimental designs when the cells were exposed to supplemented medium immediately upon harvest. The ALP levels at 21 days were six times greater for cells maintained in supplements throughout than for control cells cultured in the absence of supplements for both studies, reaching an absolute value of 75 × 10-7 μmole/min/cell. Osteocalcin production reached 20 × 10-6 ng/cell at 21 days in both studies for cells maintained in supplemented medium throughout the study, whereas the control cells produced an insignificant amount of osteocalcin. These results suggest that the addition of osteogenic supplements to marrow-derived cells early in the culture period did not inhibit proliferation and greatly enhanced the osteoblastic phenotype of cells in a rat model. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:55-62, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 125
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: chemokine receptor CCR5 ; G-protein activation ; receptor desensitization ; internalization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Chemokine receptor CCR5 is not only essential for chemotaxis of leukocytes but also has been shown to be a key coreceptor for HIV-1 infection. In the present study, hemagglutinin epitope-tagged human CCR5 receptor was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells or transiently expressed in NG108-15 cells to investigate CCR5-mediated signaling events. The surface expression of CCR5 was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. The CCR5 agonist RANTES stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding to the cell membranes and induced inhibition on adenylyl cyclase activity in cells expressing CCR5. The effects of RANTES were CCR5 dependent and could be blocked by pertussis toxin. Furthermore, overexpression of Giα2 strongly increased both RANTES-dependent G-protein activation and inhibition on adenylyl cyclase in cells cotransfected with CCR5. These data demonstrated directly that activation of CCR5 stimulated membrane-associated inhibitory G proteins and indicated that CCR5 could functionally couple to G-protein subtype Giα2. The abilities of CCR5 to activate G protein and to inhibit cellular cAMP accumulation were significantly diminished after a brief prechallenge with RANTES, showing rapid desensitization of the receptor-mediated responsiveness. Prolonged exposure of the cells to RANTES caused significant reduction of surface CCR5 as measured by flow cytometry, indicative of agonist-dependent receptor internalization. Our data thus demonstrated that CCR5 functionally couples to membrane-associated inhibitory G proteins and undergoes agonist-dependent desensitization and internalization. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:36-45, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 126
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: GABAA receptor ; N-glycosylation ; radioligand binding ; in situ trypsinization ; galactosylation ; mannosylation ; immunoblotting ; immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The significance of N-linked glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing was examined for the expression of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) in cultured neurons derived from chick embryo brains. Incubation of cultures with 5 μg/ml of tunicamycin for 24 h blocked the binding of 3H-flunitrazepam and 3H-muscimol, probes for the benzodiazepine and GABA sites on the receptor, by about 20% and 28%, respectively. The loss of ligand binding was due to a reduction in the number of binding sites with no significant changes in receptor affinity. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry also revealed that the treatment reduced approximately 13% of the intensity of GABAAR immunoreactivity in the neuronal somata. Furthermore, the fraction of intracellular receptors was decreased to 24% from 34% of control in the presence of the agent, as revealed by trypsinization of cells in situ followed by 3H-flunitrazepam binding. The molecular weight of the receptor subunit protein was lowered around 0.5 kDa after tunicamycin treatment, in accordance with that following N-glycosidase F digestion, indicating the blockade of N-linked glycosylation of GABAAR by tunicamycin. Moreover, intense inhibitions of 91% and 44%, respectively, were detected to the general galactosylation and mannosylation in the tunicamycin-treated cells, whereas the protein synthesis was hindered by 13%, through assaying the incorporation of 3H-sugars and 3H-leucine. Nevertheless, treatment with castanospermine or swainsonine (10 μg/ml, 24 h), inhibitors to maturation of oligosaccharides, failed to produce significant changes in the ligand binding. In addition, in situ hybridization analysis showed that these three inhibitors did not perturb the mRNA of GABAAR α1-subunit. The data suggest that tunicamycin causes the downregulation and subcellular redistribution of GABAAR by producing irregularly glycosylated receptors and modifying their localization. Both galactosylation and mannosylation during the process of N-linked glycosylation may be important for the functional expression and intracellular transport of GABAAR. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:38-48, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 127
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: TGF-β1 ; apoptosis ; growth inhibition ; retina ; endothelial cells ; pericytes ; angiogenesis ; p21waf1/cip1 ; p53 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) regulates a variety of cellular functions. In several types of cells, for example, it acts as a growth inhibitor and an inducer of apoptotic cell death. Although one of the important modulators in retinal vascular development and retinal neovascularization, the effects of TGF-β1 on retinal microvascular cells are not fully defined. We have found that proliferation of both bovine retinal endothelial cells (EC) and pericytes was inhibited by TGF-β1 in a concentration-dependent manner. However, only retinal EC lost viability after exposure to increasing concentrations of TGF-β1 (up to 10 μg/ml) in the presence of 2% fetal bovine serum. Dying EC exhibited the morphological and biochemical characteristics of apoptosis. Fragmented nuclei and chromatin condensation were apparent after staining with the fluorochrome Hoechst 33258 and the reagent ApopTag; moreover, gel electrophoresis of DNA from TGF-β1-treated EC demonstrated degradation of chromatin into the discrete fragments typically associated with apoptosis. The addition of anti-TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody abolished the apoptotic cell death induced by TGF-β1. Because not all the EC in a given culture died after exposure to TGF-β1, we separated the apoptosis-sensitive cells from those resistant to TGF-β1-mediated apoptosis and determined the expression of several proteins associated with this apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis of EC mediated by TGF-β1 was associated with a decreased level of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/cip1, compared with that observed in the apoptosis-resistant cells. In contrast, the translation product of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 was increased in the TGF-β1-treated apoptotic cells. Thus, we propose that p21waf1/cip1 and p53 function in distinct pathways that are protective or permissive, respectively, for the apoptotic signals mediated by TGF-β1. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:70-83, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 128
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: PTHrP ; PTH/PTHrP receptor ; estrogen ; ovariectomy ; kidney ; rat ; in vivo ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the decreased renal tubular reabsorption of calcium observed in estrogen deficiency is associated with a local regulation of either PTHrP or PTH/PTHrP receptor genes in the kidney. Rats were randomly sham-operated (S) or ovariectomized receiving either vehicule (OVX) or 4 μg E2/kg/day (OVX+E4) or 40 μg E2/kg/d (OVX+E40) during 14 days using alzet minipumps. Plasma PTH and calcium levels were lower in untreated OVX animals than in all other groups (P 〈 0.01). Plasma PTH was higher in OVX+E40 than in OVX+E4 (P 〈 0.05). PTHrP mRNA expression in the kidney was unaffected by ovariectomy but was increased in OVX+E40 (0.984 ± 0.452 for PTHrP/GAPDH mRNAs expression vs. 0.213 ± 0.078 in sham, P 〈 0.01). PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression and the cAMP response of renal membranes to PTH were unaffected by ovariectomy and estrogen substitution. In conclusion, renal PTHrP and PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNAs are not modified by ovariectomy. However, 17β-estradiol increases renal expression of PTHrP mRNA without evident changes in its receptor expression and function. This may help to explain the pharmacological action of estrogen in the kidney, especially how it prevents the renal leak of calcium in postmenopausal women. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:84-93, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 129
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: coronary artery ; NO/EDRF ; adenosine ; prostacyclin ; phospholamban ; myosin light chain ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The intracellular mechanisms underlying the action of the endogenous vasodilators such as NO/EDRF, adenosine, and prostacyclin acting through cGMP and cAMP, respectively, are not well understood. One important action of cyclic nucleotides in smooth muscle relaxation is to lower the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by enhanced sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the potential role of phosphorylation of phospholamban, the regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, for the control of coronary vascular tone by NO/EDRF, adenosine, and prostacyclin. Phospholamban was identified in pig coronary artery preparations by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting and in vitro phosphorylation. Segments of pig coronary artery, with either intact or denuded endothelium, were precontracted with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). In endothelium-denuded preparations 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), 5′-N-ethylcarboxiamidoadenosine (NECA), and iloprost (ILO) caused both relaxation and phospholamban phosphorylation with the potency: SIN-1 〉 NECA 〉 ILO. The regulatory myosin light chain was significantly dephosphorylated only by SIN-1. In endothelium-intact pig coronary artery, L-NAME caused additional vasoconstriction and a decrease in phospholamban phosphorylation, while phosphorylation of myosin light chain remained unchanged. An inverse relationship between phospholamban phosphorylation and vessel tone was obtained. Our findings demonstrate significant phospholamban phosphorylation during coronary artery relaxation evoked by NO, prostacyclin, and adenosine receptor activation. Because of the close correlation between phosphorylation of phospholamban and vessel relaxation, we propose that phospholamban phosphorylation is an important mechanism by which endogenous vasodilators, especially endothelial NO/EDRF, control coronary vascular smooth muscle tone. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:49-59, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 130
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nerve growth factor ; tyrosine kinase receptors ; differentiation ; PC12 cells ; mitogen-activated protein kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases stimulates a diverse array of cellular responses such as proliferation and differentiation. The first events in the signal transduction pathways mediated by different receptor tyrosine kinases are similar and include activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the induction of immediate early genes. The precise signaling pathways leading to each of the cellular responses mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases are still unknown, although it has been proposed that sustained activation of the MAPK pathway by receptor tyrosine kinases such as the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA is sufficient to induce differentiation in PC12 cells. In the present study we examined the effect of NGF on mutant PC12 cells that were derived spontaneously in our cultures. NGF induced normal activation of immediate early genes in these cells, whereas the activation of some delayed response genes, as well as neurite outgrowth, was impaired. Furthermore, activation of the NGF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in these cells was transient, not sustained. These results support the hypothesis that sustained activation of ERK plays an important role in activating the induction of delayed response genes. However, sustained ERK activation is not a mandatory condition for the promotion of all the features of differentiated PC12 cells, as NGF could induce transcription of the delayed response gene, transin, in PC12 mutant cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NGF induces differentiation of PC12 cells via several signaling pathways, an important one of which is the MAPK pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:425-432, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 131
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 132
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: analog ; bone ; growth inhibition ; differentiation ; vitamin D ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cell types including cancer cells. In recent years, numerous new vitamin D3 analogs have been developed in order to obtain favorable therapeutic properties. The effects of a new 20-epi analog, CB1093 (20-epi-22-ethoxy-23-yne-24a,26a,27a-trihomo-1α,25(OH)2D3), on the proliferation and differentiation of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line were compared here with those of the parent compound 1,25D. Proliferation of the MG-63 cells was inhibited similarly by 22%, 50% and 59% after treatment with 0.1 μM 1,25D or CB1093 for 48 h, 96 h, and 144 h, respectively. In transfection experiments, the compounds were equipotent in stimulating reporter gene activity under the control of human osteocalcin gene promoter. In cell culture experiments, however, CB1093 was more potent than 1,25D at low concentrations and more effective for a longer period of time in activating the osteocalcin gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. Also, a 6-h pretreatment and subsequent culture for up to 120 h without 1,25D or CB1093 yielded higher osteocalcin mRNA and protein levels with analog-treated cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed stronger VDR-VDRE binding with analog-treated MG-63 cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The differences in the DNA binding of 1,25D-bound vs. analog-bound VDR, however, largely disappeared when the binding reactions were performed with recombinant hVDR and hRXRβ proteins. These results demonstrate that the new analog CB1093 was equally or even more effective than 1,25D in regulating all human osteosarcoma cell functions ranging from growth inhibition to marker gene expression and that the differences in effectivity most probably resulted from interactions of the hVDR:hRXRβ-complex with additional nuclear proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:414-424, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 133
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: UV irradiation ; PAK2 ; apoptosis ; CPP32/caspase-3 ; A431 cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light elicits a cellular response and can also lead to apoptotic cell death. In this report, we show that a 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay can be dramatically activated during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis of A431 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa MBP kinase could be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal regions of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs). By using this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 as studying tools, we further demonstrated that UV irradiation caused cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment and a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment in A431 cells. The appearance of the 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment of PAK2 matched exactly with the activation of the 36-kDa MBP kinase in A431 cells upon UV irradiation. In addition, UV irradiation also led to activation of CPP32/caspase-3, but not ICH-1L/caspase-2 and ICE/caspase-1, in A431 cells and the kinetics of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 appeared to correlate well with that of DNA fragmentation and of cleavage/activation of PAK2, respectively. Moreover, blockage of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 by pretreating the cells with two specific tetrapeptidic inhibitors for caspases (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could significantly attenuate the extent of cleavage/activation of PAK2 induced by UV irradiation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that cleavage and activation of PAK2 can be induced during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis and indicate the involvement of CPP32/caspase-3 in this process. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:442-454, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 134
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: collagen ; gene regulation ; DNA-binding proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Both the mouse and human α2(I) procollagen promoters contain an inverted CCAAT box at -80, but only the human promoter contains an additional regulatory element, the collagen modulating element (CME), immediately downstream of the CCAAT box [Collins et al. (1997): Biochem J 322:199-206]. In this study, the transcription factors that bind to the G/CBE and CME within the human promoter were characterized in SVWI-38 and CT-1 nuclear extracts. Two distinct proteins bind to the CME, and both were identified as heat-labile factors that were sensitive to high ionic strengths and required Zn2+ for DNA-binding activity. These proteins had Stokes radii of 4.12 and 3.15 nm, sedimentation coefficients of 3.9 and 3.2 S and native molecular weights of 66 and 41 kDa, respectively. On the basis of biochemical and DNA-binding properties, the CME binding proteins are probably novel factors involved in the regulation of the human α2(I) procollagen gene. By contrast, the G/CBE binding proteins were more resistant to heat, ionic strength, and divalent metal ion chelators, demonstrating that the G/CBE and CME binding proteins had distinct DNA-binding properties. The above properties suggest that this factor is a member of the previously characterized family of CCAAT box-binding factors, CBF, NF-Y, CP-1 and α-CP1. Taken together, these physicochemical properties of the COL1A2 CCAAT box and CME-binding proteins demonstrated that they were distinct unrelated transcription factors. These results also suggest that there is a distinct difference in the DNA-binding activity between the equivalent region of the mouse and human α2(I) procollagen promoters. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:455-467, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 135
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: hematopoiesis ; protein interaction ; EMSA ; nucleolin ; nucleophosmin/NPM/B23 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The human myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen, MNDA, is expressed only in myelomonocytic and a subset of B lymphoid hematopoietic cells. MNDA is uniformly distributed throughout the interphase cell nucleus and associates with chromatin, but does not bind specific DNA sequences. We recently demonstrated that MNDA binds nucleolin and nucleophosmin/NPM/B23 and both of these nuclear proteins bind the ubiquitous zinc finger transcription factor YY1. Investigations of the possible effect of MNDA on the interaction between YY1 and NPM, showed that MNDA bound YY1 directly under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The MNDA-YY1 interaction enhanced the affinity of YY1 for its target DNA and decreased its rate of dissociation. The N-terminal half (200 amino acids) of MNDA was sufficient for maximum enhancement of YY1 DNA binding and a portion of this sequence was responsible for binding YY1. MNDA participated in a ternary complex with YY1 and the YY1 target DNA element. The results show that MNDA affects the ability of YY1 to bind its target DNA sequnce and that MNDA participates in a ternary complex possibly acting as a cofactor to impart lineage specific features to YY1 function. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:489-506, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 136
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 172-180 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear matrix ; nuclear structure ; cancer ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cancer is diagnosed by examining the architectural alterations to cells and tissues. Changes in nuclear structure are among the most universal of these and include increases in nuclear size, deformities in nuclear shape, and changes in the internal organization of the nucleus. These may all reflect changes in the nuclear matrix, a non-chromatin nuclear scaffolding determining nuclear form, higher order chromatin folding, and the spatial organization of nucleic acid metabolism. Malignancy-induced changes in this structure may have profound effects on chromatin folding, on the fidelity of genome replication, and on gene expression. Elucidating the mechanisms and the biological consequences of nuclear changes will require the identification of the major structural molecules of the internal nuclear matrix and an understanding of their assembly into structural elements. If biochemical correlates to malignant alterations in nuclear structure can be identified then nuclear matrix proteins and, perhaps nuclear matrix-associated structural RNAs, may be an attractive set of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:172-180, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 137
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 193-199 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: parathyroid hormone-related peptide ; nucleus ; nucleolus ; intracrine actions ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: It is becoming increasingly apparent that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) modulates cellular function in a dual mode of action: first, by binding and activating its cognate cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor and, second, by direct intracellular effects following translocation to the nucleus and/or nucleolus of the target cell. Little is presently known about the mechanisms and events that determine the timing and degree of PTHrP nuclear translocation or the role it may serve in normal or dysregulated cellular function. Clarifying the nuclear actions of PTHrP would add significantly to our present understanding of this protein as a signaling molecule during embryonic development and as an oncoprotein whose expression in many tumors correlates with increased tumor aggressiveness and propensity for metastasis. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:193-199, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 138
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 181-192 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: coiled bodies (CBs) ; gems ; p80 coilin ; RNPs ; RNA processing ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Coiled bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles whose morphology and composition have been conserved from plants to animals. They are highly enriched in components of three different RNA processing pathways. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing, rRNA processing, and histone mRNA 3′ end maturation all take up residence in CBs. However, CB function(s) remain obscure. This review will focus on recent developments in several aspects of CB structure and function, including exciting new results on their twin organelles, called gems. In particular, the reader will be introduced to a novel hypothesis called the “salmon theory of snRNP biogenesis.” Questions arising from and experiments necessary to test this hypothesis will be discussed. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:181-192, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 139
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: gene expression ; AML/CBF transcription factors ; nuclear matrix ; cancer ; nuclear domains ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Functional interrelationships between components of nuclear architecture and control of gene expression are becoming increasingly evident. In this article we focus on the concept that association of genes and cognate transcription factors with the nuclear matrix may support the formation and/or activities of nuclear domains that facilitate transcriptional regulation. Several lines of evidence are consistent with the concept that association of transcription factors with the nuclear matrix may be obligatory for fidelity of gene expression and maximal transcriptional activity. The identification of specific regions of transcription factors that are responsible for intranuclear trafficking to nuclear matrix-associated sites that support transcription, reinforces the linkage of nuclear structure to regulation of genes. CBFA2/AML-1 and CBFA1/AML-3 provide paradigms for directing gene regulatory factors to RNA polymerase II containing foci within the nucleus. The implications of modifications in the intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors for developmental and tissue-specific control, as well as for aberrations in gene expression that are associated with cancer and neurological disorders, are addressed. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:200-212, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 140
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: transcription ; nucleus ; cell architecture ; nuclear matrix ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: After many years of reductionistic approaches to characterize molecular mechanisms involved in transcription, the number of factors recognized to take part in this process has increased remarkably and continues to grow. When considering posttranslational modifications in conjunction with the large number of factors involved in modulating the activity of transcription complex components, the overall intricacy becomes staggering. After two decades of intensive molecular investigations, there has been a concerted effort to integrate these findings with cellular approaches to understand transcription on a more global level. This sort of reasoning actually revisits studies of approximately 20 years ago that considered the functional consequences of steroid receptor association with nuclear structure. With an abundance of new molecular probes and increasingly powerful instruments to detect them in fixed and, more recently, live cells, the issue of functional subnuclear organization is receiving increased attention. In this report, we focus on advances in characterizing the functional significance of transcription factor association with the nucleoskeleton. In particular, we consider recent biochemical and “molecular morphology” data that point to the importance of dynamic spatial and solubility partitioning of gene regulators with nuclear architecture. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:213-221, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 141
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: assembly of type I collagen ; COOH-terminal propeptide ; pesin-resistant heterotrimers ; disulfide bonds ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Collagen biosynthesis is a complex process that begins with the association of three procollagen chains. A series of conserved intra- and interchain disulfide bonds in the carboxyl-terminal region of the procollagen chains, or C-propeptide, has been hypothesized to play an important role in the nucleation and alignment of the chains. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the ability of normal and cysteine-mutated pro-α2(I) chains to assemble into type I collagen heterotrimers when expressed in a cell line (D2) that produces only endogenous pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing single or double cysteine mutations that disrupted individual intra- or interchain disulfide bonds were able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I), indicating that individual disulfide bonds were not critical for assembly of the pro-α2(I) chain with pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing a triple cysteine mutation that disrupted both intrachain disulfide bonds were not able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I). Therefore, disruption of both pro-α2(I) intrachain disulfide bonds prevented the production and secretion of type I collagen heterotrimers. Although none of the individual disulfide bonds is essential for assembly of the procollagen chains, the presence of at least one intrachain disulfide bond may be necessary as a structural requirement for chain association or to stabilize the protein to prevent intracellular degradation. J.Cell. Biochem. 71:233-242, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 142
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: lysyl oxidase ; cyclooxygenase-1 ; type I collagen α1 ; prostaglandin E2 ; prostaglandin E2 receptors ; cyclic AMP ; interleukin-1β ; transforming growth factor-β ; forskolin ; 11-deoxy PGE1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In a recent communication, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) lowers basal while it ablates interleukin-1β( (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) upregulated lysyl oxidase (LO) mRNA levels. Correspondingly, PGE2 increases cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) mRNA in diploid, human embryo lung fibroblasts (IMR90) [Roy et al., 1996]. We now report that these actions by PGE2 are routed through cAMP via the PGE2, EP2 receptor. Among the PGE2 receptor types, the IMR90 predominantly express the EP2 mRNA. These cells also express EP3 and EP4 mRNA at comparatively low levels. Northern blot analyses show that 11-deoxy PGE1, an EP2/EP4 agonist, emulates the action of PGE2. In a similar manner to PGE2, 11-deoxy PGE1 decreases basal and TGF-β induced type I collagen α1 (COL) mRNA, basal and IL-1β induced LO mRNA while it increases COX1 mRNA. Sulprostone, an EP3/EP1 agonist, has no effect on the expression of these three genes. Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, acts in a very similar manner to PGE2or 11-deoxy PGE1. It suppresses both basal and TGF-β induced COL mRNA levels. Both PGE2 and 11-deoxy PGE1 increase cAMP to a level comparable with forskolin. The role of the EP2 receptor in controlling collagen production is further underscored in the immortalized Rat-1 fibroblasts, derived from Fischer rat embryos, which do not express detectable EP2 mRNA. In these cells, PGE2 has little effect on COL mRNA level, whereas forskolin increases it. Furthermore, forskolin increases cAMP level in Rat-1 cells, whereas PGE2 does not. Overall, these results illustrate that much of the PGE2 action on the expression of COL, LO, and COX1 genes is mediated through the EP2 receptor and a subsequent increase in intracellular cAMP. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:254-263, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 143
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: SPARC ; endothelial cell ; cell spreading ; focal adhesion ; actin ; vinculin ; PTK inhibitors ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: SPARC, a counteradhesive matricellular protein, inhibits endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation, but the pathways through which these activities are blocked are not known. In this study, we used inhibitors of major signaling proteins to identify mediators through which SPARC exerts its counteradhesive and antiproliferative functions. Pretreatments with the general protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, protected against the inhibitory effect of SPARC on bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cell spreading by more than 60 %. Similar pretreatments with PTK inhibitors significantly blocked the diminishment of focal adhesions by SPARC in confluent BAE cell monolayers, as determined by the formation of actin stress-fibers and the distribution of vinculin in focal adhesion plaques. Inhibition of endothelial cell cycle progression by SPARC and a calcium-binding SPARC peptide, however, was not affected by PTK inhibitors. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by SPARC was not reversed by inhibitors of the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), or of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but was sensitive to pertussis (and to a lesser extent, cholera) toxin. The counteradhesive effect of SPARC on endothelial cells is, therefore, mediated through a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent pathway, whereas its antiproliferative function is dependent, in part, on signal transduction via a G protein-coupled receptor. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:543-552, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 144
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: skin ; signaling ; wound healing ; skin diseases ; receptor regulation ; cell proliferation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Keratinocytes play a critical role in re-epithelialization during wound healing, and alterations in keratinocyte proliferation and function are associated with the development of various skin diseases. Although it is well documented that TGF-β has profound effects on keratinocyte growth and function, there is a paucity of information on the types, isoform specificity and complex formation of TGF-β receptors on keratinocytes. Here, we report that in addition to the types I, II, and III TGF-β receptors, early passage adult and neonatal human keratinocytes display a cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored 150 kDa TGF-β1 binding protein. The identities of the four proteins were confirmed on the basis of their affinity for TGF-β isoforms, immunoprecipitation with specific anti-receptor antibodies, sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase C and dithiothreitol, and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Interestingly, the antitype I TGF-β receptor antibody immunoprecipitated not only the type I receptor, but also the type II receptor and the 150 kDa component, suggesting that the 150 kDa component form heteromeric complexes with the signalling receptors. In addition, two-dimensional (nonreducing/reducing) electrophoresis confirmed the occurrence of a heterotrimeric complex consisting of the 150 kDa TGF-β1 binding protein, the type II receptor, and the type I receptor. This technique also demonstrated the occurrence of types I and II heterodimers and type I homodimers of TGF-β receptors on keratinocytes, supporting the heterotetrameric model of TGF-β signalling proposed using mutant cells and cells transfected to overexpress these receptors. The keratinocytes responded to TGF-β by markedly downregulating all four TGF-β binding proteins and by potently inhibiting DNA synthesis. The demonstration that the 150 kDa GPI-anchored TGF-β1 binding protein forms a heteromeric complex with the TGF-β signalling receptors suggests that this GPI-anchored protein may modify TGF-β signalling in human keratinocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:573-586, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 145
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: HGF/SF ; MSH ; c-met ; tyrosinase ; B16 melanoma ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Reiterated selection in vivo of B16 murine melanoma cells for enhanced liver metastatic ability yielded a cell line (B16-LS9) dramatically overexpressing a constitutively active hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) receptor, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene. Most likely because of their overexpressing c-met, B16-LS9 cells appear to be more responsive than parental B16-F1 cells to HGF stimulation, in terms of motility, invasion, and growth. They are also more pigmented, and express higher levels of tyrosinase as compared to parental B16-F1 cells. Therefore, we set out to explore whether HGF/SF and the liver might influence the differentiation state of B16 cells. We found that HGF/SF and MSH, two factors which reportedly have a strong influence on the phenotype and the malignant behavior of melanoma cells, may act at different levels, and with opposite results, on the regulation of gene expression. In fact, while MSH induces, at the transcriptional level, an increase in the production of both c-met and tyrosinase, HGF/SF, in contrast, promotes a decrease in the expression of both c-met and tyrosinase, however at a posttranscriptional level. These two opposite effects can counter-balance each other, when the cells are treated with both factors at the same time, apparently through a mechanism involving MAP kinase activation. The effects were, however, additive when morphological changes were considered. Most intriguingly, we also describe a very strong downregulatory activity, limited to tyrosinase expression, by hepatocytes in coculture with B16 cells. This activity, also at the posttranscriptional level, is much stronger than that exerted by HGF/SF, and appears to be due to a labile soluble factor produced by the hepatocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:264-276, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 146
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: heart ; development ; MAPK ; MEK ; MEKK ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The loss of ability to proliferate (terminal differentiation) and reduction in capability to resist ischemia are key phenomena observed during postnatal development of the heart. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate signaling pathways for cell proliferation/differentiation and stress responses such as ischemia. In this study, the expression of these kinases and their associated kinases were investigated in rat heart ventricle. Extracts of 1-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 365-day-old rat heart ventricles were probed with specific antibodies and their immunoreactivities were quantified by densitometry. Most of the mitogenic protein kinases including Raf1, RafB, Mek1, Erk2, and Rsk1 were significantly down-regulated, whereas the stress signaling kinases, such as Mlk3, Mekk1, Sek1, Mkk3, and Mapkapk2 were up-regulated in expression during postnatal development. Most MAP kinases including Erk1, JNKs, p38 Hog, as well as Rsk2, however, did not exhibit postnatal changes in expression. The proto-oncogene-encoded kinases Mos and Cot/Tpl 2 were up-regulated up to two- and four-fold, respectively, during development. Pak1, which may be involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton as well as in stress signaling, was downregulated with age, but the Pak2 isoform increased only after 50 days. All of these proteins, except RafB, were also detected in the isolated adult ventricular myocytes at comparable levels to those found in adult ventricle. Tissue distribution studies revealed that most of the protein kinases that were up-regulated during heart development tended to be preferentially expressed in heart, whereas the downregulated protein kinases were generally expressed in heart at relatively lesser amounts than in most of other tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:286-301, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 147
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 72 (1998), S. 123-128 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A variety of oligosaccharide signals have been identified that function in the regulation of plant development, defense, and other interactions of plants with the environment. Some of these oligosaccharides are produced by various pathogens or symbionts, whereas others are synthesized by the plant itself. This mini-review summarizes our present state of information on these oligosaccharide signals and provides an overview of approaches being used to identify receptors for these signals and gain an understanding of the mechanism(s) by which these signals activate downstream events. Possible biotechnological applications of future work in this field are also considered. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:123-128, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 148
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: secretion ; SNARE hypothesis ; priming, fusion competence ; phosphoinositides ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Maintenance of compartmental independence and diversity is part of the blueprint of the eukaryotic cell. The molecular composition of every organelle membrane is custom tailored to fulfill its unique tasks. It is retained by strict sorting and directional transport of newly synthesized cellular components by the use of specific transport vesicles. Temporally and spatially controlled membrane fission and fusion steps thus represent the basic process for delivery of both, membrane-bound and soluble components to their appropriate destination. This process is fundamental to cell growth, organelle inheritance during cell division, uptake and intracellular transport of membrane-bound and soluble molecules, and neuronal communication. The latter process has become one of the best studied examples in terms of regulatory mechanisms of membrane interactions. It has been dissected into the stages of transmitter vesicle docking, priming, and fusion: Specificity of membrane interactions depends on interactions between sets of organelle-specific membrane proteins. Priming of the secretory apparatus is an ATP-dependent process involving proteins and membrane phospholipids. Release of vesicle content is triggered by a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ levels that relieves a block previously established between the membranes poised to fuse. Neurotransmitter release is a paradigm of highly regulated intracellular membrane interaction and molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon begin to be delineated. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:103-110, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 149
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 72 (1998), S. 137-146 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: G proteins ; signal transduction ; protein tyrosine kinases ; PMN ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Complex cellular responses involve the integration of heterotrimeric G protein systems with protein kinase signal transduction pathways. Key in this integration is the control of small GTP-binding proteins including Ras and Rho family members. In this paper, we discuss the control of signal transduction pathways by G proteins and their integration with specific tyrosine kinases. The integration of G proteins, kinases, and small GTP-binding proteins in controlling cellular responses is illustrated through the newly defined Gα12/13-regulated pathways. Furthermore, the polymorphonuclear leukocyte provides a primary cell system for analyzing the integration of G proteins, kinases, and small GTP-binding proteins in controlling cellular functions such as superoxide production, adherence, chemotaxis, and granule secretion. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:137-146, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 150
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: LPA ; S1P ; G protein ; intracellular signaling pathways ; Edg receptors ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are potent phospholipid mediators with diverse biological activities. Their appearance and functional properties suggest possible roles in development, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The growth-stimulating and other complex biological activities of LPA and S1P are attributable in part to the activation of multiple G protein-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. Several heterotrimeric G proteins, as well as Ras- and Rho-dependent pathways play central roles in the cellular responses to LPA and S1P. Recently, several G protein-coupled receptors encoded by a family of endothelial differentiation genes (edg) have been shown to bind LPA or S1P and transduce responses of cAMP, Ca2+, MAP kinases, Rho, and gene transcription. This review summarizes our current understanding of signaling pathways critical for cellular responses to LPA and S1P and of recent progress in the molecular biological analyses of the Edg receptors. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:147-157, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 151
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: protein kinase CK2 ; holoenzyme ; α- and β-subunits ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous eukaryotic ser/thr protein kinase. The active holoenzyme is a heterotetrameric protein composed of catalytic (α and α′) and regulatory (β) subunits that phosphorylates many different protein substrates and appears to be involved in the regulation of cell division. Despite important structural studies, the intimate details of the interactions of the α catalytic subunits with the β regulatory subunits are unknown. Recent evidence that indicates that both CK2 subunits can interact promiscuously with other proteins in a manner that excludes the binding of their complementary CK2 partners has opened the possibility that the phosphorylating activity of this enzyme may be regulated in a novel way. These alternative interactions could limit the in vivo availability of CK2 subunits to generate fully active holoenzyme CK2 tetramers. Likewise, variations in the ratio of α- and β-subunits could determine the activity of several phosphorylating and dephosphorylating activities. The promiscuity of the CK2 subunits can be extrapolated to a more widespread phenomenon in which “wild-card” proteins could act as general switches by interacting and regulating several catalytic activities. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:129-136, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 152
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nucleosome ; chromosomes ; DNA ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 153
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cadherin ; catenin ; differentiation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cadherins form a family of cell-cell adhesion proteins that are critical to normal embryonic development. Expression of the various family members is regulated in a complex pattern during embryogenesis. Both reduced and inappropriate expression of cadherins have been associated with abnormal tissue formation in embryos and tumorigenesis in mature organisms. Evidence is accumulating that signals unique to individual members of the cadherin family, as well as signals common to multiple cadherins, contribute to the differentiated phenotype of various cell types. While a complete understanding of the regulation of cadherin expression of the molecular nature of intracellular signaling downstream of cadherin adhesion is essential to an understanding of embryogenesis and tumorigenesis, our knowledge in both areas is inadequate. Clearly, elucidating the factors and conditions that regulate cadherin expression and defining the signaling pathways activated by cadherins are frontiers for future research. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:168-176, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 154
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 72 (1998), S. 158-167 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: peroxisomes ; lipid metabolism ; H2O2 metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Gene targeting and the elucidation of mutations underlying inherited peroxisomal diseases have provided new insights in peroxisomal lipid metabolism in vivo. The work led to the identification of a novel peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway and established clearly that genes, which are required for efficient peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, at the same time are key regulators of PPARα function in vivo. The new mouse models may provide helpful tools in the search for unknown natural PPARα agonists and in screening for in vivo PPARα antagonists. J. Cell Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:158-167, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 155
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear architecture ; gene expression ; tumor cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology