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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (241,953)
  • Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)  (190,459)
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  • 101
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: Structural and morphological characterization of a Si(110) film heteroepitaxied on 3C-SiC(001)/Si(001) on-axis template by chemical vapor deposition has been performed. An antiphase domain (APD) free 3C-SiC layer was used showing a roughness limited to 1 nm. This leads to a smooth Si film with a roughness of only 3 nm for a film thickness of 400 nm. The number of rotation domains in the Si(110) epilayer was found to be two on this APD-free 3C-SiC surface. This is attributed to the in-plane azimuthal misalignment of the mirror planes between the two involved materials. We prove that fundamentally no further reduction of the number of domains can be expected for the given substrate. We suggest the necessity to use off-axis substrates to eventually favor a single domain growth.
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  • 102
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: The nonedible based biodiesels (jatropha, karanja, mahua, and polanga) have been evaluated in a single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine for their performance, combustion, and emission parameters using hybrid response surface methodology-non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II technique. The sets of pareto optimum solutions for each biodiesel produced have also been presented in the form. Confirmation tests are also conducted at randomly selected few pareto solutions to check the authenticity of the results. None of the solutions is better than the other, and each solution has its own importance. The summary of desired performance, combustion, and emission parameters of produced biodiesels is presented for further use in the diesel engine. The results obtained are far reaching and they can be directly referred to for similar types of diesel engines.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 103
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 10 6 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m 2 to 29 mJ/m 2 . Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ∼100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ∼10 −9 Ω −1 , which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.
    Print ISSN: 1070-6631
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  • 104
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: Experiments are carried out on the interaction and coalescence of two, three, and four bubbles with approximately the same sizes, distributed evenly and symmetrically. The bubbles are generated simultaneously by electric discharges, using an in-house designed series circuit, and their interaction is captured using a high-speed camera. Particular attentions are paid to if/when coalescence of bubbles happens and the motion of the joined bubbles. Some new features are observed, which depend mainly on the dimensionless distance γ bb = d bb / R max , where d bb is the inter-bubble distance and R max is the maximum bubble radius. For γ bb 〉 2, a jet forms and penetrates each side bubble, directed to the center of the configuration, resulting in a protrusion. Towards the end of collapse, a large portion of bubble gases is compressed into the protrusion from the main part of the toroidal bubble. For γ bb 〈 2, the bubbles coalesce during expansion, and the part of the joined bubble’s surface distal from the center of the configuration collapses faster than elsewhere. The experiments show that the oscillation period of multi-bubbles does not change appreciably without coalescence but increases significantly with coalescence. For three bubbles initiated at collinear positions with γ bb 〉 2, the jets that form from the side bubbles are towards the middle, and the middle bubble splits into two parts, moving towards the two side bubbles. For γ bb 〈 2, the side bubbles merge with the middle bubble during expansion, forming an ellipsoid bubble; the joined bubble collapses predominantly from two sides, where two inward jets form towards the end of collapse.
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  • 105
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: We theoretically and computationally examined carrier localization in semiconducting edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons (ED-GNRs) with sub-100 nm lengths that correspond to the typical gate length for field-effect transistors. We numerically found that the localization length of ED-GNRs is proportional to the square of ribbon width and inversely proportional to the edge-disorder concentration. Furthermore, we obtained an analytical formula of the localization length in terms of the GNR width and the roughness concentration.
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  • 106
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) were investigated for a 620 nm AlGaInP red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a 450 nm GaInN blue LED, and a 285 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LED. We observed distinct differences in the variation of the EQE with temperature and current density for the three types of LEDs. Whereas the EQE of the AlGaInP red LED increases as temperature decreases below room temperature, the EQEs of GaInN blue and AlGaN DUV LEDs decrease for the same change in temperature in a low-current density regime. The free carrier concentration, as determined from the dopant ionization energy, shows a strong material-system-specific dependence, leading to different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration for the three types of LEDs. We attribute the EQE variation of the red, blue, and DUV LEDs to the different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration, which can be exacerbated at cryogenic temperatures. As for the EQE variation with temperature in a high-current density regime, the efficiency droop for the AlGaInP red and GaInN blue LEDs becomes more apparent as temperature decreases, due to the deterioration of the asymmetry in carrier concentration. However, the EQE of the AlGaN DUV LED initially decreases, then reaches an EQE minimum point, and then increases again due to the field-ionization of acceptors by the Poole-Frenkel effect. The results elucidate that carrier transport phenomena allow for the understanding of the droop phenomenon across different material systems, temperatures, and current densities.
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  • 107
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: Radio blackout during the re-entry has puzzled the aerospace industry for decades and has not yet been completely resolved. To achieve a continuous data link in the spacecraft's re-entry period, a simple and practicable communication method is proposed on the basis that (1) the electromagnetic-wave backscatter of the plasma sheath affects the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the antenna, and the backscatter is negatively correlated to transmission components, and (2) the transmission attenuation caused by the plasma sheath reduces the channel capacity. We detect the voltage standing wave ratio changes of the antenna and then adjust the information rate to accommodate the varying channel capacity, thus guaranteeing continuous transmission (for fewer critical data). The experiment was carried out in a plasma generator with an 18-cm-thick and 30-cm-diameter hollow propagation path, and the adaptive communication was implemented using spread spectrum frequency, shift key modulation with a variable spreading factor. The experimental results indicate that, when the over-threshold of VSWR was detected, the bit rate reduced to 250 bps from 4 Mbps automatically and the tolerated plasma density increased by an order of magnitude, which validates the proposed scheme. The proposed method has little additional cost, and the adaptive control does not require a feedback channel. The method is therefore applicable to data transmission in a single direction, such as that of a one-way telemetry system.
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  • 108
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: We investigate point defects in CdS buffer layers that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) or Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the migration barriers of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities and assess the activation energies necessary for their diffusion into the bulk of the buffer. We find that Cu, In, and Ga are the most mobile defects in CIGS-derived impurities, with diffusion expected to proceed into the buffer via interstitial-hopping and cadmium vacancy-assisted mechanisms at temperatures ∼400 °C. Cu is predicted to strongly favor migration paths within the basal plane of the wurtzite CdS lattice, which may facilitate defect clustering and ultimately the formation of Cu-rich interfacial phases as observed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic elemental maps in real PV devices. Se, Zn, and Sn defects are found to exhibit much larger activation energies and are not expected to diffuse within the CdS bulk at temperatures compatible with typical PV processing temperatures. Lastly, we find that Na interstitials are expected to exhibit slightly lower activation energies than K interstitials despite having a larger migration barrier. Still, we find both alkali species are expected to diffuse via an interstitially mediated mechanism at slightly higher temperatures than enable In, Ga, and Cu diffusion in the bulk. Our results indicate that processing temperatures in excess of ∼400 °C will lead to more interfacial intermixing with CdS buffer layers in CIGSe devices, and less so for CZTSSe absorbers where only Cu is expected to significantly diffuse into the buffer.
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  • 109
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The reaction rate rises and falls with increasing density or friction when a molecule is activated by collisions with the solvent particles. This so-called Kramers turnover has recently been observed in the isomerization reaction of LiCN in an argon bath. In this paper, we demonstrate by direct comparison with those results that a reduced-dimensional (generalized) Langevin description gives rise to similar reaction dynamics as the corresponding (computationally expensive) full molecular dynamics calculations. We show that the density distributions within the Langevin description are in direct agreement with the full molecular dynamics results and that the turnover in the reaction rates is reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively at different temperatures.
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  • 110
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    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: It is theoretically shown that the emission spectra from an excited Jahn-Teller state in which the ions undergo a forced periodic trajectory have an M-shaped form, directly due to the sign change by the Berry-phase factor. The presence of a weak spectral sideline is noted and the effects of a nonlinear vibronic coupling are calculated. Experimental verifications of the results, e.g., on R′-centers in LiF, are proposed. The dip in the M-shaped emission line is a novel, and perhaps unique, spectroscopic manifestation of the “molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.”
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  • 111
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: Landau-Ginzburg thermodynamic formalism is used for the description of the anomalous ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and magnetoelectric properties of Pb(Fe 1/2 Ta 1/2 ) x (Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 ) 1−x O 3 and Pb(Fe 1/2 Nb 1/2 ) x (Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 ) 1−x O 3 micro-ceramics. We calculated temperature, composition, and external field dependences of ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phases transition temperatures, remanent polarization, magnetization, hysteresis loops, dielectric permittivity, and magnetoelectric coupling. Special attention was paid to the comparison of developed theory with experiments. It appeared possible to describe adequately main experimental results including a reasonable agreement between the shape of calculated and measured hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Since Landau-Ginzburg thermodynamic formalism appertains to single domain properties of a ferroic, we did not aim to describe quantitatively the coercive field under the presence of realistic poly-domain switching. Information about linear and nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling coefficients was extracted from the experimental data. From the fitting of experimental data with theoretical formula, we obtained the composition dependence of Curie-Weiss constant that is known to be inversely proportional to harmonic (linear) dielectric stiffness, as well as the strong nonlinear dependence of anharmonic parameters in free energy. Keeping in mind the essential influence of these parameters on multiferroic properties, the obtained results open the way to govern practically all the material properties with the help of suitable composition choice. A forecast of the strong enough influence of antiferrodistortive order parameter on the transition temperatures and so on the phase diagrams and properties of multiferroics are made on the basis of the developed theory.
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  • 112
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: The optical bistability and multistability properties of a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are studied theoretically. Two orthogonal circularly polarized laser fields with the same frequency, different phases and electric fields amplitude are interacted by four-level quantum system. It is found that in the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, the bistable behaviors related to one of the laser fields propagating through the unidirectional ring cavity can be modified by relative phase and amplitude control of another laser fields. Our obtained results show that the optical bistability can be converted into the optical multistability by varying the value of distance between the quantum system and the surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. Moreover, it is shown that under specific condition related to the distance, the lasing without population inversion can be obtained.
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  • 113
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: We employ dispersion-corrected density-functional theory to study the adsorption of tetrapyrrole 2H-porphine (2H-P) at Cu(111) and Ag(111). Various contributions to adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions are systematically extracted to analyze the self-assembly behavior of this basic building block to porphyrin-based metal-organic nanostructures. This analysis reveals a surprising importance of substrate-mediated van der Waals interactions between 2H-P molecules, in contrast to negligible direct dispersive interactions. The resulting net repulsive interactions rationalize the experimentally observed tendency for single molecule adsorption.
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  • 114
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: Domain based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory with single-, double-, and perturbative triple excitations (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) is a highly efficient local correlation method. It is known to be accurate and robust and can be used in a black box fashion in order to obtain coupled cluster quality total energies for large molecules with several hundred atoms. While previous implementations showed near linear scaling up to a few hundred atoms, several nonlinear scaling steps limited the applicability of the method for very large systems. In this work, these limitations are overcome and a linear scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) method for closed shell systems is reported. The new implementation is based on the concept of sparse maps that was introduced in Part I of this series [P. Pinski, C. Riplinger, E. F. Valeev, and F. Neese, J. Chem. Phys. 143 , 034108 (2015)]. Using the sparse map infrastructure, all essential computational steps (integral transformation and storage, initial guess, pair natural orbital construction, amplitude iterations, triples correction) are achieved in a linear scaling fashion. In addition, a number of additional algorithmic improvements are reported that lead to significant speedups of the method. The new, linear-scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) implementation typically is 7 times faster than the previous implementation and consumes 4 times less disk space for large three-dimensional systems. For linear systems, the performance gains and memory savings are substantially larger. Calculations with more than 20 000 basis functions and 1000 atoms are reported in this work. In all cases, the time required for the coupled cluster step is comparable to or lower than for the preceding Hartree-Fock calculation, even if this is carried out with the efficient resolution-of-the-identity and chain-of-spheres approximations. The new implementation even reduces the error in absolute correlation energies by about a factor of two, compared to the already accurate previous implementation.
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  • 115
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138 , 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and mathematical mechanisms of the present photon emission.
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  • 116
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: Methacrolein is a major oxidation product of isoprene emitted in the troposphere. New spectroscopy information is provided with the aim to allow unambiguous identification of this complex molecule, characterized by a large amplitude motion associated with the methyl top. State-of-the-art millimeter-wave spectroscopy experiments coupled to quantum chemical calculations have been performed. For the most stable s-trans conformer of atmospheric interest, the torsional and rotational structures have been characterized for the ground state, the first excited methyl torsional state ( ν 27 ), and the first excited skeletal torsional state ( ν 26 ). The inverse sequence of A and E tunneling sub-states as well as anomalous A-E splittings observed for the rotational lines of v 26 = 1 state clearly indicates a coupling between methyl torsion and skeletal torsion. A comprehensive set of molecular parameters has been obtained. The far infrared spectrum of Durig et al. [Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 42 , 89–103 (1986)] was reproduced, and a Fermi interaction between ν 25 and 2 ν 27 was evidenced.
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  • 117
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: We present in this contribution a comprehensive investigation of the effect of the size of gold nanospheres on the decay and energy transfer rates of quantum systems placed close to these nanospheres. These phenomena have been investigated before, theoretically and experimentally, but no comprehensive study of the influence of the nanoparticle size on important dependences of the decay and energy transfer rates, such as the dependence on the donor-acceptor spectral overlap and the relative positions of the donor, acceptor, and nanoparticle, exists. As such, different accounts of the energy transfer mechanism have been presented in the literature. We perform an investigation of the energy transfer mechanisms between emitters and gold nanospheres and between donor-acceptor pairs in the presence of the gold nanospheres using a Green’s tensor formalism, experimentally verified in our lab. We find that the energy transfer rate to small nanospheres is greatly enhanced, leading to a strong quenching of the emission of the emitter. When the nanosphere size is increased, it acts as an antenna, increasing the emission of the emitter. We also investigate the emission wavelength and intrinsic quantum yield dependence of the energy transfer to the nanosphere. As evidenced from the literature, the energy transfer process between the quantum system and the nanosphere can have a complicated distance dependence, with a r −6 regime, characteristic of the Förster energy transfer mechanism, but also exhibiting other distance dependences. In the case of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum systems in the presence of a gold nanosphere, when the donor couples strongly to the nanosphere, acting as an enhanced dipole; the donor-acceptor energy transfer rate then follows a Förster trend, with an increased Förster radius. The coupling of the acceptor to the nanosphere has a different distance dependence. The angular dependence of the energy transfer efficiency between donor and acceptor exhibits a strong focusing effect and the same enhanced donor-dipole character in different angular arrangements. The spectral overlap of the donor emission and acceptor absorption spectra shows that the energy transfer follows the near-field scattering efficiency, with a red-shift from the localized surface plasmon peak for small sphere sizes.
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  • 118
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: A new general computational procedure is presented to obtain photoconductivities starting from atomic structures, combining ab initio electronic energy band states with populations from density matrix theory, and implemented for a specific set of materials based on Si crystalline slabs and their nanostructured surfaces without and with adsorbed Ag clusters. The procedure accounts for charge mobility in semiconductors in photoexcited states, and specifically electron and hole photomobilities at Si(111) surfaces with and without adsorbed Ag clusters using ab initio energy bands and orbitals generated from a generalized gradient functional, however with excited energy levels modified to provide correct bandgaps. Photoexcited state populations for each band and carrier type were generated using steady state solution of a reduced density matrix which includes dissipative medium effects. The present calculations provide photoexcited electronic populations and photoinduced mobilities resulting from applied electric fields and obtained from the change of driven electron energies with their electronic momentum. Extensive results for Si slabs with 8 layers, without and with adsorbed Ag clusters, show that the metal adsorbates lead to substantial increases in the photomobility and photoconductivity of electrons and holes.
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  • 119
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: We report the tailoring of the electronic structure of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) using a mixture layer of polyaniline:poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid) (PANI:PSS) in organic multilayer PVK/PANI:PSS/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):PSS heterojunctions. The overall electronic structure of the PVK overlayer was systematically down-shifted while the work function of PANI:PSS increased as a function of the PSS-to-PANI weight ratio for the ratio range from 1 to 11 in the PANI:PSS film. The down-shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital of PVK markedly reduced the hole injection barrier from PVK to quantum-dot (QD) layers in QD-light emitting diode (QD-LED) structures, resulting in superior electrical and electroluminescent characteristics for QD-LEDs. The influences of PANI:PSS thickness on the electronic structure of PVK and the performance of QD-LEDs are also discussed.
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  • 120
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Understanding the impact and complex interaction of thermal carrier scattering centers in functional oxide systems is critical to their progress and application. In this work, we study the interplay among electron and phonon thermal transport, mass-impurity scattering, and phonon-vacancy interactions on the thermal conductivity of cadmium oxide. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a set of CdO thin films doped with Dy up to the saturation limit. Using measurements at room temperature and 80 K, our results suggest that the enhancement in thermal conductivity at low Dy concentrations is dominated by an increase in the electron mobility due to a decrease in oxygen vacancy concentration. Furthermore, we find that at intermediate doping concentrations, the subsequent decrease in thermal conductivity can be ascribed to a large reduction in phononic thermal transport due to both point defect and cation-vacancy scattering. With these results, we gain insight into the complex dynamics driving phonon scattering and resulting thermal transport in functional oxides.
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  • 121
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: The intrinsic thermal noise in optical fibers represents the ultimate limit for fiber-based systems. However, at infrasonic frequencies, the spectral behavior of the intrinsic thermal noise is still unclear. In this letter, we present measurements of the fundamental thermal noise in optical fibers that are obtained using a balanced fiber Michelson interferometer. When an ultra-stable laser is used as the laser source and other noise sources are carefully controlled, the 1/f spectral density of the thermal noise is observed down to infrasonic frequencies, and the measured magnitude is consistent with the results of theoretical predictions at frequencies over the range from 0.2 Hz to 20 kHz. Moreover, as observed experimentally, the level of the 1/f thermal noise can be reduced by changing the coatings of the optical fibers. This therefore indicates one possible way to reduce thermal noise in optical fibers at low Fourier frequencies. Finally, the inconsistency between the experimental data and the existing theory for thermomechanical noise is discussed.
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  • 122
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: In this work, we present the creation and characterisation of single photon emitters at the surface of 4H- and 6H-SiC, and of 3C-SiC epitaxially grown on silicon. These emitters can be created by annealing in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures above 550 °C. By using standard confocal microscopy techniques, we find characteristic spectral signatures in the visible region. The excited state lifetimes are found to be in the nanosecond regime in all three polytypes, and the emission dipoles are aligned with the lattice. HF-etching is shown to effectively annihilate the defects and to restore an optically clean surface. The defects described in this work have ideal characteristics for broadband single photon generation in the visible spectral region at room temperature and for integration into nanophotonic devices.
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  • 123
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.
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  • 124
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: DTS-(FBTTh 2 ) 2 is a prominent solution-processable small-molecule donor for donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics. Power conversion efficiency of DTS-(FBTTh 2 ) 2 based photovoltaic devices exceeds 8%. This paper reports on the distribution of sub-bandgap trap states in DTS-(FBTTh 2 ) 2 . Trap states were probed using admittance spectroscopy and low-frequency capacitance-voltage profiling and analyzed using established theoretical models. Three distributions were revealed in the trap density of states energy spectra. Key observations were (1) thicker solution-processed films with higher drying time had 55% less traps than thinner films that dried relative faster (2) blending of DTS-(FBTTh 2 ) 2 with the acceptor PC 70 BM introduced traps at the center of the donor-acceptor interfacial bandgap. Charge carrier dynamics in DTS-(FBTTh 2 ) 2 based thin-films was also characterized using impedance spectroscopy.
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  • 125
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: The global ground and first three excited electronic state adiabatic as well as the corresponding quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces is reported as a function of nuclear geometries in the Jacobi coordinates ( R → , r → , γ ) using Dunning’s cc-p VTZ basis set at the internally contracted multi-reference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy. Nonadiabatic couplings, arising out of relative motion of proton and the vibrational motion of CO, are also reported in terms of coupling potentials. The quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces and the coupling potentials have been obtained using the ab initio procedure [Simah et al. , J. Chem. Phys. 111 , 4523 (1999)] for the purpose of dynamics studies.
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  • 126
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.
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  • 127
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb 0.88 La 0.08 )(Zr 0.91 Ti 0.09 )O 3 was found to be an ideal candidate. La 3+ doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm 3 with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.
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  • 128
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: The vacuum current associated with any type of electron emission for arbitrary configuration of the diode depends on the combination of the applied electric field and vacuum space charge (VSC) field created by the current. Such fundamental statement should give very close links between the diode current and the normalized cathode field θ which has been introduced by Forbes in 2008 for planar diodes as a reduction in the cathode surface field: θ  = field-with/field-without VSC. This article reports the universal approximation of the type of cos( πθ /2) that is the ratio of the actual current and the fully space-charge-limited current. Also, the theoretical treatment and the experimental method of determination of the dynamic emissive characteristics of the macroscopic explosive emission from edge-type cathodes in the coaxial diode are developed. The experimental results obtained with a picosecond time reference between the cathode voltage and the onset of the high-current electron beam exhibit a good coincidence with the theoretical predictions. The presented methods enable the analysis of a real-time-resolved dynamics associated with the dense, magnetized electron beam formation, acceleration and drift motion, including kinematic effects and the phase-stable excitation of high-power microwave oscillators.
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  • 129
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.
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  • 130
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: We devised a global optimization (GO) strategy for optimizing molecular properties with respect to both geometry and chemical composition. A relative index of thermodynamic stability (RITS) is introduced to allow meaningful energy comparisons between different chemical species. We use the RITS by itself, or in combination with another calculated property, to create an objective function F to be minimized. Including the RITS in the definition of F ensures that the solutions have some degree of thermodynamic stability. We illustrate how the GO strategy works with three test applications, with F calculated in the framework of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KS-DFT) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation. First, we searched the composition and configuration space of C m H n N p O q ( m = 0–4, n = 0–10, p = 0–2, q = 0–2, and 2 ≤ m + n + p + q ≤ 12) for stable molecules. The GO discovered familiar molecules like N 2 , CO 2 , acetic acid, acetonitrile, ethane, and many others, after a small number (5000) of KS-DFT energy evaluations. Second, we carried out a GO of the geometry of Cu m Sn n + ( m = 1, 2 and n = 9–12). A single GO run produced the same low-energy structures found in an earlier study where each Cu m S n n + species had been optimized separately. Finally, we searched bimetallic clusters A m B n (3 ≤ m + n ≤ 6, A,B= Li, Na, Al, Cu, Ag, In, Sn, Pb) for species and configurations having a low RITS and large highest occupied Molecular Orbital (MO) to lowest unoccupied MO energy gap ( E g ). We found seven bimetallic clusters with E g 〉 1.5 eV.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
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  • 131
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Ro-vibrational term values of the 3 1 Σ g + state of 85,85 Rb 2 and 85,87 Rb 2 and resolved fluorescence spectra to the A 1 Σ u + state are recorded following optical–optical double resonance excitation. The experimental data are heavily perturbed, and as a result, the standard analysis based on Dunham series representation of the energy levels fails. The analysis is done via modeling the adiabatic potential function with the Rydberg–Klein–Rees potential constructed from the generalized smoothing spline interpolation of the vibrational energies G v and rotational constants B v .
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  • 132
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: We discuss and analyze four magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR methods that can be used to measure internuclear distances and to obtain correlation spectra between a spin I = 1/2 and a half-integer spin S 〉 1/2 having a small quadrupolar coupling constant. Three of the methods are based on the heteronuclear multiple-quantum and single-quantum correlation experiments, that is, high rank tensors that involve the half spin and the quadrupolar spin are generated. Here, both zero and single-quantum coherence of the half spins are allowed and various coherence orders of the quadrupolar spin are generated, and filtered, via active recoupling of the dipolar interaction. As a result of generating coherence orders larger than one, the spectral resolution for the quadrupolar nucleus increases linearly with the coherence order. Since the formation of high rank tensors is independent of the existence of a finite quadrupolar interaction, these experiments are also suitable to materials in which there is high symmetry around the quadrupolar spin. A fourth experiment is based on the initial quadrupolar-driven excitation of symmetric high order coherences (up to p = 2S, where S is the spin number) and subsequently generating by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction higher rank ( l + 1 or higher) tensors that involve also the half spins. Due to the nature of this technique, it also provides information on the relative orientations of the quadrupolar and dipolar interaction tensors. For the ideal case in which the pulses are sufficiently strong with respect to other interactions, we derive analytical expressions for all experiments as well as for the transferred echo double resonance experiment involving a quadrupolar spin. We show by comparison of the fitting of simulations and the analytical expressions to experimental data that the analytical expressions are sufficiently accurate to provide experimental 7 Li– 13 C distances in a complex of lithium, glycine, and water. Discussion of the regime for which such an approach is valid is given.
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  • 133
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: A global Linear Stability Analysis (LSA) of the three-dimensional flow past a nearly oblate spheroidal gas bubble rising in still liquid is carried out, considering the actual bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained for various sets of Galilei ( Ga ) and Bond ( Bo ) numbers in axisymmetric numerical simulations. Hence, this study extends the stability analysis approach of Tchoufag et al. [“Linear stability and sensitivity of the flow past a fixed oblate spheroidal bubble,” Phys. Fluids 25 , 054108 (2013) and “Linear instability of the path of a freely rising spheroidal bubble,” J. Fluid Mech. 751 , R4 (2014)] (which considered perfectly spheroidal bubbles with an arbitrary aspect ratio) to the case of bubbles with a realistic fore-aft asymmetric shape (i.e., a flatter front and a more rounded rear). The critical curve separating stable and unstable regimes for the straight vertical path is obtained both in the ( Ga , Bo ) and the ( Re , χ ) planes, where Re is the bubble Reynolds number and χ its aspect ratio (i.e., the major-to-minor axes length ratio). This provides new insight into the effect of the shape asymmetry on the wake instability of bubbles held fixed in a uniform stream and on the path instability of freely rising bubbles, respectively. For the range of Ga and Bo explored here, we find that the flow past a bubble with a realistic shape is generally more stable than that past a perfectly spheroidal bubble with the same aspect ratio. This study also provides the first critical curve for the onset of path instability that can be compared with experimental observations. The tendencies revealed by this critical curve agree well with those displayed by available data. The quantitative agreement is excellent for O (1) Bond numbers. However, owing to two simplifying assumptions used in the LSA scheme, namely, the steadiness of the base state and the uncoupling between the bubble shape and the flow disturbances, quantitative discrepancies (up to 20%–30%) with experimental threshold values of the Galilei number remain for both small and large Bond numbers.
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  • 134
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: A numerical study of the water entry of non-rotating and rotating rigid spheres under varying impact angles and Weber numbers is presented. The numerical algorithm uses a finite-volume discretization and the interface between the liquid and the gaseous phase is described by means of a volume-of-fluid method. An appropriate mesh translation allows the boundary condition at the surface of the moving and rotating particle to be accounted for. The simulation results are validated with experiments and found to be in very good agreement both qualitatively (evolution of cavity shape) and quantitatively (motion of particle with respect to time). An investigation of the influence of particle rotation on its water entry behavior is carried out as well as an analysis of the effect of wettability upon cavity formation. Notably, wettability of the sphere plays a role during the penetration of a free liquid surface, even at higher Weber numbers. During impact of small particles at low Weber numbers, the influence of capillary forces rises and the force emerging at the three phase contact line becomes predominant. This force is taken into account and its influence on the impact behavior is presented. It is shown that the interface penetration behavior, either water entry or escaping from water, mostly depends on the Weber number, the solid to liquid density ratio, and the particle’s wettability, while the impact angle has nearly no influence.
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  • 135
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: A model-based method for fault detection and early-stage isolation, applicable when unfaulty conditions can be identified only by a reduced number of trials (even only one), is presented. The basic idea is to model analytically the uncertainty of the unfaulty frequency response and express the fault condition in terms of the noise power variance. A preliminary fault isolation is carried out by sensitivity analysis in order to identify the most influencing model parameters and assess their influence on the estimated noise. Then, during maintenance tests, the noise power is checked to detect the faulty condition. This technique is conceived to check the quality of a critical component in an experimental installation (fault detection and early-stage isolation), as well as to detect its faulty dynamic behaviors over a long horizon maintenance test campaign (condition monitoring). The method was applied to four cold compressors with active magnetic bearings at CERN by proving to be able to detect an actual faulty condition in one of such compressors.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
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  • 136
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: It universally exists in moving particular systems that particles can be electrified, in which the particles are chemically identical, just as toner particles, coal dust, and pharmaceutical powders. However, owing to the limit of experimental instruments, so far, there are yet no experiments to illustrate whether a particle can be electrified due to a single collision between two spherical particles, and there are also no experiments to measure the charge carried by a single particle due to a single collision between two particles. So we have developed an instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spheres. The instrument consists of two-sphere collision device, collision charge measurement apparatus, and particles’ trajectory tracking system. By using this instrument, we can investigate the collision contact electrification due to a single collision between two spheres and simultaneously record the moving trajectories of spheres after the collision to calculate the rebound angles to identify the contribution of the triboelectrification due to the rubbing between the contact surfaces and the collision contact electrification due to the normal pressure between the contact surfaces.
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  • 137
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.
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  • 138
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.
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  • 139
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: We study an unusual working regime of a recently developed sub-terahertz microwave cavity-based switch. The resonator cavity includes a semiconductor plate which is illuminated by laser emission beyond the photoelectric threshold. Despite a significant change to the conventional process of photoelectric effect we have found that the switch works. Typical switching performance rate is about 1 μ s for the regime. A process of carrier density relaxation beyond the photoelectric threshold is discussed. An idea of diagnostic method for the semiconductor’s quality is proposed.
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  • 140
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: X-ray fluorescence probe for detection of foreign material inclusions on the inner surface of superconducting cavities has been developed and tested. The setup detects trace element content such as a few micrograms of impurities responsible for thermal breakdown phenomena limiting the cavity performance. The setup has been customized for the geometry of 1.3 GHz TESLA-type niobium cavities and focuses on the surface of equator area at around 103 mm from the centre axis of the cavities with around 20 mm detection spot. More precise localization of inclusions can be reconstructed by means of angular or lateral displacement of the cavity. Preliminary tests confirmed a very low detection limit for elements laying in the high efficiency spectrum zone (from 5 to 10 keV), and a high angular resolution allowing an accurate localization of defects within the equator surface.
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  • 141
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe 21+ ) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe 19+ ). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.
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  • 142
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: We introduce a one-dimensional model of the parity-time ( P T )-symmetric coupler, with mutually balanced linear gain and loss acting in the two cores, and nonlinearity represented by the combination of self-focusing cubic and defocusing quintic terms in each core. The system may be realized in optical waveguides, in the spatial and temporal domains alike. Stationary solutions for P T -symmetric solitons in the systems are tantamount to their counterparts in the ordinary coupler with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity, where the spontaneous symmetry breaking of solitons is accounted for by bifurcation loops . A novel problem is stability of the P T -symmetric solitons, which is affected by the competition of the P T symmetry, linear coupling, cubic self-focusing, and quintic defocusing. As a result, the solitons become unstable against symmetry breaking with the increase of the energy (alias integral power, in terms of the spatial-domain realization), and they retrieve the stability at still larger energies. Above a certain value of the strength of the quintic self-defocusing, the P T symmetry of the solitons becomes unbreakable . In the same system, P T -antisymmetric solitons are entirely unstable. We identify basic scenarios of the evolution of unstable solitons, which may lead to generation of additional ones, while stronger instability creates expanding quasi-turbulent patterns with limited amplitudes. Collisions between stable solitons are demonstrated to be quasi-elastic.
    Print ISSN: 1054-1500
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  • 143
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    In: Chaos
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: The open stadium billiard has a survival probability, P ( t ), that depends on the rate of escape of particles through the leak. It is known that the decay of P ( t ) is exponential early in time while for long times the decay follows a power law. In this work, we investigate an open stadium billiard in which the leak is free to rotate around the boundary of the stadium at a constant velocity, ω . It is found that P ( t ) is very sensitive to ω . For certain ω values P ( t ) is purely exponential while for other values the power law behaviour at long times persists. We identify three ranges of ω values corresponding to three different responses of P ( t ). It is shown that these variations in P ( t ) are due to the interaction of the moving leak with Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits (MUPOs).
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  • 144
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: In this report, we present a three dimensional (3D) imaging of magnetic field vector B → ( x,y,z ) emanating from the magnetic material surfaces using a scanning Hall probe microscopy (3D-SHPM) down to a 700 nm spatial resolution. The Hall probe is used to measure B z (x,y) on the specimen surface at different heights with the step size of Δ z =  250 nm, as we move away from the surface in z direction, until the field decays to zero. These set of images are then used to get ∂B z (x,y)/ ∂x and ∂B z (x,y)/ ∂y at different z by numerical differentiation. Using the Maxwell's equations in the source free region, B x (x,y) and B y (x,y) can be calculated by integrating ∂B z (x,y)/ ∂x and ∂B z (x,y)/ ∂y in the z direction. Alternatively, the gradients can also be measured in the Hall gradiometer configuration directly. The operation of the 3D-SHPM is demonstrated by imaging B x (x,y) , B y (x,y) and B z (x,y) on a hard disk specimen at a 700 nm resolution, using both of these methods at 77 K. The system is capable of operating from 300 K down to 4 K range.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 145
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was used to investigate the magnetization dynamics of an ultrathin (1.3 nm) CoFeB magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). By directly sending a radio frequency ( rf ) current into a millimeter-sized film sample without any lithography process, a resonant dc voltage can be detected along the Hall direction. This method was used to study the dynamic properties of ultrathin CoFeB films, such as the gyromagnetic ratio, amplitude of PMA field, and magnetic damping. The dc voltage was proven to be the consequence of spin rectification enabled by the AHE, and the dynamic magnetization was driven by the Oersted field and spin current from the electric current in the adjacent Ta layer.
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  • 146
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)–(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate ( V a t / ( K 0 × τ ) ) 1 3 and from the diffusion coefficient   ( D × τ ) 1 2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.
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  • 147
    Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: A nominally two-dimensional interface, unstable to the Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, will become three-dimensional at high Reynolds numbers due to the growth of background noise and 3D effects like vortex stretching. This three-dimensionality changes macroscopic features, such as the perturbation growth rate and mixing, as it enhances turbulent dissipation. In this study, a 2D perturbation with small-scale, 3D fluctuations is modeled using the hydrodynamics code Miranda . A Mach 1.95 shockwave accelerates a helium-over-SF 6 interface, similar to the experiments of Motl et al. [“Experimental validation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov scaling law over large density ratio and shock strength ranges,” Phys. Fluids 21 (12), 126102 (2009)], to explore the regime where a 2D dominated flow will experience 3D effects. We report on the structure, growth, and mixing of the post-shocked interface in 2D and 3D.
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  • 148
    Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: Self-channelling of intense laser pulses have been studied in underdense plasma using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, for different laser powers and plasma densities as well as analytical theory. It is found that single channel solution occurs for laser powers above the threshold power ( ∼ 1.1 P c r ) and for plasma densities n 〈 0.1 n c r . For higher laser powers P 〉 33 P c r , ring structure, an evacuated ring enclosed by electron filament, was observed in the simulations as predicted by analytical model. The stability of ring structure against symmetric and asymmetric azimuthal perturbations have been discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
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  • 149
    Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: We report on the investigation of strong toroidal rotation effects in a global tokamak code, ORB5. This includes the implementation of a strong flow gyrokinetic Lagrangian, allowing a complete treatment of centrifugal and Coriolis effects in the laboratory frame. In order to consistently perform the linear analysis in this system, an axisymmetric gyrokinetic equilibrium distribution function is defined using the constants of motion: we show it corresponds to the standard choice in the local limit and is close to the neoclassical solution in the banana regime. The energy and momentum transport equations are presented in an analogous form to those for the weak flow system. Linear studies of Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes in rotating plasmas are performed to determine how the global effects interact with the effects of strong rotation. We also determine the geodesic acoustic mode dispersion with respect to plasma rotation rate in this gyrokinetic model and compare it to MHD theory.
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  • 150
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: The effect of W, Mo, V, Ta, and Nb, five common β-stabilizing substitutional elements, on α-Ti stacking fault energy has been studied using first principle calculations. The generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE) curves have been determined for different concentrations of β-stabilizers at the fault plane using supercells with up to 360 atoms. Both basal and prismatic slip systems with the stable (γ SF ) and unstable (γ USF ) stacking faults and twinning fault energies were determined. All the alloying elements reduce the stacking fault energy for Ti for both basal and prismatic slip. At higher concentration of 25 at. % of V, Ta, and Nb at the slip plane, the basal slip becomes more favorable than the prismatic slip in Ti. Ti-Mo and Ti-W systems also show a significant shift in the GSFE curve towards a higher shear deformation strain along 〈 01 1 ¯ 0 〉 due to the change in bond character between Ti and those two elements. Using Rice criterion, which employs γ S /γ USF ratio to estimate ductility, we show that all the alloying elements likely improve the ductility of α-Ti with Ti-25 at. % Nb exhibiting the most ductile behavior. However, according to the Tadmor and Bernstein model, all the alloying elements considered here do not improve the partial dislocation emission or the twinning propensity in spite of decreasing the stacking fault energies for α-Ti and. Hence, a better empirical model that incorporates changes in the character of directional bonding upon alloying is needed to estimate how alloying influences ductility in hcp metals.
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  • 151
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Using atomistic simulations, several semi-coherent cube-on-cube bimetal interfaces are comparatively investigated to unravel the combined effect of the character of misfit dislocations, the stacking fault energy difference between bimetal pairs, and their lattice mismatch on the dissociation of interfacial misfit dislocations. Different dissociation paths and features under loadings provide several unique deformation mechanisms that are critical for understanding interface strengthening. In particular, applied strains can cause either the formation of global interface coherency by the migration of misfit dislocations from an interface to an adjoining crystal interior or to an alternate packing of stacking faults connected by stair-rod dislocations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 152
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: In this paper, an ITO/Ga 2 O 3 :ITO/TiN structured resistance random access memory is introduced. Either interface or filament conduction mechanism can be induced depending on the forming compliance current, which has not been investigated before. Material analyses and electrical I–V measurements on this ITO/Ga 2 O 3 :ITO/TiN have also been carried out. The interface conduction mechanism was confirmed by a size-effect experiment, where resistance varied inversely to via size. In addition, the current fitting results show that Schottky emission dominates the on- and off-state currents. All physical mechanisms of device resistive switching behaviors are explained by our models and also confirmed by I–V characteristics.
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  • 153
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: We report on heterojunction diodes prepared by exfoliation and direct mechanical transfer of a p- type InSe thin film onto an n- type InAs epilayer. We show that despite the different crystal structures and large lattice mismatch (∼34%) of the component layers, the junctions exhibit rectification behaviour with rectification ratios of ∼10 4 at room temperature and broad-band photoresponse in the near infrared and visible spectral ranges.
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  • 154
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures were irradiated with a pulsed electron beam. Excitation with a beam energy of 12   keV and a beam current of 4.4   mA produced cathodoluminescense at λ = 246   nm with a measured peak output power of 〉 200   mW . The emission is dominated by radiative recombination from the MQW up to the maximum tested excitation power density of 1   MW / cm 2 , as evidenced by unity slope in a double-logarithmic plot of the light output power vs. excitation power density. Monte Carlo simulations of the depth distribution of deposited energy for different beam energies produced good agreement with the measured peak output power vs. beam energy for an assumed carrier diffusion length of ∼ 200   nm .
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  • 155
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: We construct a family of constant curvature metrics on the Moyal plane and compute the Gauss–Bonnet term for each of them. They arise from the conformal rescaling of the metric in the orthonormal frame approach. We find a particular solution, which corresponds to the Fubini–Study metric and which equips the Moyal algebra with the geometry of a noncommutative sphere.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2488
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7658
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 156
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: We consider the 1/ N -expansion of the moments of the proper delay times for a ballistic chaotic cavity supporting N scattering channels. In the random matrix approach, these moments correspond to traces of negative powers of Wishart matrices. For systems with and without broken time reversal symmetry (Dyson indices β = 1 and β = 2), we obtain a recursion relation, which efficiently generates the coefficients of the 1/ N -expansion of the moments. The integrality of these coefficients and their possible diagrammatic interpretation is discussed.
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  • 157
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: A new method computing Campbell-Hausdorff formula is proposed by using quantum moment-cumulant relations, which is given by Weyl ordering symmetrization of classical moment-cumulant relations. The method enables one to readily use symbolic language software to compute arbitrary terms in the formula, and explicit expressions up to the 6-th order are obtained by the way of illustration. Further the symmetry C odd ( A , B ) = C odd ( B , A ), C even ( A , B ) = − C even ( B , A ) is found and proved. The operator differential method by Knapp is also examined for the comparison.
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  • 158
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 159
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Linear stability of buoyant convective flow of an electrically conducting fluid in a vertical channel owing to internal heat sources has been studied. The flow takes place in a transverse, horizontal magnetic field. The results show that up to four different local minima may be present in the neural stability curve. Up to two of these modes may be the most unstable depending, critically, on the value of the Hartmann number. Over a wide range of moderate to high Hartmann numbers, thermal waves dominate the instability. As the Hartmann number increases, however, this mode is strongly damped. Then the so-called Hartmann mode takes over, which involves the characteristic Hartmann layers at the walls appearing due to modification of the basic velocity profile by the magnetic field. Overall, for liquid metals at high magnetic fields, the basic flow is very stable. Variation of the Prandtl number in a wide range has also been performed as, depending on the type of an electrically conducting fluid (liquid metal or various kinds of electrolytes), the Prandtl number varies over several orders of magnitude. As may be expected, the increase of the Prandtl number lowers the instability threshold for the thermal waves.
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  • 160
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
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  • 161
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: The three-dimensional flow field over the suction side of a NACA 0018 airfoil with trailing-edge serrations was studied by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Mean flow results show that the boundary layer thickness decreases along the streamwise direction with a corresponding reduction of the size of the turbulent structures developing over the suction side of the serrations. At a positive angle of attack, streamwise-oriented and counter-rotating vortices aligned with the edge of the serrations are found to be the main features of the mean flow field. Their formation is attributed to the pressure imbalance between the two sides of the airfoil and the mixing layer at the edge. They locally modify the effective angle seen by the turbulent flow approaching the serrated edge. This effect may contribute to the serration underperformance in terms of noise reduction reported in literature. The spatial distribution of the spectra of the source term of the Poisson equation, which relates the velocity field to pressure fluctuations, suggests that the contribution of the serrations to far-field broadband noise is a function of the streamwise location. This observation is congruent with the spectra of the wall-normal and spanwise velocity fluctuations, which typically show low intensity close to the tips of the individual serrations. It follows that analytical models must take into account the local contribution to the far-field noise induced by the streamwise variation of the hydrodynamic pressure on the serration surface.
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  • 162
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: An octahedral spherical hohlraum is a promising candidate in target design for inertial confinement fusion study, because of its potential superiority in uniform radiation and efficient coupling [Lan et al ., Phys. Plasmas 21 , 010704 (2014)]. Before the experimental investigation for octahedral spherical hohlraum, an energetics experiment is accomplished on the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility by using spherical hohlraums with two cylindrical laser entrance holes. Time evolution of the radiation temperature is obtained with flat response X-ray diode detectors at four different viewing angles with demonstrated repeatability of the measurements. The experimental observations are successfully explained by using a phenomenological model which considers not only the radiation flux contributed from the laser ablated and radiation ablated plasma from hohlraum wall, but also that contributed from the filling plasma inside the hohlraum. This method proves to be a simple but effective way to interpret the time-dependent behaviour of the radiation temperatures at different viewing angles.
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  • 163
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: By using a self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation, we investigated the effect of driving frequency (27.12–70 MHz) on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron-sheath interaction in a low pressure (5 mTorr) capacitively coupled Ar discharge for a fixed discharge voltage. We observed a mode transition with driving frequency, changing the shape of EEDF from a strongly bi-Maxwellian at a driving frequency of 27.12 MHz to a convex type distribution at an intermediate frequency, 50 MHz, and finally becomes a weak bi-Maxwellian at a higher driving frequency, i.e., above 50 MHz. The transition is caused by the electric field transients, which is of the order of electron plasma frequency caused by the energetic “beams” of electrons ejected from near the sheath edge. Below the transition frequency, 50 MHz, these high energy electrons redistribute their energy with low energy electrons, thereby increasing the effective electron temperature in the plasma, whereas the plasma density remains nearly constant. Above the transition frequency, high-energy electrons are confined between opposite sheaths, which increase the ionization probability and therefore the plasma density increases drastically.
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  • 164
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Using a temperature-responsive polymer film as an example, it was shown that a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can probe a sample’s electrical properties in addition to its thickness and softness. The film’s electrical impedance was accessed by alternating between the driving voltage being applied to the front electrode and the back electrode. The opposing electrode was grounded in both cases. In the first configuration, the electrical properties of the sample do have an influence on the resonance frequency because of piezoelectric stiffening. In the second, they do not. Using this scheme, it was monitored how the electrical impedance of a film composed of a mixture of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and polyvinylalcohol changes when the film swells and deswells.
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  • 165
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μ m 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves sensitivity to a total mass required for detection by 4 orders of magnitude. We detail the design and operation principles of the anisotropic contrast optical microscope, and we present further applications to the detection of nanoparticles, to novel approaches for imaging chromatography and to new contrast modalities for observations on living cells.
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  • 166
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Ions in an ion bunch trapped inside an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) exhibit collective oscillations within the bunch under the influence of an external driving force. These internal oscillations have been measured explicitly using a new method with a particle detector outside the EIBT. In this approach, the evolving ion bunch is monitored along the entire trap length, in contrast to the localized single point measurements that are often carried out in other techniques. In the present study, quadrupole oscillations have been measured for the first time in an EIBT along with the dipole oscillations that were measured previously. The frequency of the quadrupole oscillation is found to be about twice the dipole oscillation frequency. This is in agreement with the prediction of a theoretical model.
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  • 167
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: In this work, combining experimental results and first principles calculations, we show that interstitial nitrogen not only serves for inducing tetragonality in α ′-Fe 8 N x but is also essential for achieving a high degree of perpendicular magneto-crystalline anisotropy, K . Our results demonstrate that the orbital magnetic moments of the iron atoms above and below N in the direction of magnetization are much more susceptible to the applied magnetic field than their in-plane counterparts, leading to a giant value of K as compared to a hypothetical distorted material without N.
    Electronic ISSN: 2166-532X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 168
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/Ni cantilevers have been developed using the pulsed laser deposition technique for harnessing magnetic as well as mechanical energy. High voltage (1.2 mV, 1.8 mV, and 8.5 mV) and power density (1100, 2400, and 3600 mW/m 3 ) were generated across the PZT/Ni cantilevers (in 3–3 mode) having PZT thin films deposited at 100 mTorr, 200 mTorr, and 300 mTorr oxygen pressures, respectively, at their respective resonance frequencies with 0.5 g acceleration. Maximum power response (3600 mW/m 3 ) was observed at a load resistance of 100 kΩ for the cantilever having PZT film deposited at 300 mTorr oxygen pressure, which is manifested to the efficient ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of PZT/Ni system. The power generated from the PZT/Ni cantilever was further enhanced to 18 700 mW/m 3 by superimposing magnetic energy with mechanical vibrations. These results are extremely promising for the realization of an efficient energy harvester utilizing both magnetic and mechanical energy.
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  • 169
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: The strong non-linear increase in the Cu interconnect line resistance with decreasing linewidth presents a significant obstacle to their continued downscaling. In this letter we use the first principles density functional theory based electronic structure of Cu interconnects to find the lower limits of their line resistance for metal linewidths corresponding to future technology nodes. We find that even in the absence of scattering due to grain boundaries, edge roughness or interfaces, quantum confinement causes a severe increase in the line resistance of Cu. We also find that when the simplest scattering mechanism in the grain boundary scattering dominated limit is added to otherwise coherent electronic transmission in monocrystalline nanowires, the lower limit of line resistance is significantly higher than projected roadmap requirements in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
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  • 170
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: Flexoelectricity describes the linear response of electrical polarization to a strain gradient, which can be used to enhance the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material or realize the piezoelectric effect in nonpiezoelectric materials. Here, we demonstrate from thermodynamics theory that a giant piezoelectric effect exists in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect. The apparent piezoelectric coefficient is calculated from the closed-form of analytical expression of the polarization distribution in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice subjected to a normal stress, in which the flexoelectric effect is included. It is found that there exists a strong nonlinear coupling between the flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects, which significantly enhances the apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice. For a specific thickness ratio of the piezoelectric and dielectric layers, the enhanced apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the superlattice is ten times larger than that of its pure piezoelectric counterpart. The present work suggests an effective way to obtain giant apparent piezoelectric effect in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices through flexoelectric effect.
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  • 171
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: In this paper, we present a detailed investigation of the self-field transport properties of an ionic liquid gated ultra-thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7− x (YBCO) film. From the high temperature dynamic of the resistivity (〉220 K), different scenarios pertaining to the interaction between the liquid and the thin film are proposed. From the low temperature evolution of J c and T c , a comparison between the behavior of our system and the standard properties of YBCO is drawn.
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  • 172
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: Domain wall (DW) detection is a prerequisite to perform current-induced DW motion. In this letter, we demonstrate a detection method, based on the ability for a ferromagnetic nanowire, in which a DW is pinned, to inject or detect a pure spin current. The device consists of such a ferromagnetic nanowire in contact with an orthogonal spin Hall effect (SHE) nanowire. When a current flows along the ferromagnetic nanowire, and provided a DW is pinned, the pure spin current is transformed into a transverse voltage by inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). In the reciprocal configuration, the pure spin current created by the direct SHE, generates a transverse voltage along the ferromagnetic wire. Finite element method (FEM) simulations allow estimating the Pt spin Hall angle (SHA) (7.5 ± 0.5%). This technique provides an electrical way to study the DW motion, a device akin to the ferromagnetic/spin Hall effect bilayers typically used for spin-orbit torques experiments.
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  • 173
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: Three-dimensional (3D) current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices was achieved by a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and depth directional electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG can detect the electric field produced by trapped carriers, which causes the current collapse. In the 2D measurement, the strong second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 1  μ m from the gate edge on the drain side at 0.8  μ s after the transition from the off- to no bias- state in both unpassivated and passivated samples. In the depth measurement, the SH signals were generated mainly from the AlGaN surface region of the unpassivated sample due to the presence of high-density trap sites in the AlGaN layer, and SH signals from bulk GaN region were also detected at 50  μ s after the transition from the off- to no bias- state in the passivated sample. The origin of the traps is presumably the nitrogen vacancies in the GaN buffer layer.
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  • 174
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: A diphenylalanine (L-Phe-L-Phe, FF)-carbon nitride composite film is designed and fabricated to visualize the deep ultraviolet (DUV, 245–290 nm) photons. The FF film, composed of diphenylalanine molecules, doped with carbon nitrides shows blue emission under excitation of DUV light, which makes the DUV beam observable. Both Förster resonance energy transfer and cascade photon reabsorption contribute to the conversion of photon energy. First, the FF is excited by the DUV photons. On one hand, the energy transfers to the embedded carbon nitrides through nonradiative dipole–dipole couplings. On the other hand, the 284 nm photons emitted from the FF would further excite the carbon nitrides, which will finally convert to blue fluorescence. Herein, the experimental demonstration of a simple device for the visualization of high DUV fluxes is reported.
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  • 175
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: The III-nitride nanowire heterostructure arrays with multiple InN disk light absorbing regions have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates, and guided wave photodiodes have been fabricated and characterized. The spectral photocurrent of the devices has been measured under reverse bias, and the data exhibit distinct shoulders in the range of 0.69–3.2 eV (0.39–1.8  μ m). The estimated responsivity at a wavelength of 1.3  μ m is 0.2 A/W. The nanowire photodiode response was also measured with an excitation at one facet provided by an edge-emitting laser fabricated with the same nanowire array and emitting at 1.3  μ m.
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  • 176
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: This paper proposes a fuzzy interval optimization approach to solve the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EED) problem with uncertain parameters in the constraints and the objective functions. The objective functions considered are fuel cost and the gaseous emissions of the generating units. Two different types of fuel cost functions are considered in this study, namely, the conventional quadratic function and the augmented quadratic function to introduce more accurate modeling that incorporates the valve loading effects. The latter model presents non-differentiable and nonconvex regions that challenge most gradient-based optimization algorithms. In the proposed approach, objective functions are fuzzified and integrated to represent the fuzzy decision value. On the other hand, load uncertainties are modeled using fuzzy intervals. This fuzzy EED problem formulation provides a modeling flexibility, relaxation in constraints and allows the method to seek a practical solution. The obtained fuzzy multi-objective optimization problem is solved using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, known for its global searching capabilities, to get the best compromise among all the objectives. The performance of this solution is examined and applied to the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the Indian power network of 82-bus by comparing its results with that of the existing methods. Different cases with different complexities have been considered in the study reported in this paper.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 177
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: This work studies the stationary separation of a multicomponent mixture in a thermogravitational column (TGC). The existing theory for a flat-plate column is extended to the case of a cylindrical column. The equations of motion and heat/mass transfer are written in cylindrical coordinates to take into account the impact of the cylinders curvature and the ratio of their radii on the separation process. To characterize the impact of each component on convective motion induced by thermal diffusion, the dimensionless separation ratios are used. A multicomponent system as a whole is described by the net separation ratio. The approximation neglecting vertical diffusion in the column is employed and conditions for its validity are analyzed. The profiles of velocity, temperature, composition, and density in the column with a multicomponent mixture are found and their dependence on the separation ratios and the ratio of cylinders radii is analyzed. The vertical separation is described by the solutal Rayleigh numbers, which are proportional to the vertical concentration gradients. It is shown that the key relation of TGC theory, which relates the net solutal Rayleigh number to the net separation ratio, essentially depends on the ratio of cylinders radii. The working formulas for the thermal diffusion coefficients are derived and the importance of forgotten effect is discussed. It is found that the vertical separation in the column increases with decreasing the ratio of inner and outer cylinders radii. A detailed comparison of results with the case of a flat-plate column is performed. Example of a ternary hydrocarbon mixture is analyzed on the basis of obtained solution and numerical simulation.
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  • 178
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: The paper presents an application of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for the analysis of intermittent chaotic fluctuations from a glow discharge plasma. Here, the nature of the oscillations changes from an initial relaxation oscillation to a final chaotic oscillatory state via intermittent chaos. The time series data have been decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using EMD. Furthermore, the estimation of the variance of the IMFs and the correlation of these IMFs with the original time series help us to identify the presence of coherent modes in the fluctuations. Through this analysis, we could clearly observe that initially during the relaxation oscillations the system was dominated by one type of coherent mode, whereas in the final chaotic state, it was dominated by another coherent mode. In the intermediate case, i.e., intermittent chaotic state, both the coherent modes are seen to be present. We have also used rescaled range ( R / S ) statistical method to identify the coherent modes and corroborate with the results obtained using EMD. The Hilbert Huang spectrum of the fluctuations clearly suggests the intermittent change in the frequency with time.
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  • 179
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: In this study, cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to study the catalytic effect on chemical methods of silver nano-particles for the first time. In this method, the processing time is short and the temperature of reaction is low. Also, the reactor is very simple, inexpensive, and accessible. In this work, pure AgNO 3 as the precursor agent and poly vinyl pyrrolidone as the macromolecular surfactant were dissolved in ethanol as the solvent. UV-Vis and XRD were used to identify the colloidal and powder nano-particles, respectively. Optical emission spectroscopy was also used to identify the active species in plasma. Effects of gas flow rate, voltage, volume of solution, and processing time were also studied. Moreover, TEM and SEM images presented the mean diameter of nano-particle size around 10 to 20 nm. The results have been very promising.
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  • 180
    Publication Date: 2016-11-08
    Description: A novel 16-channel fixed frequency Doppler backward scattering (DBS) reflectometer system has been developed on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the filter-based feedback loop microwave source (FFLMS) technique, which has lower phase noise and lower power variation compared with present tunable frequency generation and comb frequency array generation techniques [J. C. Hillesheim et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80 , 083507 (2009) and W. A. Peebles et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81 , 10D902 (2010)]. The 16-channel DBS system is comprised of four × four-frequency microwave transmitters and direct quadrature demodulation receivers. The working frequencies are 17-24 GHz and 31-38 GHz with the frequency interval of 1 GHz. They are designed to measure the localized intermediate wave-number ( k ⊥ ρ ∼ 1–2, k ⊥ ∼ 2–9 cm −1 ) density fluctuations and the poloidal rotation velocity profile of turbulence. The details of the system design and laboratory tests are presented. Preliminary results of Doppler spectra measured by the multi-channel DBS reflectometer systems are obtained. The plasma rotation and turbulence distribution during supersonic molecular beam injection are analyzed.
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