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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (172)
  • Weizen  (25)
  • 1925-1929  (197)
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  • 101
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The results of the study of certain factors which affect encystment in Didinium nasutum indicate the following: Absence of food constitutes an adverse environmental condition which induces encystment in approximately 50 per cent of the didinia subjected to it, though the presence of a certain amount of food in the cell body is requisite for encystment. The prevention of encystment for 750 generations does not affect the percentage of didinia which encyst in the absence of food, and hence Didinium does not become progressively more disposed to encystment as generations pass. Conjugation does not affect the percentage of didinia which encyst in the absence of food. Metabolic by-products of Paramecium inhibit encystment to a striking degree when didinia are deprived of food in the presence of these products. Metabolic waste of Didinium markedly facilitates its encystment in the absence of food. Hay-infusion culture fluids of different ages have singularly diverse effects on the encystment of didinia in the absence of food; recently prepared infusions inhibit encystment; infusions four to six days old induce encystment in 90 to 100 per cent of the specimens, and infusions seven to fourteen days old, in approximately half of the specimens.
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  • 102
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1927), S. 547-555 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The diploid number of chromosomes obtained from counts of anaphases of the first somatic mitosis is found to be forty-four. Of these, seven have terminal, thirty-seven non-terminal attachment, giving a distribution of seven rods, thirteen V's, and twenty-four J's. The number is constant in all the fertilized eggs counted, indicating an XX-XY arrangement of the sex chromosomes.
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  • 103
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 89-115 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The investigation is based upon hemal nodes of dog, man, and sheep. The material can be arranged in a regressive series leading from a typical lymph node, except for the occurrence of blood in parenchyma and sinuses, to a lymphoid structure at a late stage of involution. These structures uniformly lack lymphatics. There is no evidence of direct luminal connection between the blood-vascular supply and the sinuses. The observation that certain cervical and subcutaneous lymph nodes of the rabbit undergo a myeloid metaplasia following atrophy and disjunction of their lymphatics is used as an explanatory key of hemal nodes. According to our view, hemal nodes represent stages in the involution of transient lymph nodes. Disjunction of the lymphatics leaves the sinuses filled with entrapped lymphocytes. These differentiate into erythrocytes. These red blood cells may disintegrate and pass into solution or be removed either by giant cells or mononuclear phagocytes. Late stages in this process are represented by small irregular masses of lymphocytes, with wide sinuses practically free of blood.
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  • 104
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 29-87 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The anlage of the abducens musculature appears first at 24-25 somites as a condensation situated dorsal to the mandibular arch.The anlage of the superior oblique grows forward from a mesodermal condensation situated in the maxillomandibular region, termed for convenience the maxillomandibular condensation. This last consists of three parts: (1) the anlage of the superior oblique: (2) the anlage of the abducens musculature, and, (3) an intermediate region.The intermediate portion of the maxillomandibular mass forms a condensation with which the anlage of the abducens musculature fuses. Its fate is, therefore, similar to that of the so-called ‘muscle E’ of elasmobranchs, which has been described as fusing with the lateral rectus. How much muscle is formed from the intermediate condensation in the chick has not been determined.The development of the pyramidalis and quadratus nictitans muscles, derivatives of the abducens complex, is described.The premandibular head cavities are replaced by solid mesodermal condensations, on the surface of which the anlagen of the oculomotor muscles appear. The premandibular mass expands laterally and anteriorly over the bulbus, carrying the oculomotor muscles to their respective positions on the bulbus.Portions of the premandibular and maxillomandibular condensations not involved in eye-muscle formation take part in the formation of choroid and sclera.The growth shiftings of the eye muscles are analyzed. The order of their appearance is commented upon.
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  • 105
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 21-28 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Experiments designed to ascertain the effect of hydrogen-ion concentration on encystment in Didinium were carried out by depriving didinia of food in mixtures of spring water and buffer solutions whose hydrogen-ion concentrations varied from pH 5.0 to pH 9.6, and by counting the number of didinia which encysted and the number which remained active and ultimately died of starvation.The maximum percentage of encystment was attained between pH 6.4 and 8.4, the range in hydrogen-ion concentration which is also most favorable for the growth of didinia; within this range the encystment rate was practically constant and was about 52 per cent. The solutions having hydrogen-ion concentrations between pH 6.4 and 5.0, the acid death limit of the race of Didinium used in the experiments, and between pH 8.4 and 9.6, the alkaline death limit, inhibited encystment, the more injurious solutions producing the greater decrease in encystment rate.The results indicate that the limits of hydrogen-ion concentration within which Didinium can live are practically the same as those found by Crane for Paramecium (approximately pH 5.0 to pH 9.6). They indicate further that concentrations of hydrogen ions which are unfavorable for the growth of didinia do not facilitate encystment and, in general, that changes in hydrogen-ion concentration are of little importance in inducing encystment in Didinium.
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  • 106
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 117-125 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the early cleavage stages of Ascaris the homologous chromosomes are of unequal length. Measurements show that these homologues fall into two sharply defined groups suggesting their biparental origin. The shorter are considered to have come from the male.As the age of the embryo increases, these differences between the chromosome mates tend to become less, and it is suggested that at some later period in the history of the animal this difference will entirely disappear in response to the effect of continued existence in a common environment. The length of the chromosomes is very slightly shortened during the early cleavage divisions, while the area of the equatorial cross-section of the cells becomes enormously reduced.
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  • 107
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 217-264 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A description is given of the cytoplasmic alterations in the ovarian egg of Limulus polyphemus leading to the formation of yolk. The nucleolus is found to arise by the confluence of substance which passes from the cytosome into the nucleus, and it is suggested that the chondriosomes, and possibly also the dictyosomes, are derived from an excess of this substance which accumulates in the cytosome. Chondriosomes and dictyosomes are not present in the oogonia, but appear first in oocytes after the formation of the nucleolus is completed.During oogenesis the nucleolus is very active and the greater part of its substance is passed back to the cytosome. By the application of the method of Bell and Doisy for the determination of phosphate in body fluids, the nucleolus is found to be richer in phosphorus than are the other constituents of the cell. The nucleolar emissions effect the transport of phosphorus from the nucleus to the cytosome, where it is used in the synthesis of yolk. The definitive yolk arises by the interaction of nucleolar emissions, chondriosomes, dictyosomes, and ground cytoplasm.
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  • 108
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 109
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In conjugation fusion occurs along the entire oral surfaces of the proboscides of Dileptus gigas. Two size-reducing divisions occur in rapid succession immediately preceding conjugation. Only one of the many micronuclei takes part in the process of nuclear reorganization. All other chromatic material is massed at this time in the posterior portions of the conjugants. The pronuclei are derived from the single active micronucleus, and interchange occurs immediately preceding the separation of the mating individuals. The fertilization nucleus divides to form two nuclei of diverse size. The smaller one produces thirty-two or sixty-four micronuclei, while the larger one divides to produce a like number of macronuclei, each of which finally breaks up into many chromatic granules which form the numerous densely staining nuclear derivatives which are characteristic of the vegetative stage of Dileptus gigas.In the early stages of this reorganization process specimens are frequently found with from two to eight distinct nuclei often arranged in a series as in a beaded nucleus. This condition probably explains the frequent references in literature regarding such a nuclear condition in Dileptus.Dileptus gigas has, accordingly, in the vegetative stage, a multinucleate condition with reference to the micronucleus and a fragmented or distributed condition with reference to the macronucleus.
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  • 110
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. i 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 111
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The primordial germ cells are derived from entodermal giant cells which are found first before the gut is formed and later along the ventral and lateral margins of the gut. Some of these cells pass through the lateral mesoderm to a position dorsal to the gut, where they are distinctly recognizable as germ cells. They are then shifted to the gonad region.Sex could be distinguished first at fifty-two days. The female sex is indicated by early maturation stages and the beginning of the oviducal groove. The male sex is distinguished by the presence of the sperm duct. No tendency toward juvenile hermaphroditism is apparent.A portion of the oocytes formed during the first season matures for the first spawning, which takes place at the age of two years. The remainder form a reserve supply, which is increased each year by oocytes formed from dormant oogonia.Maturation in the male begins in September and continues until spawning-time in April. Spermatogonia lying dormant within the cysts during maturation give rise to the sperm of the next season.‘Spermatid masses,’ probably formed by the fusion of spermatids, are found in the cysts with the ripening sperm.Definitive sex cells in both sexes have their origin only in primordial germ cells. No transition from somatic cells to germ cells was found at any stage.
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  • 112
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1927) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 113
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: All phases of mitosis have been observed in the ciliated cells of the pharynx and esophagus of the tadpole of the green frog, Rana clamitans. Centrosomes have been observed in ciliated cells. These data contravene the hypothesis of Lenhossék and Henneguy to the effect that ciliated cells cannot divide by mitosis because they have lost their centrosomes in the formation of the basal corpuscles to which the cilia are connected, and the corollary to this hypothesis (Jordan, '13), that in consequence ciliated cells must divide by amitosis. From counts of cells with cilia, those without cilia but with basal corpuscles, and those without either cilia or basal corpuscles in different phases of mitosis, it is inferred that the cilia are lost during mitosis.Cilia sprout from basal corpuscles, and not from mitochondria in cells undergoing ciliogenesis. From the presence of diplosomes in the distal region of cells in which basal corpuscles are developing, it is assumed that the basal corpuscles arise by partition of the centrosome of the preciliated cell. The centrosome, however, does not become completely lost by reason of this process, but retains enough vitality to insure mitosis. Amitosis, which occurs in some of the ciliated cells, results, according to these data, from degree of differentiation, not from structural deficiency.
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  • 114
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Termopsis nevadensis only soldiers are produced during the first three or four years. When a normal colony comprises approximately twenty inhabitants, the first adult soldier is probably in the fifth instar; the second, somewhat larger, certainly is in the sixth. Later, others are produced in the seventh, and after the reproductive caste becomes differentiated, with about 450 inhabitants, they are in the eighth. Finally, in very old communities, some, at least, are in the ninth. The winged insect invariably is in the eighth.No sign of wings exists until the reproductive caste appears, after which every member of the sixth, and probably the fifth, instar possesses small, yet distinct, wing rudiments. These persist and enlarge in the later stages of the reproductive caste, and, of smaller size, they frequently occur in the soldier nymph and to a less degree in the adult. The third-form adult is probably a sexually mature soldier nymph; the second-form adult seemingly has the same origin and, though possessing wing buds, it does not belong to a special caste.Measurements of scores of recently hatched young disclose no differences other than those of ordinary variation, either in width of head, number of antennal segments, or size of brain and gonad. The first visible signs of caste differentiation appear at a relatively late stage. All of the instars are described in detail and the later ones are compared.
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  • 115
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 116
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 363-372 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The history of investigations on the contractile vacuole is reviewed briefly and brought up to date.The study of the contractile vacuole in Amoeba proteus is considered from standpoints of origin, structure, behavior, and function. The results are obtained from a prolonged study of normal organisms and from their reactions when introduced into conductivity water.The origin of vacuoles is studied by means of dark-field illumination which reveals the vacuole to be formed from a fusion and coalescence of extremely minute droplets.The retaining ‘wall’ of the contractile vacuole is not a permanent structure, but is in the nature of a condensation membrane, totally disappearing with each contraction.The loci of the contractile vacuoles are not permanent, but vacuoles are formed more or less at random. It is unlikely that they are supported in gelated areas, for amoebae with a dozen vacuoles are quite active and there is no interference with amoeboid movement.Conductivity water increases the size, number, and rate of contraction of contractile vacuoles, which suggests that they may function in maintaining an osmotic gradient as well as in the elimination of metabolic waste.
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  • 117
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 44 (1927), S. 417-465 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Observations indicate that this Balantidium from the guinea-pig is Balantidium coli, the form found in the pig and man. The lengths and breadths of this Balantidium and the ratios of length to breadth are very close to the measurements and ratios given by McDonald for B. coli. When plotted, the body lengths of the guinea-pig parasites appear in two groups, the smaller individuals being the exconjugants. Many of these exconjugants resemble Neiva's B. caviae. The structure of the Balantidium from the guinea-pig is essentially identical with that of B. coli as given by McDonald.Fission and conjugation of this ciliate follow the general course found in a number of other ciliates. During fission the micronucleus divides and the daughter micronuclei migrate to each end of the macronucleus before the latter divides. In conjugation there are two divisions of the micronucleus, one of these nuclei dividing to form the pronuclei. Pronuclear exchange and fusion are followed by a heteropolar division of the synkaryon, resulting in the formation of the new macronuclear and micronuclear anlagen.The parasite was found in the intestinal tissue of the host. No reproductive stages were found in the cysts. New hosts are invaded through contamination of the food and drink with the cysts.
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  • 118
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: By the use of a satisfactory technique, excellently preserved spermatogenetic tissue was had both for Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus. The careful examination of twelve spermatogonial cells of the former species and of twenty in the latter species shows that R. rattus has forty diploid chromosomes and R. norvegicus, forty-two. A careful examination of the haploid cells of both species, both in the first and in the second spermatocyte divisions, confirms the diploid determinations.Both species have an unequal pair in the spermatogonial divisions and the finding of a similar unequal pair in the first spermatocyte division constitutes the evidence for an X-Y mechanism in each. A comparison of the morphology of the first spermatocyte tetrads in the two species reveals the presence of a large K-shaped chromosome in R. norvegicus which is not present in R. rattus. Furthermore, a comparison of the X-Y complex in both the spermatogonial and first spermatocyte divisions shows that these are morphologically different in the two species, the Y in particular being markedly dissimilar in size. A short discussion as to the bearing of these findings on the questions of the origins of the two species and their known intersterility is presented. The marked similarity of the tetrads of the black rat to those described for the mouse is noted.
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  • 119
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Hannov. land- und forstw. Zeitg.:93-95
    Publication Date: 1927
    Description: Beschreibung der Witterungsverläufe der Winter und Empfehlungen für die Bodenbearbeitung und Bestandesführung von Winterkulturen KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Einfluss der Witterung (Niederschlag und Temperatur) auf den Ertrag KATASTER-DETAIL: Delta Nied (Vorjahr) ++, dann Ertrag -; Delta Nied (Winter) +, dann Bodenfeuchte + und somit Ertrag +; Delta T (November) -, dann Ertrag -; Delta T (Winter) +, dann Ertrag +; Delta T (Frühling) +, dann Ertrag -;
    Keywords: Niedersachsen ; 1924-26 ; Insekten ; Ertrag ; Getreide ; Landwirtschaft ; Niederschlag ; Pflanzenschädling ; Roggen ; Weizen ; Düngung ; Gerste
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  • 120
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Jllustr. Landw. Zeitg. 46; p.551-552
    Publication Date: 1926
    Description: Schilderung des Rostbefalls (insbesondere Gelbrost)in der Region Kassel im Jahre 1926. Der Autor beklagt das bisher fehlende Wissen der Wissenschaftler und präsentiert eine Umfrage unter Landwirten zu den Einflußfaktoren (u.a. klimatische) auf den Rostbefall. Zudem werden Vorbeugungsmaßnahmen vorgestellt. KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: KATASTER-DETAIL:
    Keywords: Kassel ; 1926 ; Getreide ; Pflanzenkrankheit ; Weizen
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  • 121
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Nachrichtenblatt für den deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, Jahrgang 6, Nr. 4, p. 27
    Publication Date: 1926
    Description: Beobachtungen zum Auftreten der gelben Halmfliege in Schleswig-Holstein und deren Auswirkungen auf bestimmte Getreidearten (Sommerweizen und Sommergerste) KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Einfluss der Witterung auf das Auftreten der Fliege KATASTER-DETAIL: Delta Nied +, dann Sommerflug -
    Keywords: Schleswig-Holstein ; 1926 ; Insekten ; Anbautermine ; Getreide ; Landwirtschaft ; Niederschlag ; Pflanzenschädling ; Weizen ; Gerste
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  • 122
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Nassauer Land 108, p. 185
    Publication Date: 1926
    Description: Beobachtungen zum Gelbrostbefall von Weizen, Roggen und Gerste KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: - KATASTER-DETAIL: -
    Keywords: Deutschland ; 1926 ; Infektionskrankheiten ; Getreide ; Pflanzenkrankheit ; Roggen ; Weizen ; Gerste
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  • 123
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 547-579 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pelvic fins of the ancestors of the Chondrosteoidei possessed a metameric musculature and their skeleton consisted of a large number of metamerically arranged cartilaginous fin-rays, to which were attached osseous lepidotrichia. Evolution has involved the concrescence of separate elements to form the basal cartilage, the proximal end of which forms the girdle of the fin; the loss of a number of the fin-rays, and the atrophy of distal elements of the rays. The adult Chondrosteoidei have retained the primitive fin structure which characterized the elasmobranchs of the Palaeozoic period and which has disappeared in recent forms.
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  • 124
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The lips of the animal are modified in relation to the act of passing seeds into the sac. The cheek-sacs are invaginations of the buccal mucosa, and their development as diverticula of the vestibulum oris is associated with the establishment of extrinsic muscles, derived from the platysma. The sac is invested by a coat of striated muscle. The epithelial lining of the sac attains a degree of complexity comparable to the epidermis of the skin, except that a stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum are not developed. No glands are developed in the mucous membrane of the sac.
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  • 125
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Three groups of pure lines of diverse clones of Didinium nasutum were maintained in isolation cultures for 778, 786, and 457 generations, respectively, without exhibiting any decrease in fission rate or any increase in encystment rate or death rate. These lines were supplied with Paramecium caudatum in such numbers that a surplus of food was present at all times.Three other groups of lines of the same clones were established simultaneously and cultured in parallel with the preceding groups, but the food of each of these lines was limited to nine paramecia per line daily. The fission rate of these lines fell to zero and the encystment rate increased to 100 per cent after 155, 165, and 113 generations of culture, respectively. The death rate increased appreciably in these lines prior to encystment.Other groups of pure lines were cultured on a diet limited to six paramecia per line daily. These lines encysted after approximately fifteen generations of culture.This evidence indicates that there is nothing in the nature of a definite life-cycle in Didinium and that diminished vitality and encystment do not result from the passage of generations, but from inadequate and unfavorable cultural conditions-specifically, from in-sufficient food. It shows further that it is possible to induce cycles with reference to encystment in Didinium by limiting the food supply and to vary the length of the cycles by varying the quantity of food.
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  • 126
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the blastula the region of accelerated cell division is on the ventral side of the egg, nearly opposite the site of the future beginning blastopore. The ventral wall of the blastocoele is thicker than the dorsal. In the very early gastrula a new region of accelerated cell division appears in the vicinity of the dorsal lip of the blastopore.A downward movement of material comprising the marginal zone of micromeres and the portion of the wall of the blastocoele immediately above it occurs during all the later blastula stages and continues until this material is carried below the level of the equator and involved in the process of gastrulation. On the dorsal side of the egg, this movement is more rapid than on the ventral side.In the late blastula stage there are evidences of growth in the region of smaller micromeres. In the very late blastula, a vertical groove appears at the dorsal margin of the floor of the blastocoele; this groove is believed to indicate the operation of factors concerned with gastrulation.In connection with the first nuclear division, evidences of cytoplasmic activity leading to the formation of the first cleavage furrow are described. As the blastomeres become smaller, progressive changes take place in the distribution of their cytoplasm.
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  • 127
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The testis is differentiated from the indifferent gonad in embryos of fourteen days. The indifferent gonad and the sex cords contain large and small cells, both of which are derived from the coelomic epithelium. The large cells have generally been called primordial germ cells, they increase by mitosis and reach their maximum in embryos of seventeen days. But all the large cells degenerate and have completely disappeared by nine days after birth. The large cells, therefore, do not contribute to the formation of cells in the tubules of the adult testis. After the disappearance of the large cells, the solid seminiferous tubules are composed of indifferent epithelial cells of a uniform type, which are descendants of the small cells of the genital ridge, and which later form both the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules of the adult testis.Definitive spermatogonia begin to form fifteen days after birth, when the solid cords are becoming hollow tubules; spermatocytes occur at twenty-three days, when the testes are entering the inguinal canals; spermatids are first observed about thirty-three days, when the testes enter the scrotum, and perfect spermatozoa at forty-eight days. Sertoli cells cannot be clearly distinguished until almost puberty; these cells may be only indifferent epithelial cells. During the development of the seminiferous tubules, a good many cells of all stages of spermatogenesis degenerate.
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926) 
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  • 129
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 111-141 
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    Notes: Disintegration in killing agents was studied throughout development. In the unfertilized egg and cleavage stages the death gradient runs from animal to vegetal pole. In the late blastula stage the future dorsal surface and future point of gastrulation show heightened susceptibility. The gastrula has a gradient from anterior to posterior end along its dorsal surface, with a slight reverse gradient around the blastopore; lateral and ventral regions are least susceptible.Before and after the appearance of the neural groove, the dorsal surface shows increased susceptibility with gradient in it from anterior to posterior end. The neural tube is highly susceptible, with a death gradient from anterior to posterior end and a slight reverse gradient at its posterior end.During late stages and in the larva the double gradient is present; death begins at the two ends and progresses backward from head, forward from anus; from the former most rapidly. The least susceptible place is near the posterior end. The posterior reverse gradient is less developed in the lamprey than in other vertebrate embryos, due, probably, to its lack of a tail bud.Assuming that death differences indicate differences in rate of activity, it appears that such differences in activity may be causes and not results of developmental processes, for the development of certain parts (dorsal surface, blastopore, central nervous system) is indicated by heightened activity before it is evident morphologically.
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926) 
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  • 131
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    Notes: Amoeba responds to a mechanical shock by a cessation of movement which occurs shortly after the application of the stimulus. The length of the reaction time, the period intervening between application of stimulus and the response, varies inversely with the magnitude of the shock. After stopping Amoeba remains quiescent for a short time, and the length of this period of quiescence varies directly with the magnitude of the shock. A certain amount of time must elapse after a reaction before another can be obtained; during this time the animal reverts to the physiological state which existed prior to the first shock.Partial recovery from the effects of a shock is manifested by a reaction time that is longer than after complete recovery, and a period of quiescence which is shorter. A shock which in itself is too slight to cause a cessation of movement may result in the lack of a response to a heavier one which follows immediately after it, although under other conditions the second shock would have called forth a reaction. If the second shock, however, is made sufficiently heavy, it will bring about a response, despite the effects of the first. This is what would be expected if the reactions take place in accordance with the Weber-Foechner law.
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  • 132
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    Notes: In the golden-mantled ground-squirrel, Callospermophilus, a spatulate glandular area has been noted in the skin of the back. It has been found in the following species: C. l. lateralis, C. l. arizonensis, C. l. caryi, C. l. saturatus, C. l. tescorum, C. c. chrysodeirus, and C. bernardinus. Probably it is common to the genus.The individual glands making up this area are modified and enlarged sudoriparous glands. They are divided into a tightly coiled and branched fundus, a large sinus, and a duct which passes caudad and outward to its exit at the surface.The glands secrete a strongly smelling oil, which is probably left on vegetation and other objects in the animal's environment and serves as a source of information to other members of the species. The glands are more active in spring and summer than in winter. They are stimulated by excitement. While present in both sexes, both adult and juvenile, they are best developed in adult males.Callospermophilus has three anal glands. These have flat-topped, straight-sided nipples which are protruded from the anus if the animal is frightened. A milky substance with a very weak odor can be extruded.
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  • 133
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    Notes: The integument of the vermilion-spotted newt contains three kinds of pigment--yellow, red, and black. The yellow is uniform and continuous over the whole body; the red and black are discrete, and are chiefly in large spots. The pattern does not change measurably in an adult individual.Functional changes in contraction of the scattered dorsal melanophores were uncommon. The only efficient single factors found were a long subjection to low temperature (expansion) and injection of pituitrin (contraction).Removal of skin was followed by a rapid mass migration of dermal elements into the wound area. Melanophores were thus furnished to a dorsal wound, and after several months black spots formed from these. Red pigment never regenerated nor migrated into a wound. Yellow pigment was formed in situ after the wound had completely healed.Auto-, homo-, and heterotransplants lost their pigment patterns and were gradually reorganized so as to conform in gross appearance to the surrounding pattern of the individual host's skin. The transformation was never complete in eight months, but new black spots and new yellow pigment eventually formed.The behavior of melanophores during morphogenesis differed for specific areas of the integument. Their movements and aggregation were highly coordinated among themselves.
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  • 134
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    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 81-103 
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    Notes: Paramecium trichium varies from 50 μ to 105 μ long with most individuals between 80 μ and 90 μ. The width varies from one-third to one-half the length. It is somewhat depressed dorsoventrally. The broad buccal groove extends from the anterior left border diagonally across the ventral surface to the mouth, which is usually slightly anterior to the middle and to the right side of the median line. The mouth leads into a relatively long cytopharynx containing an undulating membrane. The cytopyge is subterminal and the small caudal tuft of longer cilia is subapical. The plastic ectosarc contains numerous trichocysts. A contractile vacuole apparatus occurs near either end. Each is deeply located and stains more intensely than surrounding protoplasm. In life there appear to be two alternately contracting vacuoles with smaller ones adjacent. Contractions are from fifteen to twenty-five per minute. The macronucleus is medium in size and the single micronucleus is of the ‘caudatum’ type.Binary fission appears to be initiated by a metaphase-like condition of the micronucleus. This is followed by great enlargement and the eventual separation of the chromatin threads into two anaphase groups. The metaphase thus appears to precede the changes which correspond to a prophase in other cases. During division of the body, the two old contractile vacuoles persist as the posterior ones for the daughters, new anterior ones being developed.
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  • 135
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    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 119-145 
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    Notes: The chromosome number in the domestic fowl is approximately thirty-five or thirty-six. It is difficult to determine the exact number, owing to the smallness of the shortest chromosomes of the complex and also to the tendency of the chromomeres to occasionally appear as discrete chromosomes rather than as parts of a whole.Difficulty experienced in fixing adult testes has prevented a satisfactory demonstration of all stages of spermatogenesis. However, satisfactorily preserved prophases of first spermatocytes have been observed which, together with the large amount of embryonic material available, have made it possible to work out the behavior of the sex-associated chromosomes with reasonable certainty. Measurements of the chromosomes indicate that the longest chromosome in the cell is single in the female and paired in the male. Two classes of eggs are therefore possible - one with and one without this long chromosome, while all the spermatozoa produced are alike in possessing the long chromatic element. The female is therefore heterozygous and the male homozygous in regard to this chromosome which affords a cytological parallel for the genetic evidence of the heterozygosity of the female.
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  • 136
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    Notes: Sixteen species of the genus Scyllium are here considered and arranged in groups according to the accessory structures present on the claspers as follows:1Canicula, sufflans, ventriosum.2Catulus, stellare, capense, variegatum (var. pantherinus), umbratile.3Burgerii, hispida, bivium, anale, natalense, edwardsii.4Marmoratum, laticeps.The structure of the wall of the oviduct and vagina is demonstrated, and it is shown that the epithelium of both is at first columnar, then ciliated in immature specimens; at maturity that of the vagina further undergoes by transitions a change to stratified. The walls are highly vascular, but contain no special glands.
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  • 137
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    Notes: The claspers of Centrina are adnate with the pelvic fin and bear a spine as in other Spinacidae. Mustelus canis resembles M. lunulatus rather than M. vulgaris. The claspers of Chiloscyllium end in a pointed spike. Pseudotriakis resembles the Carchariidae. The three North American Atlantic species of the genus Raia are considered, and R. laevis and R. erinacea are placed in the pseudogenus containing R. batis, and a new pseudogenus erected for R. ocellata. A gross and histological account is given of the Cowper's glands of Homo, and they are shown to be homoplastic with clasper glands, similar in structure, arrangement, development, and function.
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  • 138
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 453-471 
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    Notes: The activities of the larva and the responses and orientations it makes to external stimulation, and the structural organization by which these activities are produced, are described and figured.Existing systematic confusion of M. citrina with other species (M. manhattensis, M. nana, and M. microsiphonica) is cleared. The duration of the period of larval life is found to vary between 5 and 170 minutes. A proportionally small number retain the larval form a longer time. During larval life, periods of swimming movements alternate with periods of inactivity, the latter, at first of momentary duration, becoming longer and longer until activity ceases.No light receptor exists and no response to light is made. A statolith is found in the sensory vesicle, and frequent geonegative orientations are made during the free-swimming period. These are of short duration and tend to occur, 1) when it emerges from the parent; 2) at the beginning of each of the frequently recurring periods of swimming activity; 3) immediately upon making contacts. Unoriented movements follow each orientation and constitute much the greater part of behavior.The larva lacks definite organs of attachment. The entire surface of the tunic becomes adhesive at the time of metamorphosis. Only those structures that make up the action systems of the larva are fully differentiated, all other parts are embryonic in condition.
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    Notes: The study is divided into three parts. Part I deals with the chromosome number and morphology in the amniotic cells of rabbit embryos. The number of chromosomes has been found essentially constant in amniotic cells of young, but more variable in older embryos. The somatic number is 44. Part II deals with the chromosomes of race crosses (Flemmish Giant X Polish) in which the homologous chromosomes were found to be alike. Part III deals with spermatogenesis. There are forty-four chromosomes in spermatogonia, and twenty-two in primary spermatocytes. The sex chromosomes are of the usual X-Y type.
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  • 141
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    Notes: 1Monovalent cation salts induce reversal in the direction of the stroke of the cilia; bivalent and trivalent cation salts with a few exceptions do not. Some acids induce reversal, others do not.2The duration of reversed action varies with the kind of salt and with the concentration. As the concentration increases, the duration of reversed action increases to a maximum and then decreases to zero.3Bivalent and trivalent cation salts neutralize the effect of monovalent cation salts. The relative amount required varies with the kind of salt used and with the concentration.4The amount of a given salt required to neutralize another salt is not proportional to the concentration of the salt neutralized. Weber's law does not hold.5The results seem to indicate that ciliary reversal is associated with differential adsorption and consequent changes in electric potential, but that there are also other factors involved.
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  • 142
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    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 147-179 
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    Notes: Animal posture cannot be regarded as an actual inheritance, for it constitutes a current physiological interaction between gravity and an organism, according to the structure and physical powers of the latter. Hence, ‘inherited posture’ merely implies that in a given species physical qualifications are congenitally transmitted, which facilitate a certain characteristic position of the body. Evolution of posture, therefore, has inevitably been associated with corresponding evolutionary changes in organic structures.Evidence furnished by the application of biomechanics to studies of ancient and modern primate structures indicates that man's erectly supported body posture could only have originated from a vertically suspended posture (arboreal).The fact that the prehuman stem passed through an earlier arboreal and brachiating period is attested to by the grasping character of his hands, the ratio of arm-body length, the extreme mobility of the shoulder-joints, as well as the extension of his legs on the body.The semierect posture of the great apes is not an advance toward human bipedism, but a modern reversion toward quadrupedism.Postural evidence conforms with the many other lines of testimony which maintain the close relationship of the human and anthropoid stems, and signifies that man has been an erect terrestrial biped since the time of his physical origin.
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  • 143
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    Notes: The prochordal plate in the chick is a thickening of the entoderm in the anterior part of the area pellucida. It consists at first of several layers of yolk-charged cells, which finally lose their yolk and form a thin layer of entoderm.The prechordal plate (an area of mesodermal proliferation immediately anterior to the notochord) arises immediately anterior to the primitive streak (and head process when the latter appears) in a part of the region once occupied by the prochordal plate. Later the prechordal plate comes to lie upon the dorsal wall of the foregut.The premandibular cavities arise in condensations of the prechordal mesoderm. The cavities seem to appear during the rapid expansion of the prechordal mesoderm which occurs in response to a release from constraint imposed by surrounding structures. They are connected with one another across the midline by a usually solid bridge of mesoderm.Later, the cavities are replaced by a mesodermal condensation which serves as a mold, on the surface of which the oculomotor muscles appear, arising before the disappearance of the premandibular head cavities.Differences in the relations of notochord and hypophysis in the chick and robin may be explained by an analysis of the growth of the two forms. The analysis furnishes a basis for understanding the relations of the anterior end of the notochord in the mammal.
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 333-345 
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    Notes: In a leech infesting the Alaskan codfish germinal masses in the ovary proliferate secondary groups, comprising about forty cells in which a follicle and central supporting cell early differentiate. Active division results in approximately 500 cells which apparently develop ductules extending to a point on the surface of the egg. Granules of unknown origin then appear in each nurse cell, and are drawn down the ductules into the egg which can now be distinguished. Reasons are given for the belief that the nutritive material is drained from the nurse cells by amoeboid activity of the egg. In early stages the nutritive mateiral forms a loose reticulum which gradually becomes transformed into a more extensive network, persisting until the maturation divisions. In this latest period the follicle and nurse cells, which become shrunken as the ovum enlarges, usually are stripped off and soon disintegrate.
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    Notes: The blood of Perophora viridis is found to contain six types of cells: (1) Green cells, which have green-colored fatty bodies embedded in clear cytoplasm. (2) Orange cells, with orange-colored bodies of unknown composition in the cytoplasm. (3) Colorless berry-like cells, with fluid-filled vesicles in the cytoplasm. (4) Granular amoeboid cells. (5) Compartmental amoeboid cells, which have box-like vacuoles containing brownian granules of a fatty substance. (6) Vesicular, signet-ring type of cell having a single large vacuole. The cytological structure of these cells and their reaction to various dyes are described.An effort has been made to homologize the types of cells found in the blood of other ascidians with those found in Perophora.It is concluded that the variety of colors found in the cells of ascidian blood is due to the varying chemical states of the vanadium-containing chromogen present in the cells.
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  • 146
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 427-439 
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Webbing of toes or fingers in man is produced by a local arrest of development, causing retention of the normal embryonic webbing. This type of digital fusion involves only the skin, the skeleton being unaffected. The extensor tendons of the toes may sometimes be fused.Webbed digits occur normally in some marsupials, rodents, and insectivores, in a number of lemurs and catarrhines, and in the siamang and gorilla. They also may occur in varying degree in other Primates, notably Hylobates. An analysis of five new pedigrees together with those already published demonstrates that webbing of toes in man may be inherited in either a mendelian or sex-linked manner. In one case this character follows the course of the Y-chromosome.
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 83-109 
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    Notes: The summary of this paper is as follows:1A critical review of the developmental evidence shows that the branchial pouches are formed in cephalocaudal sequence subsequently to the segmentation of the dorsal mesoderm.2The pouches interrupt a continuous sheet of mesoderm to form the branchial arches.3The arches when formed do not correspond topographically to the dorsal somites.4Branchiomerism does not therefore coincide with somitic metamerism.3The branchial structures do not support the theory of head segmentation.3The nervi trigeminus, facialis, glossopharyngeus, and vagus cannot be regarded as segmental nerves.3There is no evidence that branchial pouches or arches have been elided from the series.3The problem of meristic homology is briefly discussed.
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 283-309 
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    Notes: A study of the development and seasonal changes of the testis in Diemyctylus viridescens shows that accessory testicular lobes arise as follows: Emptying of the caudal zone of the testis at mating is followed by degeneration of the lobules (tubules) of that region, reducing it to a slender cord consisting chiefly of duct system and residual spermatogonia. A regeneration of lobules at the distal end of this cord later gives rise to the second or accessory lobe.Accessory lobes develop in immature males after a similar reduction of the caudal end of the testis through spermatogonial degeneration or an abortive spermatogenesis. The caudal germ-cell cord thus formed is comparable to that resulting from extrusion of spermatozoa, and the development of new lobules at the distal end of this cord gives rise to a second lobe as in adult males. There is no evidence of the formation of a multiple testis by outgrowths from the primary lobe or by the junction of several lobes originally separate.A multiple testis occurs in Urodele species exhibiting two peculiarities of the spermatogenetic pattern: (1) a slow spermatogenetic wave and, (2) delayed regeneration of lobules emptied at mating or by degeneration of their germ cells. The number of lobes is correlated with the age of the individual. In Diemyctylus under 6 cm. the first accessory lobe has not yet developed.
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 347-425 
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    Notes: Amoeba proteus contains a central elongated fluid portion (plasmasol), a rigid layer surrounding this (plasmagel), a thin elastic surface layer (plasmalemma), and a hyaline layer between the plasmagel and the plasmalemma which is fluid at the tip of active pseudopods and in certain other regions.The plasmasol is an emulsion. It consists of a fluid in which various vacuoles and granuoles are suspended. The plasmagel is probably alveolar in structure. It contains the same kinds of substances as the plasmasol, but some of the fluid appears to be gelated so as to form alveoli. The plasmalemma probably consists of interwoven protein fibers and a lipoid which fills the interstices.The plasmasol is probably hypertonic; the plasmagel and the plasmalemma are probably semipermeable. This and other factors result in an excess inflow of water, stretching the plasmagel and the plasmalemma. When a pseudopod is formed, the inner portion of the plasmagel liquefies locally. This produces a local decrease in elastic strength resulting in the formation of a protuberance, a pseudopod. As this is formed there is contraction at the posterior end, resulting in forward flow of the plasmasol and extension of the pseudopod.If the pseudopod is attached, the plasmalemma, being attached to the substratum and to the adjoining plasmagel, slides over the plasmagel above and remains stationary below, rolling movement results. If it is free, the plasmalemma is stretched out with movement in it equal on all sides. If the free pseudopods become attached to the substratum at the tip after they are thus formed, walking movement results.During locomotion of either type, the plasmasol continuously gelates at the tip of the extending pseudopods forming plasmagel, and the plasmagel continuously solates at the posterior end forming plasmasol.Response is due largely to changes in the elastic strength of the plasmagel in the adhesiveness of the plasmalemma and in turgidity.Locomotion in Amoeba verrucosa is in principle the same as it is in Amoeba proteus.
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 441-546 
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Embryological study of bullfrog tadpoles collected from various parts of the United States has shown the existence of local races which differ markedly in regard to the time of occurrence and character of the developmental processes involved in the formation of the definitive testis of the male individuals. Those races in which the gonads of the two sexes are easily distinguished in early larval stages are called differentiated. Other local races show a peculiar gonadic development chiefly affecting the males, the definitive testis sometimes not appearing until near the end of the second year of larval life. Such races are called undifferentiated, because the morphological features of the definitive testes are not established until late. The larvae first develop a peculiar gonad (progonad) which later degenerates and is replaced by the definitive testis. All male animals of the undifferentiated strains exhibit the gonad cycle.The progonad varies among the local frog races in regard to the length of persistence and degree of differentiation attained before undergoing degeneration. Its germ cells may exhibit a typical male maturation cycle ending in degeneration, or the cells may differentiate along both male and female lines or remain sexually neutral.The development and differentiation of the progonad in the various races are described and a detailed account given of the origin of the definitive testis. The problems of sex differentiation and continuity of the Keimbahn in anurans are discussed.
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 23-81 
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The flagellate, Tetramitus rostratus Perty, appeared in cultures of certain amoebae obtained from the coecum of rats. In a typical life-cycle a cyst, planted in an appropriate medium, gives rise to an amoeba which may divide a number of times, but eventually some of the amoebae transform into flagellates identical with Tetramitus rostratus. These divide frequently through several days, sometimes for weeks or months, and then transform back to amoebae which become encysted.During excystment the smooth cyst wall dissolves. Usually both the amoeboid and flagellate phases pass into a “gel” state during division. A “gel” state sometimes occurs during transformation. The time required for transformations varies from a few minutes to several hours.Many culture media and methods have been tested. In certain cultures the flagellate phase was prolonged for weeks or months. These cultures were characterized by: 1) great variation in size, from minute “dwarfs” to oversized “monsters”; 2) frequent multiple fission; 3) pairing and fusion, and, 4) some evidence for the origin of secondary nuclei from chromidia. In cases of pairing and fusion, the process of maturation and union of nuclei could not be definitely proved, although suggested by the observations.The flagellate phase is more probably the “adult” phase because of its complex organization and possible sexual phenomena. This case is considered an extreme for this type amoeba-flagellate transformation.
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  • 153
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 143-195 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: On the basis of experimental study and observations on the morphology of the legs of spiders, P. Friedrich described a cutting device within the trochanter which would sever that appendage from the body when the leg was stimulated by injury.A reinvestigation of the problem yielded entirely contrary results. Experiments calculated to induce spontaneous amputation through an automatic reflex in the leg were negative on scorpions, harvestmen, and more than a dozen species of spiders. A detailed morphological study of the skeleton and musculature of the arachnid leg showed that no autotomizing device exists, either in the skeleton or in the arrangement of muscles (as is usually supposed). In all species studied, except the scorpion, severance of the leg from the body occurs most readily at some given point. The point at which severance readily occurs is directly correlated with a definite structural weakness in the skeleton and musculature. The spider itself removes an injured leg by grasping the stump with its mouth-parts. No such injured stump falls off spontaneously or without the application of tension. Scorpions do not autotomize appendages under any stimulation, nor do they show any anatomical weakness in the leg skeleton or musculature.Autotomy as an automatic reflex does not exist in the Arachnida.
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  • 154
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydoselachus resembles the Holocephali in possessing no siphon, but a cavity in the proximal portion of the clasper. The cartilages, musculature, and venous sinuses of the clasper are considered. An older specimen of Echinorhinus is proved to have a spine on a soft papilla; Scymnus has no spine; both have the general features of the Spinacidae. Two species of Cestracion are compared with C. philippi. Mustelus lunulatus lacks the pera and pseudosiphon of M. vulgaris. Dicerobatis has a peculiar scaphus, and the claspers end in a fimbriated manner. Pteroplatea resembles Trygon and Benthobatis and Astrape are both like Torpedo.The species are listed below.
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  • 155
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A summary is given of the previous memoirs, and an attempt has been made, upon the three characters of this investigation, to arrange the genera into families, which agree, with two exceptions (Mitsukurina and Dicerobatis), with preexisting families. Some deductions are drawn as to relationships and attention is drawn to Cestracion galeatus and Triakis as connecting links. Separate families are erected for Dicerobatis and Mitsukurina, and the latter is placed near to Notidanus. Resemblances are shown between Chlamydoselachus and the Holocephali. The Trygonidae, Torpedinidae, and Rhinobatidae are singularly uniform families. An index is added both general and specific.
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  • 156
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 523-560 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The different kinds of scales characteristic of the adult sturgeon are described and the facts of ontogenesis which throw light on the history of these structures are presented.The scales of Acipenser are exclusively mesenchymatous and therefore are not morphologically comparable with the placoid scales of elasmobranchs. Salensky ('80) drew erroneous conclusions as a result of failure to study the earlier stages of ontogenesis. Goodrich ('03) has correctly described the ontogenesis of the lepidotrichia.The original form of ganoid scale was that of an elongated rhomb with a longitudinal crest on its external surface. The various forms of scales of the adult sturgeon have been produced by the differentiation of such a scale by change in size, shape, and the fusion of the different elements.The conclusions are extended to the entire family of Acipenseridae.
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  • 157
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    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 45-54 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spermatogenesis of the domestic mouse has been studied. There are forty chromosomes in spermatogonia and twenty in primary spermatocytes. The sex chromosomes are of the usual X-Y type. Especial attention has been devoted to the study of chromosome morphology, both in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes.
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  • 158
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the epidermal cells of green-frog tadpoles (Rana clamitans) there are present coarse, conspicuous mitochondrial threads. In the dorsal body regions, epidermal cells of the middle layers also contain pigment granules, grouped in crescentic masses in the distal portions of the cells.Administration of thyroid extract results in permanent disappearance of the mitochondrial threads and disappearance to a large extent of the epidermal pigment granules. Processes of cellular dedifferentiation and proliferation occur rapidly over widespread areas, the mitochondria undergoing intracellular resorption. A new type of epidermis is developed containing many cutaneous glands, adapted for the approaching terrestrial life.Wound infliction induces similar processes of cellular dedifferentiation and proliferation in the epidermis in the immediate vicinity of the wound. Cells in this region lose their mitochondrial threads by intracellular resorption, and there is also some disappearance of pigment granules. The new epidermal cells in the early stages of regeneration produce neither mitochondrial threads nor pigment. This condition is not permanent, however, and in the later stages the larval characteristics appear again, both mitochondrial threads and pigment being redifferentiated.In the hyperthyroid animals there is also a significant mobilization of mesenchymal chromatophores, correlated to some extent with the loss of epidermal pigment.The significance of epidermal changes is discussed with reference to cutaneous abnormalities associated with hyperthyroid and hypothyroid conditions.
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  • 159
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    In:  Zeitschrift für Acker- und Pflanzenbau 3:330-334.
    Publication Date: 1926
    Description: Angabe von Niederschlagsmengen und Durchschnittstemperaturen für das ökologische Optimum bestimmter Sorten, kritische Zeiten (vor und nach der Blüte) sind hierfür entscheidend KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Einfluss von Wasser und Wärme, bzw. Niederschlag und Temperatur auf den Ertrag KATASTER-DETAIL: Roggen, Weizen: Delta Nied (Beginn Blütezeit)-, dann Ertrag +; Hafer, Gerste, Kartoffel: Delta T (Beginn der Blüte) -, dann Ertrag +; Bohne: Delta T (gesamte Wachstumszeit)+ und Delta Nied (gesamte Wachstumszeit) +, dann Ertrag +
    Keywords: Göttingen ; 1901-22 ; Kartoffeln ; Ertrag ; Getreide ; Hafer ; Klima ; Korrelationsmethode ; Niederschlag ; Roggen ; Temperatur ; Weizen ; Witterung ; Hackfrüchte ; Erbsen
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  • 160
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    In:  Artikel; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 213(402-410): 89-142.
    Publication Date: 1925
    Description: Langjährige Feldversuche und Wetteraufzeichnungen der Versuchstation, Korrelationen zwischen Niederschlag und Ernteerträgen KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Einfluss des Niederschlags auf den Ertrag KATASTER-DETAIL: Delta Nied -, dann Erträge +
    Keywords: Rothamsted (England) ; 1854-1918 ; Ertrag ; Niederschlag ; Weizen ; Düngung
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  • 161
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    In:  Sächs. Landw. Zeitschr. 73, p.614
    Publication Date: 1925
    Description: Beschreibung der Schäden und Erscheinungsformen des Weizenhalmtöters und der Weizenhalmfliege im Jahre 1926 in Sachsen. Nur bedingte Verknüpfung mit klimatischen Parametern. KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: KATASTER-DETAIL:
    Keywords: Sachsen ; 1926 ; Getreide ; Pflanzenschädling ; Weizen
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  • 162
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    In:  Diss., Göttingen
    Publication Date: 1925
    Description: Ergebnisse ( Korrelationsmethode) der Bezeihung zwischen Witterung und Ertrag vieler Kulturen eingeteilt nach Monaten KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Beziehungen zwischen Witterung (Temperatur und Niederschlag)und Ernte KATASTER-DETAIL: Delta Nied (erste 10 Blütetage) -, dann Ertrag (Roggen) +; Delta Nied (Beginn der Blüte bis 10 tage nach Ende der Blüte)-, dann Ertrag (Winterweizen) +; Delta Nied (während der 20 Tage nach Beginn der Blüte) -, dann Ertrag (Sommerweizen) +; Delta Tmit (während der 20 Tage nach dem Aufgang) -, dann Ertrag (Hafer) +; Delta Tmin (während der 20 Tage nach dem Aufgang) -, dann Ertrag (Gerste) +; Delta Tmit (während der 20 Tage nach Beginn der Blüte) -, dann Ertrag (Kartoffeln) +; Delta Nied (vom Aufgang bis zum Beginn der Blüte) -, dann Ertrag (Erbsen) +; Delta Nied +, dann Ertrag (Vietsbohnen) +;
    Keywords: Göttingen ; 1901-1922 ; Kartoffeln ; Ertrag ; Hafer ; Korrelationsmethode ; Niederschlag ; Temperatur ; Weizen ; Witterung ; Erbsen
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  • 163
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    In:  Die kranke Pflanze 2, p. 117-119
    Publication Date: 1925
    Description: Allgemeine Beobachtungen zum Auftreten und zur Wanderung des Getreidelaufkäfers und dessen Larven; Nennung von Möglichkeiten zur Bekämpfung des Insekts KATASTER-BESCHREIBUNG: Abhängigkeit der Stärke des Auftretens von der Temperatur KATASTER-DETAIL: Delta T+, dann Auftreten der Larven +
    Keywords: Sachsen ; Beginn 20. Jahrhundert ; Insekten ; Boden ; Ertrag ; Getreide ; Landwirtschaft ; Pflanzenschädling ; Roggen ; Temperatur ; Weizen
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  • 164
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    Journal of Morphology 40 (1925) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 165
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    Journal of Morphology 40 (1925), S. 111-167 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microscopic examination of both living and stained forms indicates that the so-called ‘multivacuolate’ and ‘amicronucleate races of Paramecium caudatum’ belong to the species Paramecium multimicronucleata. The published accounts of the morphology and cultural characteristics of the various forms are compared and provide additional evidence. A more complete description is given, including distinctive characters previously omitted.The conjugation process of P. multimicronucleata in general resembles that of P. caudatum, most of the differences being due to the presence of four micronuclei instead of one. These each divide twice with characteristic figures, twelve of the sixteen daughter nuclei then degenerating. One of the remaining four splits to form a single pair of functional pronuclei in each cell. The two migratory pronuclei interchange as in P. caudatum. The synkaryon divides three times, and probably seven of these nuclei degenerate. The remaining one apparently undergoes two divisions. In most cases by six to eight hours after the conjugants separate two micronuclei of the four thus produced form enlarged macronuclear anlagen, the other two remaining as micronuclei. Each anlage divides within the next two or four hours, producing four macronuclear and four micronuclear analagen. Two fissions, each preceded by a division of the micronuclei, restore vegetative conditions.The process described above is compared with conjugation in P. bursaria, P. caudatum, and P. putrinum.
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  • 166
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    Journal of Morphology 40 (1925), S. 235-259 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A study of the peripheral nerves of the earthworm shows that one pair of nerve trunks arise from the lateral regions of the cerebral ganglion, one pair from near the lateral, and two pairs from the ventral region of the circumpharyngeal connectives. These supply, in the order given, the prostomium, segment 1 and segment 2. Segment 3 and each succeeding segment, except the last, are supplied with three pairs of nerve trunks which arise from the nerve cord in the segment concerned. None of the nerve trunks of the body was observed to send branches to more than one segment, which shows that they are segmental in origin and distribution.The anterior portion of the central nervous system has undergone caudal migration and modification of its ganglia. Some of the nerve trunks have disappeared through atrophy, while others have become fused at their bases.A subepidermal nerve plexus is found at the base of the epidermal cells from which nerve fibers pass to the internal nerve net and to the central nervous system. This plexus also sends intercellular and intracellular fibers into the epidermis.The so-called sense cells of the epidermis appear to be the cell bodies of sensory neurones which send nerve fibers to the ganglia of the central nervous system, where they form synaptic connections with other neurones.There is an enteric nerve plexus in the wall of the alimentary canal which is directly connected to the circumpharyngeal connectives.
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  • 167
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Painted turtles, gopher tortoises, and terrapins were fed on various mixtures of sand, salts, dextrin, casein, cod-liver oil, wheat, eggs, lettuce, and meal worms. Each individual was weighted weekly for about a year and then killed for analysis, the water, ash, nitrogen, and fat being determined. Some individuals increased in weight as much as 75 per cent, others lost weight. Judged by growth and chemical analyses, the food requirements of chelonians, as representative poikilothermal vertebrates toward nutritive substances (including vitamines) are similar to those of homoiothermal animals.
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  • 168
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The parasynaptic union of chromosomes associated with the formation of a karyosphere is demonstrated in the spermatocytes of Phanaeus.The twelve V-shaped leptotene threads are polarized with their apices embedded in one plasmosome-like body, their distal ends in another (primary and secondary caps, respectively), and undergo a conjugation of the parasynaptic type. The distal ends of the chromosomes are freed from their attachment in the secondary cap. The six pachytene loops retain their polarized configuration.The basichromatin of the pachytene chromosomes appears ultimately to be withdrawn to form the karyosphere comprising six chromatic bodies within an oxychromatic «plasmosome,» the latter probably derived from the primary cap. The two caps are believed to arise from the chromosomes. The primary cap apparently becomes incorporated again in the chromosomes; the secondary cap, together with linin remnants of the pachytene chromosomes, disintegrates in the nucleus as residual chromatin.In the dissolution of the karyosphere six ring-shaped tetrads emerge arranged in a temporarily connected chain, giving under certain conditions, the misleading impression of twelve components arranged end to end. The entire content of the karyosphere appears to be employed in the formation of the chromosomes; no visible plasmosome remains.
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  • 169
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    Journal of Morphology 40 (1925)