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  • General Chemistry  (7,564)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (5,700)
  • 1910-1914  (2,932)
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  • 101
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 365-383 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ampullary receptor organs of African mormyrids consist of a cavity beneath the epidermis. The wall of the cavity contains embedded receptor cells and two types of supporting cells. A canal extends from the cavity to an opening at the surface. The lumen of the canal and the ampulla are filled with a jelly-like material and dense cylinders apparently secreted by two types of supporting cells. Flattened cells of the canal wall are joined by occluding junctions. Synapses between receptor cells and the afferent nerve fiber are characterized by a presynaptic dense body, but presynaptic vesicles were not observed. Degenerating receptor cells are occasionally seen among normal receptor cells in the base of the organ.
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  • 102
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 385-395 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper examines the effect of early thymectomy on the subsequent development of lymphoid tissues in the toad, Xenopus laevis. At the time of thymic removal (8 days post-fertilization) all the lymphoid organ anlagen are at a rudimentary state of differentiation and contain few, if any, small lymphocytes. Despite the absence of any thymic tissue all thymectomized animals grew normally.Thymectomized larvae developed relatively normal lymphoid organs. However, lymphoid depletion was apparent in the splenic red pulp and in the pharyngeal ventral cavity bodies. Examination of the lymphoid organs of post-metamorphic Xenopus revealed reduction in spleen size following thymectomy. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the splenic red pulp of many thymectomized toadlets and reduction in proportion of white to red pulp was also noted in a few of these animals. Absence of the thymus had no apparent effect on the histology of the other lymphoid organs examined.
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  • 103
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extraocular muscles from representative species of vertebrate groups ranging from amphibians to the higher mammals were examined in serial histological sections for the presence of muscle spindles. These observations and data from the literature indicate that extraocular muscles of the pig, calf, sheep and other even-toed ungulates are richly supplied with well-defined spindles having a generous complement of intrafusal fibers distinguishable as nuclear bag and chain fibers. Spindles in human eye muscles are also numerous. In macaque and chimpanzee muscles a few poorly developed spindles were present in some, but not all, muscles. No encapsulated receptors were found in 20 other mammalian and submammalian species examined in this study. When present, spindles tended to be located in the zone of small muscle fibers found along the orbital surface of the muscle. Rectus and oblique muscles in all species had such a zone, so that its existence did not determine whether spindles would occur.
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  • 104
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 409-433 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gonadotrophic cells in the pars distalis of Anolis carolinensis often contain juxtanuclear concentrations of filaments with diameters intermediate in size (approximately 100 Å) between microtubules and microfilaments. Their size and their substructure, which gives them a tubular appearance when they are displayed in cross-section, appear to place these filaments in the “intermediate filament” category (Ishikawa et al., '68). In their juxtanuclear position in the intact animal, the intermediate filaments are collected in randomly-oriented tangles. In castrated specimens of Anolis, gonadotrophs degranulate and elongate. During this elongation, increased numbers of microtubules appear in orientation parallel to the long axis of the cell, and the 100 Å filaments reassemble in rod-like masses oriented parallel to the microtubules. This apparent distributional interaction may facilitate the elongation of the cell. Intimate physical associations between the intermediate filaments and secretory granules suggest that the filaments may act in the movement of the granules during the processes of degranulation and secretion.
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  • 105
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 435-443 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The long antennal flagellum of Neoconocephalus ensiger is covered with many sharp-tipped hairs that appear to be non-innervated; thick-walled chemoreceptors, that may also have a tactile function; thin-walled chemoreceptors of several kinds and coeloconic chemoreceptors. All of the chemoreceptors are innervated by small groups of neurons. The first flagellar subsegment is unusual in that it bears a small protuberance on its latero-ventral surface. This marks the site of the attachment, internally, of a scoloparium containing about eleven scolopales in which the dendrites of some 23 sensory neurons terminate. The most distal subsegment lacks the scoloparium reported earlier for the grasshopper. No conspicuous difference between the antennae of males and of females was found.
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  • 106
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 445-455 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The antennae of two species of thrips, Bagnalliella yuccae (Hinds) and Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), have been examined with the light and electron microscopes. The antennal flagellum of both species is provided with tactile hairs, thick-walled chemoreceptors and thin-walled chemoreceptors. In addition, B. yuccae, but not F. tritici, has a single coeloconic chemoreceptor on the dorsal surface of the pedicel. Observations were made on the fluids in the lumen of the antennae of E. yuccae in the living insect. The movement of the fluids probably has an important physiological significance.
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  • 107
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The locomotor function of the caudal muscle cells of ascidian larvae is identical with that of lower vertebrate somatic striated (skeletal) muscle fibers, but other features, including the presence of transverse myomuscular junctions, an active Golgi apparatus, a single nucleus, and partial innervation, are characteristic of vertebrate myocardial cells.Seven stages in the development of the compound ascidian Distaplia occidentalis were selected for an ultrastructural study of caudal myogenesis. A timetable of development and differentiation was obtained from cultures of isolated embryos in vitro.The myoblasts of the neurulating embryo are yolky, undifferentiated cells. They are arranged in two bands between the epidermis and the notochord in the caudal rudiment and are actively engaged in mitosis.Myoblasts of the caudate embryo continue to divide and rearrange themselves into longitudinal rows so that each cell simultaneously adjoins the epidermis and the notochord. The formation of secretory granules by the Golgi apparatus coincides with the onset of proteid-yolk degradation and the accumulation of glycogen in the ground cytoplasm.Randomly oriented networks of thick and thin myofilaments appear in the peripheral sarcoplasm of the muscle cells of the comma embryo. Bridges interconnect the thick and thin myofilaments (actomyosin bridges) and the thick myofilaments (H-bridges), but no banding patterns are evident. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), derived from evaginations of the nuclear envelope, forms intimate associations (peripheral couplings) with the sarcolemma.Precursory Z-lines are interposed between the networks of myofilaments in the vesiculate embryo, and the nascent myofibrils become predominantly oriented parallel to the long axis of the muscle cell.Muscle cells of the papillate embryo contain a single row of cortical myofibrils. Myofibrils, already spanning the length of the cell, grow only in diameter by the apposition of myofilaments. The formation of transverse myomuscular junctions begins at this stage, but the differentiating junctions are frequently oriented obliquely rather than orthogonally to the primary axes of the myofibrils.With the appearance of H-bands and M-lines, a single perforated sheet of sarcoplasmic reticulum is found centered on the Z-line and embracing the I-band. The sheet of SR establishes peripheral couplings with the sarcolemma.In the prehatching tadpole, a second collar of SR, centered on the M-line and extending laterally to the boundaries with the A-bands, is formed. A single perforated sheet surrounds the myofibril but is discontinuous at the side of the myofibril most distant from the sarcolemma. To produce the intricate architecture of the fully differentiated collar in the swimming tadpole (J. Morph., 138: 349, 1972). the free ends of the sheet must elevate from the surface of the myofibril, recurve, and extend peripherally toward the sarcolemma to establish peripheral couplings.Morphological changes in the nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, and Golgi bodies are described, as well as changes in the ground cytoplasmic content of yolk, glycogen, and ribosomes.The volume of the differentiating cells, calculated from the mean cellular dimensions, and analyses of cellular shape are presented, along with schematic diagrams of cells in each stage of caudal myogenesis. In an attempt to quantify the differences observed ultrastructurally, calculations of the cytoplasmic volume occupied by the mqjor classes of organelles are included.Comparison is made with published accounts on differentiating vertebrate somatic striated and cardiac muscles.
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  • 108
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 85-117 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anolis embryos have limb buds at the time eggs are laid and require about 39 days to complete development at 28°C. Rathke's pouch is present at five days, and the subdivisions of the adenohypophysis are differentiated by ten days after oviposition. The cells of the rostral half of the pars distalis (PD) are derived from the anterior face of Rathke's pouch; cells of the caudal half from the posterior face. Lateral lobe cells differentiate on the lateral margins of the developing caudal PD, and knob-like outgrowths of this tissue attach to the walls of the diencephalon to form the pars tuberalis (PT). Subsequently, the cells of the PT lose their connection with the PD and become a pair of flattened oblong plaques. They reach maximal size in midincubation, and are gradually invaded by nervous elements and incorporated into the walls of the hypothalamus. Electron micrographs demonstrate that the embryonic PT is secretory.Ultrastructurally the pars intermedia (PI) and PD are composed of parenchymous secretory cells in a framework of stellate cells. Stellate cells surround the lumen of Rathke's pouch and are connected laterally by complex junctions that exclude the secretory cells from the luminal surface. They extend in sheet-like processes among the secretory cells to the outer margin of the gland where they form a partial sheath within the basal lamina around the secretory tissue. As development proceeds, the lumen becomes subdivided and the resulting reduced lumina are recognizable as the forerunners of the follicles of the adult adenohypophysis.The cells of the PI are differentiated into secretory or stellate cells halfway through incubation. At this time only half of the cells of the PD can be so classified. Four of the five granulated cell types described in the adult are recognizable by mid-incubation; the fifth cell type (prolactin cell) becomes distinguishable within ten days thereafter, and at hatching appears to be actively synthesizing secretory products.
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  • 109
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 131-141 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hydranth of the gymnoblastic hydroid Syncoryne tenella is invested by a cuticle approximately 530 mμ thick which is continuous with the periderm of the hydrocaulus. The ectodermal cells of the hydranth possess regularly spaced microvilli orientated with their long axis perpendicular to the ectodermal surface. The microvilli project into the cuticle, and probably serve to anchor the cuticle to the ectoderm. In the hydrocaulus the periderm is loosely applied to the ectoderm: in this region microvilli are absent from ectodermal cells. The periderm is a layered structure composed of finely filamentous material. No structural basis is found for the previously reported differential staining of peridermal layers in the hydrocaulus.
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  • 110
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 167-183 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nuchal organs of polychaetes from four different families (Nereidae, Nephtyidae, Phyllodocidae and Glyceridae) were examined with the light and electron microscopes. In each case, the organ consists of ciliated cells and primary sensory elements. The ciliated cells are similar to the cells of the adjacent epidermis but bear motile cilia. Primary sensory neurons are situated within the organs in Nephtyidae and Phyllodocidae, but are located within the brain in Nereidae and Glyceridae. Each sensory cell gives rise to a distal process which penetrates between the ciliated cells to form an apical sensory bulb bearing modified cilia. Apically these processes are lined with juxtamembranous plaques. The ciliated cells are innervated by efferent axons from the brain, and in Nereis the axons appear to be peptidergic. The elements comprising the nuchal organs closely resemble those of the vertebrate olfactory mucosa.
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  • 111
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cuticle of five species of Oligochaeta, chosen to represent differences in size and a variety of biotopes, was studied electron microscopically after fixation with the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method. Five distinct layers in the cuticle of all studied species were found. Staining with lead and uranyl ions or with silver proteinate visualized basically the same structural components of the cuticle, but the degree of electron opacity and the distribution of the electron-opaque stain in these components differed according to the staining method used. Since the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method visualized the cuticular zones preferentially stained by Thiéry's silver proteinate method, it was concluded that the TAPO method may be considered suitable for the visualization of polysaccharides. Staining with phosphotungstic acid provided some information on the composition of the cuticle of Oligochaeta not obtained by staining ultrathin sections with lead and uranyl ions nor with silver proteinate. The conclusion is that phosphotungstic acid binds to polysaccharides which do not contain vicglycol groups nor active sites responsible for the positive reaction with lead and uranyl salts. Structural components in the cuticle of the oligochaetes studied were characteristic for each species. The taxonomic value of such components, however, must be confirmed by examination of a larger number of species of oligochaetes.
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  • 112
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the venom producing parotoid glands of Bufo marinus has been studied by light and electron microscopy and reactions for the presence of glycoprotein and mucopolysaccharides, the catechollamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine or dopamine, glucose-6-phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and the steroid nucleus and cholesterol and its esters have been performed. The gland is composed of numerous individual lobules, each lobule surrounded by a double cell layer. The interior surface of the outer layer is thrown into small cytoplasmic projections which traverse an intercellular space and interdigitate with microvilli formed by the outer plasmalemma of the inner layer. The outer layer resembles smooth muscle-like cells, is rich in adenosine triphosphatase, contains many pinocytotic vesicles and various organelles and may function in some aspect of venom synthesis, active cellular transport and contraction in the discharge of the secretory product. The inner layer shows a positive chromaffin reaction, contains various organelles, appears devoid of a plasmalemma on its inner surface and is involved in venom formation and release via an apocrine type of secretion. The intercellular space is rich in PAS positive materials, while the secretory product, itself, demonstrates a positive chromaffin reaction. The significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 113
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The synganglion of Dermacentor variabilis Say is a single nerve mass, condensed around the esophagus and within the periganglionic sinus of the ciculatory system. Protocerebral, cheliceral (including stomodeal bridge), and pedipalpal ganglia lie in the pre-esophageal portion of the nerve mass and bear optic, cheliceral, and pedipalpal nerves respectively. The unpaired stomodeal and the recurrent nerve which forms the hyper-esophageal ganglion arise from the stomodeal bridge. Paired primary and accessory nerves to the retrocerebral organ complex have mixed protocerebral-cheliceral origins. Pedal ganglia (including ventral olfactory lobes of pedal ganglia I) and composite opisthosomal ganglion lie in the post-esophageal nerve mass and bear pedal nerve trunks and two pairs of opisthosomal nerves respectively.Internally, the synganglion consists of cellular rind and fibrous core. A welldefined neurilemma with a laminar matrix covers nerve mass and peripheral nerves. The rind contains the somata of ganglionic neurons and ensheathing glial cells and is restricted to the synganglion mass. It is limited by two specialized glial layers, the external perineurium and internal subperineurium. Discrete glomerular formations are present within the protocerebrum and olfactory lobes. Olfactory glomeruli located in pedal ganglia I are associated with a pair of globuli cell groups.Possible physiological relationships between anatomical specializations of the synganglion, extraneural sinuses and circulating hemocytes are considered. The evolutionary significances of condensation in the stomatogastric neuropile regions and throughout the synganglion, together with the simplification and loss of glomerular formations, are discussed.
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  • 114
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Regions of the crayfish kidney were examined by electron microscopy. Coelsmosac cells are loosely bound together by desmosome-like spot junctions, and connected to the basal lamina via characteristic pedicels. The cytoplasm contains numerous vesicles and vacuoles of various sizes and is often crowded with large, lysosome-like granules or dense bodies. The morphology suggests a filtration mechanism with reabsorption of materials such as protein from the filtrate and secretion of other substances into the lumen.The labyrinth is composed of cuboidal to columnar cells which possess a brush border, long and narrow intercellular spaces, basal plasmalemmal invaginations and typical cytoplasmic components. Two sub-regions are distinguishable. The morphology of labyrinth I suggests that these cells move fluid isotonically across the epithelium. Labyrinth II, in addition to isotonic transport, appears to be more active in the endocytic uptake and intracellular digestion of large molecules such as protein.The nephridial canal consists of cells which lack a brush border, but display extensive basal invaginations associated with elongated mitochondria. A proximal and distal region are cytologically distinguishable. Proximally, the cells are small and filled with mitochondria throughout. Scattered within the cytoplasm are vesicles, vacuoles, diffuse glycogen, free ribosomes, dense bodies and some rough endoplasmic reticulum. Distally, the cells are less compact, larger, and cuboidal to columnar in shape. The cytoplasm is similar to that of the proximal cells, but the basal invaginations are even larger and more extensive. The morphology of cells in both regions of the nephridial canal is highly suggestive of active solute reabsorption, probably occurring against an osmotic gradient.
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  • 115
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 277-284 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The intraspecific mean length of medullary cones in avian kidneys is analogous to medullary thickness in the mammalian kidney. Hence, relative medullary thickness (based upon kidney volume) can be calculated for birds as was done in mammals years ago. Comparative figures are given for 26 species from nine avian orders. The organizational pattern of cortex and medulla in the bird kidney is reviewed, and a simplified diagram of this relationship is presented. With some exceptions, urine concentrating ability and relative medullary thickness are directly proportional in mammals. Contrarily, no similar trend was evident in birds when current information on water economy was compared to relative medullary thickness in various species. There are a number of factors (such as the respective functional roles of reptilian and mammalian-type nephrons, interspecific variations in ion transport, etc.) which require study before the significance of relative thickness in the avian medulla can be evaluated more thoroughly.
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  • 116
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The stylocyte (Gr. stylos; pillar) of Corvomeyenia carolinensis Harrison (Spongillidae), a previously undescribed proiferan cell type, was examined using phase contrast microscopy, histochemistry and electron microscopy. The stylocyte, an anucleolate amoebocyte, is characterized by a rhomboidal intranuclear crystal. The crystal, lacking an investing membrane, is embedded directly into the nucleoplasm. It is homogenous with no demonstrable crystalline subunits. Histochemical studies suggest that the crystal is proteinaceous, containing no DNA or RNA. Cytoplasmically, the stylocyte contains promienent homogenous smooth membrane-bound inclusions which contain high levels of neutral (PAS-positive) and polycarboxylated mucopolysaccharides but low levels of glycogen and no significant phosphatase activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed. Correspondingly, with various histochemical methods, little or no cytoplasmic RNA is demonstrated. Because electron microscopic studies of C. carolinensis indicate the probable absence of viral inclusions in the sponge and because the crystal contains no histochemically demonstrable nucleic acid, the evidence appears to suggest that the crystal neither represents an assemblage of mature virus units nor a virus-induced structure. The stylocyte cell type may play a role in nutrient cycling in C. carolinensis with the crystal acting either as a site of protein storage or as an excretory product.
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  • 117
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 285-299 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gastric mucosa of both the echidna and platypus is aglandular and the lining epithelium is stratified squamous. The latter exhibits three principle layers: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, and stratum corneum. The cytoplasm of cells composing the first two strata of both species shows bundles of tonofibrils and numerous free ribosomes. Cells of the stratum spinosum in the platypus also show numerous dense granules limited to the peripheral cytoplasm. The stratum spinosum of both species is comprised of fusiform-shaped cells whose adjacent cell membranes show extensive interlocking. The stratum spinosum of the echidna in addition shows numerous intercellular bridges. Cells of the stratum corneum become flattened and elongate and in the echidna nuclei near the surface appear to degenerate. Cells comprising the stratum corneum of the platypus exhibit well preserved nuclei and contain scattered large granules of varying electron density. Prior to sloughing, cells near the surface of both species show a separation of adjacent cell membranes. True keratinization is not found in the gastric lining epithelium of either species and the epithelium lining of the stomach of the echidna more closely represents a form of parakeratosis. Delicate papillae containing capillaries extend considerable distances into the overlying epithelium of both species and are thought to contribute to its nutrition.
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  • 118
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 301-319 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The epidermis of Eisenia is covered by a cuticle and rests on a basement lamella. The cuticle, which is resistant to a variety of enzymes, is composed of non-striated, bundles of probable collagen fibers that are orthogonally oriented and are embedded in a proteoglycan matrix. The basement lamella consists of striated collagen fibers with a 560 Å major periodicity. Proximity and morphology suggest that the epidermis may contribute to both the cuticle and the basement lamella  -  that is, the single tissue may synthesize at least two types of collagen. The epidermis is a pseudostratified epithelium containing three major cell types (columnar, basal and gland) and a rare fourth type with apical cilia. The esophagus is lined by a simple cuticulated epithelium composed predominantly of a single cell type, which resembles the epidermal columnar cell. Rare gland cells occur in the esophageal epithelium, but basal cells are lacking.
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  • 119
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 321-327 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distal depression of the ventral pedal groove of Mytilus californianus was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This part of the byssus forming system is responsible for the formation of the attachment plaque of the byssus thread.The longitudinal pedal ducts open into this area and the floor of the distal depression is covered by specialized cilia which terminate as biconcave flattened discs or “paddles.” The disc is formed by a 360° curvature of the axoneme tip within the ciliary membrane. The diameter of the disc is about 1.33 μ while that of the shaft portion is 0.24 μ. There are about 11 cilia per square micron of surface area and the necks of the cilia are separated from each other by a web-like extension of apical cytoplasm extending from the epithelial cells.It is proposed that these specialized cilia function as microscopic spatulas for the application of the adhesive plaque material to substrate surfaces. The pattern of surface convection currents seen in vivo tends to support this hypothesis.
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  • 120
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 121
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 351-363 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gill development begins on the sixth day of incubation at 10°C and is complete by 31 days (hatching). Gill arches are formed by fusion and perforation of ectoderm and endoderm across the pharyngeal wall. A primary branchial artery forms within each arch and a second branchial artery forms as a branch from its ventral end. A series of filament loop vessels forms connecting the two arteries and when several are patent a unidirectional blood flow is established via afferent (second) branchial artery, filament loop vessels to efferent (primary) branchial artery. Part of the efferent branchial artery just above its junction with the afferent branchial artery constricts and occludes. It is suggested that this change in the pattern of blood flow is dependent on differences in resistance of the two branchial arteries. A later extension of the gill ventrally is thought not to be homologous with similar regions in elasmobranchs and Acipenser.
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  • 122
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were conducted on the antennal sensory sensilla of the hymenopteran parasitoid, Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck, of the family Braconidae. Distinct morphological differences were found between the chemoreceptors of the male and female. Curved, non-fluted, thin-walled sensilla were found to be very abundant on the male and restricted in location and number on the female. Trichoid, placoid and fluted basiconic sensilla were numerous on the antennal flagella of both sexes. Smooth basiconic sensilla were restricted in number to one per flagellar segment in both sexes. Behavioral data suggest that bent-tipped, thick-walled sensilla unique to the female are involved in detecting a chemical(s) emitted from the host, Heliothis virescens (Fab.).
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  • 123
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Well preserved transitional cells were found between differentiated cells and horny cells of the frog epidermis, thus facilitating the study of the sequential events involved in horny cell formation. Autolysosomes appear to play an important role in the formation of horny cells. These structures preferentially digest those cytoplasmic components which are not necessary constituents of the terminal horny cell. The release of the contents of the small mucous granules into the intercellular spaces is one of the initial events in horny cell formation. Filaments and large mucous granules seem to be resistant to the lytic digestion and contribute to the bulk of the horny cell. Loss of fluids through the plasma membrane and consolidation of the remaining constituents, results in a flattened horny cell. The appearance of a thickened membrane around the horny cell signifies the completion of the transformation process.
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  • 124
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 395-409 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Light and electron microscope studies of development of the ultraviolet-reflecting scales of male Colias eurytheme butterflies show that basic developmental processes are similar to those of other scales. The ridges form between bundles of microfilaments and as they form they buckle to produce the lamellae seen in the adult scales. There is evidence that the buckling may be purely in response to mechanical stress and that some of the bundles of microfilaments may produce such stresses.
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  • 125
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A large extrachromosomal mass of Feulgen positive material, the DNA body, has been visualized in early prophase oocytes of crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) representative of the closely related subfamilies Gryllinae and Nemobiinae. A similar structure is present in oocytes of representatives of two subfamilies of crickets (subfamilies Oecanthinae and Gryllotalpinae) which taxonomically and phylogenetically are quite separate from those mentioned previously. In situ hybridization demonstrates that the body contains amplified copies of genes coding for ribosomal RNA. Unlike the DNA body in early diplotene oocytes of representatives of the subfamily Gryllinae, which is closely associated with the developing nucleolar apparatus, the DNA body in oocytes of the Oecanthinae and Gryllotalpinae cannot be demonstrated during diplotene. In the Oecanthinae, the nucleolar apparatus of early diplotene stage oocytes is composed of four to seven separate structures, the ribonucleoprotein of which has a characteristically lamellated appearance. During late diplotene, these nucleoli give rise to many smaller structures which are distributed throughout the germinal vesicle. In early diplotene stage oocytes of Scapteriscus acletus (Subfamily: Gryllotalpinae), the nucleolar apparatus consists of a single compact mass of ribonucleoprotein. In contrast to the oocytes of all other crickets that have been studied, the nucleolus of S. acletus remains single throughout diplotene. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that the amplified genes coding for rRNA which are localized in the DNA body of early prophase oocytes become incorporated into this compact nucleolar mass. Differences in nucleolar structure appear to reflect differences in the organization of amplified genes coding for rRNA.
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  • 126
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Cells in secretory glands of globiferous pedicellariae from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson) were studied with the electron microscope and subjected to preliminary light microscopic, histochemical analysis. Specimens for electron microscopic observation were fixed with chilled 2% glutaraldehyde in sea water postfixed in cold 1.33% osmic acid, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin Samples for histochemical analysis were fixed in the same manner, and then embedded in n-butylmethacrylate.Secretory cells line and fill partially bifurcated, muscular gland sacs located peripherally on each of three jaw elements comprising the pedicellarial head. Cells from venom glands are typically mucoid in appearance, possessing small volumes of basally displaced, vesiculated cytoplasm and an extensive system of vacuoles dominating the apical nine-tenths of each cell. These vacuoles enclose ground substances of various densities and staining affinities. Despite their extensive vacuolation, gland cells contain numerous cytomembrane complexes indicating metabolic activity just prior to fixation. Deciduous endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, large vacuoles, and various species of vesicles associated with these membrane systems are found in spatial proximity which indicates an apparent biosynthetic association.Preliminary histochemical tests on sections embedded in acrylic plastic indicate vacuolar products may consist of protein and nonsulfated acid mucosubstances.Gland cells are probably holocrine in function, releasing their vacuolar complement upon constriction of the muscular gland sac. There is no evidence indicating delivery of non-membrane bounded, granular secretion to an acellular lumen within the gland sac.
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  • 127
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 128
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies demonstrate the stimulatory effect of synthetic salmon calcitonin on the fine structure of fibroblasts and on collagen formation in cutaneous wounds experimentally induced in rabbits. Long-term administration of calcitonin enhances fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The fibroblasts hypertrophy and exhibit a highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), several polyribosomes, large nuclei, hypertrophic Golgi complex, and many dense granules and lysosomes. Mitochondria are elongate and ramify; intracellular as well as extracellular synthesis of collagen increases. Fibrils appear tightly packed, in large heaps or spicula, with a characteristic periodicity and striation.Scanning electron micrographs of topography and relationships with collagen fibers and fibrils and cells surface changes demonstrate an extensive network of fine fibrils between collagen fibers, marked ruffling of cell membranes as well as numerous blebs on the cell surface. The latter are significant in collagen formation and egestion.
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  • 129
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An arbitrary classification scheme is presented for the thirteen distinct types of secretory cells distinguished within the central nervous system of Dermacentor variabilis by several specific and general neurosecretory staining techniques. Comparisons to classic arthropod neurosecretory cell types are made and the histochemical implications of the chromophilic response of various secretory products are discussed. Dermacentor cells of Types I, VII, IX and X may be considered neurosecretory on the basis of intracellular elaboration and discharge of secretory product. Type II, III, IV, V, VI, XI and XII cells are considered as putative neurosecretory cells although secretory products were detected only within the perikarya. The large Type XII cells are also similar to motor neurones reported from other arachnids. Cells of Types VIII and XIII appear to be glial elements. The secretory products of Type XIIIA are distributed within trabecular processes in the subperineurium. These products may play a trophic role or they may have some endocrine function as a form of “gliosecretion”.
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  • 130
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sperm enter the anterior vas deferens individually in the spider crab male. There they become surrounded by secretion products from the cells of the vas deferens, and are compartmentalized into spermatophores of varying size. The anterior vas deferens can be divided into three regions. The epithelium of the anterior vas deferens varies regionally from low to high columnar. The cytoplasm contains vast arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes but few mitochondria. Intercellular spaces contain septate junctions, gap junctions and vesicles.Once the spermatophores have been formed in the anterior vas deferens, they are moved posteriorly to the middle vas deferens where they are stored and surrounded by seminal fluids. The epithelial cells of the middle vas deferens contain large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles appear, forming at the cell surface and within the apical cytoplasm. Their suggested function is the resorption of secretion products of the anterior vas deferens which initiated compartmentalization of the spermatozoa into spermatophores.The posterior vas deferens functions primarily as a storage center for spermatophores until they are released at the time of copulation. Seminal fluid surrounding the spermatophores is produced in this region as well as in the middle vas deferens. The cells of this region contain vast arrays of vesicular rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The cells are multinucleate. Microtubules are numerous throughout the length of the cells and appear to insert on the plasma membrane.
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  • 131
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rostral pores are epidermal invaginations which occur on the internarial region of most chelonians. Representatives of all Recent chelonian families and 67 of the 74 extant genera were examined grossly and/or histologically. Pores are absent only in the families Carettochelyidae, Cheloniidae, and Dermochelyidae. The number and microscopic structure of pores vary markedly within and between taxa. Morphological data suggest that rostral pores could function in mechanoreception. The possible origin and evolution of rostral pores are discussed in the context of other chelonian integumentary speializations.
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  • 132
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 21-75 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Basicranial anatomy of mammalian carnivores is significant in the determination of carnivore evolution. One of the least understood yet most often studied features of the basicranium is the auditory bulla, a bony capsule enclosing the middle ear. Although previously believed to be formed by a tympanic bone alone, or by tympanic and entotympanic, it is shown here that the carnivore bulla is formed by three and in some cases four ontogenetic elements: tympanic, rostral entotympanic, caudal entotympanic(s). These elements in Carnivora appear to correspond to bulla elements discovered over 50 years ago by Van der Klaauw in representative species of several other orders of mammals.Increased auditory sensitivity appears to have been attained in various carnivore lineages by increase in the volume of the middle ear cavity, principally by hypertrophy of the caudal entotympanic, but also by different yet less common anatomical strategies such as invasion of the mastoid bone by the middle ear space. Five basic types of bulla among living Carnivora can be recognized, based largely on the relationship of the caudal entotympanic to the other bulla elements.Closely associated with the bulla in the auditory region are the median and promontory branches of the internal carotid artery. These branches exhibit a precise relationship to the bulla elements, particularly the rostral entotympanic. The promontory branch is much reduced or completely lacking in all living carnivores. Reduction or loss of the median branch is explained as the result of the development of arterial retia on the anastomotic artery in the orbital region. Reduction of the median branch is particularly characteristic of the aeluroid Carnivora, in which a greater proportion of the cerebral blood supply passes to the brain in the external carotid artery via the anastomotic branch, and is cooled in the orbital region by a countercurrent heat exchange mechanism formed by arterial retia closely associated with venous blood in surrounding sinuses. The arctoid and cynoid Carnivora are characterized by only rudimentary development of retia along the anastomotic artery, and the median branch is much better developed than in the aeluroids. Among arctoids, ursids parallel the aeluroids in the development of a countercurrent mechanism but employ the median branch of the internal carotid rather than the anastomotic branch of the external carotid artery.Bulla structure and nature of the carotid circulation in the auditory region can be determined from fossil Carnivora as well as for living forms. This study attempts to define basicranial anatomical patterns characteristic of living Carnivora which then can be used to trace the evolution of lineages in the fossil record.
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  • 133
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974) 
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  • 134
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Laboratory-reared outgrowths of the freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia carolinensis Harrison were examined using histological and histochemical techniques, supplemented by phase contrast observations of cellular behavior. The tissue and cellular components of the spongillid outgrowth region were defined in terms of function and morphogenic state. Archeocytes differ considderably, in both histochemical and morphological characteristics, from other cell types of the adult sponge, being histochemically similar to stem cells reported from a variety of developmental series. Archeocytes exhibit cytological characteristics of unspecialized cells capable of high levels of synthetic activity while other cell types of C. carolinensis, for the most part, can be characterized as fully differentiated cells displaying more restricted synthetic capabilities but often accumulating neutral mucoproteins. The presence of aggregates of amebocytes, not identifiable as archeocytes and possibly engaged in gemmule formation, is discussed in terms of current concepts of gemmulation and cellular developmental capabilities in sponges.
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  • 135
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974) 
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  • 136
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 237-253 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study of the testicular capsule of rat, dog, cat and human has confirmed the presence of three layers, viz., the tunica vaginalis, the tunica albuginea proper and an innermost tunica vasculosa. Smooth muscle cells are present in the tunica albuginea of all four species and are more prominent at the posterior pole of the testis where the capsule merges with the mediastinum testis. In the rat and the dog, a few striated muscle fibers also are present.While the tunica albuginea is to be considered as a dense connective tissue, the arrangement of the collagen bundles and the presence of a relatively high content of elastic fibers probably permits changes in size of the testis following spontaneous contractions of the muscle elements, which are known to occur. The role of the testicular capsule in sperm transport is discussed in relation to other factors, the spontaneous contractions of the capsule presumably having a “pumping” action and aiding the movement of non-motile spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis.The presence of striated muscle fibers in two species is of interest and, while these may function in a similar manner to the smooth muscle, they may represent simply an unusual differentiation of embryonic myoblasts.
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  • 137
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The surface structures of the antennular flagella of Pagurus alaskensis are described in detail. Attention is directed towards the surface morphology of two types of possible sensilla: (1) exoskeletal pores (1.0-3.0 μm in diameter); (2) setae of various kinds. In addition, small (0.1-0.2 μm) pits occur in the exoskeleton which are not considered to be sensory in function. The exoskeletal pores are found at fairly specific locations on both the inner and outer flagella, particularly on the short segments of the outer flagella. Neither the inner nor the outer flagella are bilaterally symmetrical with respect to their setal armature. On the outer flagellum six groups of setae may be distinguished: lateralmesial; dorsal; ventral; accessory; aesthetasc; setae of the distal segment. On the inner flagellum setae of the mesial and lateral rows form distinctive groups. The morphology, orientation and locations of all the flagellar setae are defined and where possible the numbers of the various morphological types within the specific setal groups are given. It is noteworthy that many setal types have obvious apical pores and yet no pores could be found in the chemoreceptive aesthetasc setae. The functions of the various setae are discussed in relation to their topographical position and to existing electrophysiological and behavioral data. Some suggestions are made about future experiments to demonstrate the central connections of specific sensilla or groups of sensilla and to show their significance in the whole animal.
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  • 138
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 217-235 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Blood vessels in Nereis japonica were studied by electron microscopy. It was found that blood vessels regardless of location were similar in the basic organization of the basal lamina and the usual presence of collagen fibrils on the vessel wall. Differences arise, depending on whether the outside of the basal lamina is covered by peritoneal cells, by gut epithelium, or by epidermis. These relate to the location of the vessels in mesenteries, gut or epidermis, but do not reflect basic structural differences in the vessels themselves. Furthermore, it was concluded that true endothelial cells do not exist in the circulatory system of Nereis japonica and that, in this respect, the system is essentially different from that of vertebrates, in which endothelial cells line the vessels of a closed circulatory system. These considerations lead to the further conclusion that the vascular lumen in Nereis is essentially interstitial space and that the system, which has been known as a typical “closed” circulatory system in annelids, is actually an open circulatory system. Peritoneal cells covering the walls of internal vessels show various degrees of muscular differentiation and those possessing myofilaments may be called “myomesothelial cells.”
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  • 139
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nymphal and adult cervicothoracic skeleton of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) is described and discussed.
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  • 140
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mean number (± S. D.) of nucleoli per hepatic cell was determined for inbred mice of the BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains, using azure B bromide. Because thyroid hormones have been reported to increase nucleolar number in cultured human cells, certain of the males received parenteral triiodothyronine (T3). Hormone effect was demonstrated by a two-fold increase in hepatic mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity. Results included the following: (1) In the BALB/c strain, the nucleolar number of the T3 treated males (5.0 ± 2.4) was slightly but significantly higher (p 〈 0.001) than that of the controls (4.8 ± 2.3). For the C57BL/6J strain, however, the nucleolar number of the treated males (4.0 ± 1.7) was significantly lower than the controls (4.2 ± 1.8; p 〈 0.001). (2) The difference in nucleolar numbers of untreated males of both inbred strains was highly significant (p 〈 0.001). (3) The nucleolar number in BALB/c female cells (4.1 ± 1.8) was significantly lower than that of male BALB/c cells (p ≪ 0.001).
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  • 141
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 297-321 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Each silk gland of Calpodes ethlius consists of five distinct regions: the duct, the green, anterior, middle and posterior regions. Although the gland increases approximately tenfold in length during the larval life, the number of cells remains constant with a concomitant increase in ploidy which is not constant either throughout larval life or in the different regions of the gland. Histochemistry on the glands of the mid-fifth instar larva shows that progressively more mucosubstances are deposited in the lumen, so that while in the distal regions there is only one weakly acidic deposit, this is increased to three more acidic bands in the proximal regions. These bands can be correlated with materials of different electron density. All five regions have characteristic secretory ultrastructure, with prominent secretory vesicles or granules and microvilli. However, the posterior and middle regions have electron-translucent vesicles and relatively short microvilli, while the other three regions have electron dense granules and a more complex, microvillate apical surface. This complexity is greatest in the duct which suggests that it may function in water reabsorption.
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  • 142
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A band of flexible cuticle encircles the deutonymph, separating the dorsal and ventral plates. The coxae are large, flat and fused with one another to form most of the ventor. Individual coxal margins are redefined as sternites, epimerites or simply apodemes according to which margins fuse with which others. A given area of cuticle may have patches of dark or light cuticle not corresponding to particular structures or cuticular contours; this is a source of confusion to taxonomists.Each leg has a dicondylic coxal-trochantal (adduction-abduction) and trochantal-femoral (promotion-remotion) joint with opposing muscles. The three more distal monocondylic joints (flexion-extension) have only flexor muscles; extension is by increased haemolymph pressure.The five apodemes of the sucker plate provide rigidity; the four suckers attach by a flexible cuticular ring to a solid flange or socket in the sucker plate. The sucker muscles attach to the center of each sucker. The flat, external face of the sucker plate apodemes may complement sucker action by adhesion. Coxal discs and sucker plate discs are identical, contain birefringent cuticular elements, and are considered modified setae.Functional mouthparts and a pharynx are lacking, but a cheliceral anlage is present. The esophagus, midgut and caecae, and malpighian tubules are lumenless and the cells small. The hindgut has a lumen, larger cells and opens externally via the anus. Whereas the digestive tract is regressed, the reproductive system is yet incompletely developed. In older deutonymphs anlagen of ducts, accessory glands and gonads are discernible. The nature of the haemocoel and peritoneum remains nuclear.The central nerve mass is conspicuously large for the size of the deutonymph. The supraesophageal ganglion gives rise to the cheliceral nerves; all other nerves arise from the subesophageal ganglion. Most major nerves were traced to the effector organs.The muscles are divided into leg, dorso-ventral (derived from coxal muscles), dorsal, sucker, and anogenital muscles. The trochantal adductor muscles originate on an endosternite, which is supported by muscles running to the dorsal hysterosoma. The dorso-ventral and propodosomal retractor muscles affect haemolymph pressure. The massive sucker retractor muscles are unique to this instar. Anogenital muscles are not well developed.
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  • 143
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: The pattern of transport and distribution of rabbit embryos in the oviduct and uterus was studied 15 to 168 hours post coitum (p. c.). The reproductive tract was frozen in liquid nitrogen, thawed, and cleared in benzyl-benzoate solution using Orsini's technique. The location of the eggs and the ampullary-isthmic junction were identified using transmitted light from a dissecting microscope. Accumulation of the eggs in the oviduct occured in two phases. In the first phase the eggs were retained above the ampullaryisthmic junction, 3-12 hours after ovulation. In the second phase, the eggs were retained 36-60 hours after ovulation, above the uterotubal junction (at a distance approximately 12 % of the oviductal length). The rate of transport of individual eggs in the oviduct, and the time of the entry of eggs into the uterus were variable. Au 78 hours p. c. most blastocysts occupied the proximal half of the uterine horn, although some appeared very close to the internal os of the cervix. Spacing of blastocysts in the uterus, 114 to 120 hours p. c., involved movement of blastocysts away from the cervix. Unfertilized eggs remained in the uterus, along with developing blastocysts 168 hours p. c. Few eggs were retained in the oviduct at 108 and 115 hours p. c.
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  • 144
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  • 145
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 361-379 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the phyllobranchiate type gill of the shrimp, Caridina japonica, was studied. The most characteristic feature of the open circulatory system of Cardina is the vascular lumen of the gill capillaries which is considered to be the interstitial space. The following observations substantiate this view: (1) a thin fibrous layer forms the innermost structure of the walls of gill capillaries and is in direct contact with the blood stream; (2) filaments in the fibrous layer are assumed to correspond to the reticular fibers in the interstitial space of the alveolar wall of mammals; (3) the absence of the endothelium as well as the endothelial basal lamina which are the essential structural components of the closed circulatory system in vertebrates. The gill epithelium contains intermediate, septate and tight junctions. The first two form a junctional complex near the apical cell border and may function as a permeability barrier by occluding the intercellular space as well as functioning in electrical coupling and cellular adhesion. The tight junction is spot-like and may serve no role in the function of the permeability barrier.
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  • 146
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    Notes: An ultrastructural study of the hindgut, associated hepatopancreatic lobes and hepatopancreatic ducts of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgre was undertaken. The simple epithelium which lines the heptopancreas consists of two cell types, S and B. Both cell types have numerous microvilli. A simple epithelium consisting of one cell type lines the hepatopancreatic ducts and the hindgut. Microvilli are not evident in the duct. The cells of the duct and the hindgut are covered with a cuticle. Dense granular bodies are characteristic of the cytoplasm of the duct cells. The hindgut epithelial cells have pronounced apical and basal-lateral cytoplasmic infoldings. Apical infoldings from large subcuticular spaces, especially in the posterior hindgut. Microtubules and large numbers of mitochondria are associated with the cytoplasmic infoldings. Large microtubular bundles are seen in the peripheral cytoplasm, and residual bodies are present in the central cytoplasm. Lateral plasma membranes form septate desmosomes in the apical region of cells, while zonulae adherentes and intercellular spaces are found basal to the septate desmosomes. The cellular organization of the hindgut is suggestive of cells active in water and ion transport.
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  • 147
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Comparative histological observations of the eyes of Typhlotriton spelaeus and several epigean, plethodontid species indicate that the principal postembryonic degenerative changes in the eyes of T. spelaeus involve the eyelids and cornea, visual cells, outer plexiform layer, and the pigment epithelium. Ordinarily these changes were initiated after metamorphosis, before attainment of sexual maturity, but a few larvae had degenerating retinae.The corneal epithelium becomes irregular and thin as eyelids develop during and after metamorphosis, but retains its larval structure in animals in which eyelid overlap is incomplete. Disruption and vacuolation of the lens sometimes occurs in postmetamorphic animals with degenerating visual cells. Retinal degeneration involves reduction of the inner and outer segments of visual cells, loss of the outer plexiform layer, and retraction of apical processes of the pigment epithelium. In its earliest stage, retinal reduction is first apparent at the retinal margin where visual cells are normally less well-differentiated, but in its terminal stage reduction has gone to completion over the entire retina. Extent of retinal degeneration in adults is directly related to postmetamorphic age but there is variability in each age group. Females generally have smaller eyes, and more extensive degeneration of visual cells than males. The loss of visual function in adults is correlated with extensive visual cell degeneration.
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  • 148
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hermit crab, Pagurus pollicarus, has the same organization in its fourth abdominal ganglion as its macruran relatives in spite of the reduction in abdominal muscles, sensory receptors, and appendages. Connective axons are grouped into discrete bundles between which five groups of commissural fibers run to connect left and right sides. The neurites of ventral cell bodies run dorsally in characteristic groups between the connective bundles. The hermit crab fourth ganglion has two thirds as many cells as the crayfish and is laterally compressed. This reduction appears related to the reduction in the sizes of the ganglionic roots. The ventral fine fibered neuropil is larger on the left than the right side reflecting the loss of pleopods on the right side. The basic organization of decapod abdominal ganglia appears to permit considerable integrative flexibility within a relatively conservative morphological framework.
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  • 149
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Spleens from normal, healthy cats, dogs and rabbits were perfused with Ringer solution until only a few red cells remained. After fixation of the intact organ, small pieces of tissue were dried by a camphene method and examined under the scanning electron microscope. In all three species the red cells remaining in the spleen were either reticulocytes, spiculated cells, or cells of tear-drop shape and they were found adhering to macrophages and reticulum cells throughout the red pulp. Elongated masses were found on the sinusal surface of fenestrated endothelium (only in dog and rabbit); some of these appeared to be cells of tear-drop shape emerging from the cords into the sinus. This may perhaps denote a pitting process, as suggested by others, but it cannot be a unique function of fenestrated endothelium for red cells of similar shape were found elsewhere in the pulp. In all three species the network of reticulum fibres presents a very large contact surface area for blood cells and it seems likely that increased cell stickiness, rather than decreased deformability, leads to the trapping of immature red cells in the spleen.
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  • 150
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This report adds to the available information on comparative histology of mammalian bone and introduces a semi-quantitative approach to its study. Bone samples consisted of large fragments of rib tibia and/or femur from humans, laboratory rodents and from animals that died at the Bronx Zoological Gardens. A total of 44 bone specimens representing six mammalian orders were available. Decalcified paraffin-embedded 10 μm histological cross-sections were examined at × 320. Qualitative observations were supplemented with measurements of the frequency and size distributions of Haversian and non-Haversian canals. The relative distribution of lacunae was also ascertained. The standard textbook description of mammalian bone as consisting mainly of secondary osteons was not generally seen except in Primate (especially human) bone. Rats showed a few scattered osteon-like structures, but bones of Marsupialia, Insectivora, Artiodactyla and Carnivora were entirely devoid of them. Generally, vascular bone with longitudinal canals was seen except in Lorisidae which showed a reticular type of bone. The distribution of primary longitudinal canals and the number of “filled” or “apparently empty” lacunae/unit area of bone varied both inter-species and among different areas in the same bone. Large areas of acellular and non-vascular bone were encountered in all specimens. This preliminary study revealed that species differences i bone microstructure involve the relative distribution of the same basic components which lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Comparative investigations of bone histology at many ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels should yield significant quantitative information in bone biology.
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  • 151
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 463-468 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Allografts of skin were observed in Chelydra serpentina. The response to these grafts was modified by a previous transplantation of a limb bud at an early embryonic stage. When the same donor was used for all transplants, the first skin graft was accepted by the host. A second skin graft, however, was rejected at about the rate of a simple first set allograft of skin. The animals were conditioned by the embryonic limb graft; this embryonic graft can be undergoing rejection at the same time a first set skin graft from the same donor was being accepted. The tolerance induced by the embryonic graft was sepcific for its donor.
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  • 152
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 453-461 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Allografts of embryonic limb buds were grafted orthotopically on embryos of Chelydra serpentina. Donors were from a different geographic area, the same geographic area, or siblings. The initial indication of rejection was excessive sloughing of epidermis. This was followed by loss of muscle, claws and bone.Early histological changes involved an infiltration of mononuclear or rejection cells primarily associated with small blood vessels of the connective tissue. Subsequently, muscle and bone were lost and they were replaced by connective tissue. Epidermis and nerves persisted. The skeletal cartilages were isolated from immunological activity.Although the incidence of rejection was essentially the same in sibling and non-sibling combinations, the initial external signs of rejection occurred earliest when donor and host were from different geographic areas but not later than two years after hatching. The first signs of rejection in sibling allografts occurred not later than three years after hatching. Animals that survived these periods without rejection did not show subsequent rejection.
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  • 153
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 485-497 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: As part of program of research into insect cellular immunity, an integrated light and electron microscopic study of the hemocytes of seven members of the Order Dictyoptera has been made. In fresh hemolymph, five cell types, the prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular cells, spherule cells and cystocytes, are easilv distinguished. However, in thick Araldite sections and in thin sections in the electron microscope it is sometimes difficult to identify the various cell types. The reasons for this difficulty are discussed.Granules with a microtubular substrcture are found in the plasmatocytes, spherule cells and cystocytes. In the plasmatocytes these granules have a different ultrastructure than those in the spherule cells and cystocytes. The in vitro fragility of these granules in both the spherule cells and cystocytes during coagulation partially explains the previous confusion in distinguishing these two cell types.Evidence is presented which indicates that the plasmatocytes, granular cells and spherule cells represent a developmental series originating from the prohemocytes. Where exactly the cystocytes are derived from is unknown.
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  • 154
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 155
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 156
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molekularer Sauerstoff als Ligand in Übergangsmetallkomplexen ist für die Biochemie sowie die anorganische Chemie und die Organometallchemie von Interesse. In diesem Fortschrittsbericht werden mehrere Sauerstoffkomplexe sowie Kinetik und Mechanismus ihrer Bildung vorgestellt. Auf der Basis einer Molekülorbital-Beschreibung der Elektronenstruktur des Sauerstoffmoleküls und der Bindung in den Metall-Sauerstoff-Komplexen wird der Einfluß anderer Liganden auf die Aktivierung von O2 diskutiert. Außerdem wird auf die Reaktionen des koordinierten Sauerstoffs eingegangen.
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  • 157
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Additionsverbindungen aus Lewis-Säuren MXn und Säurehalogeniden R—COX treten intermediär bei der Friedel-Crafts-Acylierung auf. IR- und NMR-Untersuchungen dieser Zwischenprodukte haben die Existenz von Strukturisomeren wahrscheinlich gemacht. Bei der Röntgen-Strukturanalyse lassen sich zwei Formen unterscheiden: die Molekülform, in der die Verbindungen als Donor-Acceptor-Komplexe R—CXO←MXn vorliegen, und die Ionenform, in der sie als Oxocarbenium-Salze [R—CO]+ [MXn - 1]- formuliert werden können. Die Verbindungen vom Donor-Acceptor-Typ R—CXO↔MXn zeichnen sich durch die Bildung einer koordinativen Sauerstoff-Metall-Bindung aus: der Elektronenübergang vom Sauerstoff zum Metall des Acceptors rührt immer von einer schwachen Donor-Acceptor-Wechselwirkung her. Die positive Ladung der Aryloxocarbenium-Ionen ist teilweise über den aromatischen Kern delokalisiert. Im Gegensatz dazu befindet sich die positive Ladung bei den Alkyloxocarbenium-Ionen im wesentlichen auf dem Kohlenstoffatom der Carbonylgruppe, wie Berechnungen der Elektronendichteverteilung bestätigten.
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  • 158
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 159
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Die natürlichen Inhibitoren proteolytischer Enzyme sind Proteine. Diese Inhibitoren assoziieren mit den Enzymen unter reversibler Bildung stöchiometrischer Protein-Protein-Komplexe, wobei unter substratanaloger Assoziation am aktiven Zentrum des Enzyms alle katalytischen Funktionen kompetitiv gehemmt werden. Die sehr weite Verbreitung der Inhibitoren im Tier- und Pflanzenreich unterstreicht ihre biologische Bedeutung im intermediären Stoffwechsel, die in einer Erweiterung der Möglichkeiten zur zeitlichen und räumlichen Begrenzung von Enzymaktivitäten zu sehen ist. Bekannt sind eine Reihe von kovalenten Strukturen, detaillierte kinetische Daten über die reversible Protein-Protein-Wechselwirkung, die Vorgänge bei der Inaktivierung sowie chemische Methoden zur Modifizierung dieser Proteine. Erste Röntgen-Strukturdaten eines Inhibitors und seines Enzym-Komplexes vermitteln Einsichten in dessen Molekülstruktur und die Wechselwirkungen bei der Assoziation zum Komplex.
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  • 160
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 161
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 162
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 163
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 164
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 165
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 166
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 167
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 168
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology