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  • General Chemistry  (4,740)
  • SPACE RADIATION  (1,972)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (7,672)
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  • 101
  • 102
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 71-89 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Relationships between the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, the olfactory bulb, and olfactory acuity were explored using material from 13 of the 17 bat families.All megachiropteran cribriform plates were entirely perforated. In contrast, microchiropteran plates showed distinct perforated portions dorsally and nonperforated portions ventrally. The plates of frugivorous species had more foramina than those of insectivorous ones. Bats with mixed dietary habits were intermediate. Our data suggest that the Chilonycterinae were originally frugivorous, and have only secondarily reverted to an insectivorous diet.Trend analyses show that wherever dietary preference appears to favor a more acute sense of smell, bulb diameter tends to be larger. In general, frugivorous bats tend to have bulbs exceeding 2 mm in diameter; insectivorous bats tend to have bulb diameters of 2 mm or less. The number of foramina in the plates and total cribriform plate area tends to increase as a function of bulb area, but the plate area the foramina occupied increases as a function of bulb volume. The ratio of the size of the bulb to the size of the cerebral hemisphere does not predict olfactory acuity in bats.
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  • 103
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fiber constituents and connections of the calyces  -  the input-receiving regions  -  of the corpora pedunculata (“mushroom bodies”) were studied in reduced silver preparations from the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). In the outer synaptic layer of the calyces five fiber classes were distinguished, the first three of which arise outside the mushroom body. (1) Four highly similar neurons with somata near the optic lobe branch into different parts of the ipsiateral protocerebrum, including both calyces. Their fibers are highly constant in arrangement and position and contain small nucleus-like bodies. (2) The tractus olfactorio-globularis (sensu lato) emits fiber groups which course along the calycal walls as “calycal tracts” before ultimately dissipating into the synaptic layer. Variability within these tracts is described. (3) Fibers of undertermined origin outside the mushroom body radiate from the calycal center outwards through the synaptic layer. (4) From the inner calycal layer of neurites belonging to intrinsic mushroom-body neurons, perpendicular collaterals enter the synaptic layer. (5) Intrinsic-neuron somata near the calycal rim emit fibers which course tangentially within the synaptic layer from calycal rim to center. These fibers form a special peripheral zone in the pedunculus.The predominant presumably afferent calycal fiber class is that derived from the tractus olfactorio-globularis. No evidence was found for tracts from optic lobe to calyces. On this basis, and in light of the experimental and comparative anatomical literature, it is suggested that the corpora pedunculata of P. americana and other pterygotes are fundamentally second-order antennal sensory processing centers.Conflicting observations in earlier reports are critically discussed.
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  • 104
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 105
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 91-107 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The number, location, size, shape and microstructure of the parathyroid glands of Agama agama agama, Hemidactylus brooki angulatus and Pytodactylus hasselquisti hasselquisti was investigated using approximately 250 specimens of each species from the Zaria area of Nigeria.Only parathyroid III was found. Additional patches of tissue in Hemidactylus, though possibly parathyroid IV, are considered to be derived from parathyroid III. It was found that the amount of parathyroid tissue per gram of body weight was similar in the three species used, and that females had more parathyroid tissue than males. The same situation seems possible in other species.The structure of the parathyroid glands could not be related to taxonomic grouping within the Sauria, but the general picture was found to be more similar to that of birds and mammals than to that of amphibians.
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  • 106
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 109-116 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mast cells were demonstrated in eight species of snakes, using special fixation techniques to prevent solubilization of cytoplasmic granules. Toluidine blue O and azure A were the major stains and observations were made under light microscope including cytophotometric analysis.The mast cells of snakes were shown to be relatively small (7-11 μ in diameter) when compared to mast cells of a lizard (8-15 μ), dog and rat (9-15 μ).Among the various organs examined, mast cells were particularly numerous in the mesentery, tongue, underneath the serosa of the digestive tract and in the heart, between muscle fibers and in the epicardium.Although under the light microscope some snake mast cells seemed to be orthochromatically stained, when analysed by cytophotometry they were demonstrated to be actually metachromatic.Snake mast cells granules were demonstrated to have an amphoteric behavior, since they were stained with both basic (toluidine blue O and azure A) and acid dyes (eosin and ponceau-acid-fuchsin).
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  • 107
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 117-135 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Retinal projections were studied experimentally in the Northern water snake using modifications of the Nauta silver impregnation technique. Contralaterally, the retina projects to nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis and pars ventralis, nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. A sparse projection was also observed to nucleus ovalis. An additional afferent thalamic projection to nucleus ventrolateralis was found in two cases. The retina projects ipsilaterally to the dorsolateral portion of nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis, and sparsely to nucleus lentiformis mesencephali and nucleus geniculatus pretectalis. Nucleus posterodorsalis receives dense bilateral retinal projections. Contralaterally, the retina also projects to the superficial layers of the tectum (layers 8-13 of Ramón) and to nucleus opticus tegmenti. Armstrong's findings that the retinal projections in Natrix are qualittatively similar to those in lizards were confirmed. However there are marked quantitative differences among the various pathways and their corresponding nuclei. These differences are particularly striking in comparing the visual projections to the dorsal thalamus, the retino-tecto-rotundal and the retino-geniculate systems. The first is reduced in volume and the second is markedly increased in volume in comparison with lizards. These data lend support to the theories of Walls that snakes evolved from fossorial lizards and of Underwood that the eyes of these lizards underwent reduction but not complete degeneration. Qualitatively the retinal projections are conservative among lizards and snakes, but a history of reduction of these pathways in ancestral snakes with a selective increase in the retino-geniculate system as a surface niche was reattained is reflected in the anatomy of this ophidian visual system.
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  • 108
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 137-152 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fine structure of the torus semicircularis of the loach, carp, common eel and rainbow trout was studied by light and elecron microscopy. The torus semicircularis of each species is divided into four layers. The subependymal first layer comprises numerous unmyelinated fibers and their terminals which contain cored vesicles. The second and the third layers are composed of small cell bodies and their dendrites respectively. These layers develop equally in the four species and contain the usual axodendritic synapses. On the other hand, the fourth layer varies in different species. The mediumsized cells in this layer, which are inferred to be of the same origin as the small cells from their configuration and size, show differences in lamination in each species. Compared with the usual axodendritic synapse of the small cells, the medium-sized cells have quite different synaptic patterns, which include inhibitory and electrical as well as the usual excitatory chemical synapses. From these findings, the medium-sized cells are surmized to receive sound of different degrees of intensity from that received by the small cells, which may have an effect on feeding behaviors of the species. In the deepest portion of the torus semicircularis of all species, there are large multipolar cells on which numerous axon terminals synapse in much the same way as they do on the medium-sized cells. These findings suggest that the synaptic patterns in the torus semicircularis may depend not on the receptive cells in each layer but on the various characteristics of the afferent fibers.
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  • 109
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abdominal extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue, or paraganglia, was examined at the ultrastructural level to elucidate the innervation of this adrenal medullary homologue. Paraganglia display unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cell cytoplasm. These nerves are separated from the paraganglion Type I (granule-containing) cells by cytoplasmic projections of paraganglion Type II (satellite) cells. However, serial sections show that the nerves eventually make synaptic contact with the Type I cell. At the axon-chromaffin cell junction, only the outer aspect of the nerve is covered by the satellite cell. The presynaptic endings contain numerous synaptic vesicles, mitochondria and glycogen particles. The vesicles are predominantly of the clear-cored variety, but a few possess centers which are elecron opaque. The pre- and postsynaptic membranes are separated bya subsynaptic space and occasionally exhibit the membranal densities usually associated with synaptic areas. These ultrastructural studies establish definite evidence that abdominal paraganglion cells are innervated.
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  • 110
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 165-185 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gland cells of Lyonet's gland, which is accessory to the silk gland in the silkworm larva, is characterized by the presence of complicated canaliculi bearing microvilli on their inner surface, large numbers of mitochondria and remarkably convoluted basal plasma membrane. On the other hand, the cell lacks the well-developed cytoplasmic membrane system such as rough- and smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticula and Golgi bodies, though free ribosomes are numerous. Secretory vesicles are absent, and the canaliculi contain no dense material. From such ultrastructural observations, it was suggested that a possible role of the gland may be the exchange of the small molecules such as water and ions, rather than the hitherto supposed secretory role of a cementing sunstance of silk proteins. The lumen of the proximal part of the glandular duct contains a kind of proteinaceous substance which can be demonstrated histochemically and is regarded as similar to one of the silk proteins in the silk gland, not to the real product of the Lyonet's gland.
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  • 111
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 112
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Specimens, representative of each of the major taxa of mosquitoes, were fixed in copula and the external genitalia examined by scanning electron microscopy. The periphery of the basin-like everted aedeagus of Aedus aegypti precisely matches that of the everted atrial membrane of the female. These structures are appressed during coitus and sealed by pressure of the paraprocts, aedeagal pouch and proctiger. When everted, the aedeagus of male Culex pipiens reveals a ridged dome that surrounds the genital opening. This dome seals itself laterally into a gutter formed by pad-like extensions of the female's genital lips and is sealed dorsally by pressure of the aedeagal apodeme. The aedeagus of another culicine species, Wyeomyia smithii, bears the gonopore at the apex of a spined tube. This tube is inserted between the female's genital lips and is sealed within the genital atrium. The aedeagus of the toxorhynchitine species Toxorhynchitis brevipalpus is immobile and is inserted deep within the genital atrium of the female where it is sealed by pressure of the atrial walls. Males of each of these mosquitoes deliver a mixture of semen and sperm to the copulatory bursa of the female. After withdrawal of the aedeagus, sperm is transferred to the spermathecae.In contrast, sperm of Anopheles quadrimaculatus are delivered directly to the spermathecal duct. The tube-like aedeagus is positioned by its leaflets during sperm transfer and is driven deep into the atrium, where a mixture of semen and sperm is ejaculated.The significance of mechanical barriers to mating between species is discussed.
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  • 113
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The termite gut flagellates are of interest because of their unusual motile organelles, their ability to digest cellulose, and their symbiotic relationship with prokaryotes inhabiting the insect gut. This report provides a detailed ultrastructural description of Pyrsonympha from the hind-gut of Reticulitermes flavipes.The motile axostyle is composed of 2,000-4,000 microtubules connected by cross-bridges. At its anterior end, the axostyle is associated with a “primary row” of microtubules which is associated with a fibrous network. The “primary row” is embedded in a large mass of amorphous, electron-dense material occupying the furthest anterior end of the cell. The basal bodies of the eight flagella are also embedded in this presumptive microtubule-organizing center. The flagella are associated with the cell surface throughout their length. Isolation and reactivation of the axostyle has demonstrated that although ATP dependent motility is inherent in the structure of the axostyle, its proper control may be mediated by the attachment of the axostyle to structures at the anterior end of the cell.Pyrsonympha lacks morphologically distinguishable mitochondria and Golgi complexes. The cell surface is covered by unique, previously underscribed, tubular specializations. Symbiotic microorganisms are observed associated with the cell surface and within the cytoplasm.Wood particles are taken up from the gut fluid by large phagocytic vacuoles formed at the posterior end of the cell. Even during the process of breakdown, the wood is always enclosed within the membrane of the phagocytic vacuole.The Pyrsonympha from Reticulitermes flavipes are not attached to the lining of the hind-gut and do not contain an attachment organelle, unlike the Pyrsonympha from other species of Reticulitermes.
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  • 114
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 115
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 116
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 121-165 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gecko ear was studied in 36 species belonging to 24 genera. This receptor has attained an advanced level of structure and performance in this group of lizards, but there are many variations among species. To a large extent these variations follow subfamily lines as represented in Kluge's system of classification.Brief consideration is given to features of the outer and middle ear, but chief concern is with inner ear structures and their relations to auditory sensitivity as represented by the cochlear potentials.The auditory papilla is segmented, with a dorsal portion whose hair cells have their ciliary tufts attached to a tectorial membrane, and a ventral portion in which these cells form tow assemblages, one with tectorial connections and the other with connections to a line of sallets.The dorsal segment varies greatly in length and in the form of ciliary orientation. In Eublepharinae and most Gekkoninae the ciliary orientation is unidirectional, and the degree of sensitivity relates to the length of this segment. In Diplodactylinae and Sphaerodactylinae the orientation is bidirectional, and this segment functionally hardly differs from the ventral segment.Auditory sensitivity as measured in terms of the cochlear potentials shows close relations with subfamily groupings, except for the Gekkoninae in which considerable diversity is found.The evidence from structural differentiation, along with that derived from the forms of the cochlear potential functions, leads to the suggestion that these ears possess a high degree of pitch discrimination and capability for the analysis of complex sounds.
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  • 117
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mature mouse and cat peripheral nerve fibers have been examined in vitro by time-lapse photography. Some Schmidt-Lanterman clefts which were open at the start closed later; other were seen to open and then to close, some of them more than once. The implications of these movements are considered, especially in regard to the question of the passage of materials from the endoneurial connective tissue spaces to the axon.Myelin movements other than those occurring at the Schmidt-Lanterman clefts consisted primarily of the development and frequent regression of indentations of the myelin sheath. A single evagination was seen to develop and then to recede. These myelin movements suggest that previously described invaginations and evaginations of the myelin sheath, including flaps of “redundant myelin”, are not static but rather that they are in a state of movement, forming and regressing at intervals.The possible functional significance of the development and regression of myelin sheath indentations in relationship to axoplasmic flow is discussed.
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  • 118
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The authors describe the spermiogenesis of Polyxenus lagurus, a diplopod, in the male genital ducts and the transformations the spermatozoon successively undergoes in the spermatheca.The spermatozoon in the male genital ducts looks like a little barrel devoid of centriole and of any kind of rudimentary flagellum whatever. The organelles are markedly modified; cross sections present an elongated, flattened nucleus, an X-shaped body running parallel to it on the opposite side and two longitudinal mitochondrial strips interposed between them. The rest of this barrel-shaped spermatozoon is filled with peculiar Golgi formations, the spongy chambers, which open outwards through little vents.In the spermatheca the spermatozoon is quite different: it is shaped like a long ribbon. The basic structure of the spermatozoon is formed by the double folding of part of the cortical layer of the barrel-shaped spermatozoon. On the central part of this endo-skeleton are longitudinally ranged the nucleus and the acrosome flanked on both sides by a thread of mitochondria. Even in this phase the sperm has no flagellum.
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  • 119
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 247-257 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Several secretory and nonsecretory enzymes were localized histochemically in the main venom gland of 13 viperid snakes. All secretory cells show the intracellular oxidative enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase. The granular reactions obtained for both enzymes resemble mitochondria in distribution. Distinctive cells with a very high succinate dehydrogenase activity are dispersed among the secretory cells of all species except Atractaspis.Nonspecific acid phosphatase activity is found in the supranuclear region of the secretory cells in species that do not secrete this enzyme and throughout the cytoplasm in snakes that secrete the enzyme. Nonspecific alkaline phosphatase activity occurs in the secretory cells of those snakes whose venom shows this activity. Leucine amino peptidase (aryl amidase) activity is found in the venom and in the secretory cells of all the species.In Vipera palaestinae both the venom and the secretory cells of the main venom gland contain nonspecific esterase, L-amino acid oxidase and phosphodiesterase activities. The localization of phosphodiesterase and L-amino acid oxidase do not show major differences between glands at different intervals from an initial milking.Adenosine-monophosphate phosphatase activity is localized in the supranuclear region of the secretory cells in the glands of Vipera palaestinae and Aspis cerastes. Its activity is found in the venom of Aspis only.
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  • 120
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 259-283 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The male genital systems of two mysids, Archaeomysis grebnitzkii (subfamily Gastrosaccinae) and Neomysis awatschensis (subfamily Mysinae) are described. The testes of both species include a pair of central cords (spermatogonial cells), two sets of lateral sacs, and a set of dorsal-lateral spermatidic pouches in which spermiogenesis takes place. Mature sperm exit dorsally from the pouches into a common U-shaped seminal vesicle, the arms of which extend posteriorly as the right and left vasa deferentia.The emphasis of this study was on the follicle cell-spermatid relationship. Spermatids retain their own cell membranes as do the follicle cells. A bundle of sperm tails extends toward the follicle cell nucleus making several revolutions about the nucleus. Masses of rodlets occupy this tract with the spermatid tails. The tail consists of an outer cylinder with banding in a periodicity similar to collagen protein, and an inner cavity filled with a structureless, dark-staining material. Heads of the spermatozoa differ considerably between the two species. The elongate, reflexed head of Neomysis with its central filament joins the tail at an acute angle. The short cylindrical head of Archaeomysis with its anterior hood-like extension joins the tail directly. The distinctiveness of the sperm types might prove useful for taxonomic purposes. As noted by previous investigators, the number of spermatids per follicle cell shows specificity: Neomysis awatschensis has around 16 spermatids per follicle cell, Archaeomysis grebnitzkii about 100.
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  • 121
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 285-305 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The three dorsal ocelli of worker honeybees have been studied by light and electron microscopy. Each ocellus has a single flattened spheroidal lens and about 800 elongated retinular cells. Retinular cells are paired and form a two-part plate-like rhabdom between their distal processes. Each rhabdomere comprises parallel microvilli projecting laterally from the apposed retinular cells. Primary receptor cell axons synapse within the ocellus with ocellar nerve fibers of two different calibers. Each ocellus has eight thick fibers ca 10 m̈m in diameter and several thinner ones less than 3 m̈m in diameter. Fine structural evidence suggests that retinular axons end presynaptically on both types of ocellar nerve fibers. Since all retinular cells apparently synapse repeatedly with the thick fibers this involves a convergence of about 100:1. Thick fibers always terminate postsynaptically within the ocellus while thin fibers terminate presynaptically on other thin fibers, thick fibers or retinular axons. Structural evidence for synaptic polarization indicates that retinular cells and thick fibers are afferent, thin fibers efferent. Thus complex processing of the ocellar visual input can occur before the secondary neurons of the three ocelli converge to form the single short ocellar nerve which runs to the posterior forebrain.
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  • 122
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 307-335 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The functional morphology of the forelimbs of the following African Viverridae was studied, Atilax paludinosus, Bdeogale crassicauda, Civettictis civetta, Genetta genetta, G. tigrina, Helogale parvula, Herpestes ichneumon, H. sanguineus, Ichneumia albicauda, Mungos mungo, Nandinia binotata. Their locomotory behaviour has been previously studied and described and is related to morphological differences. The osteology of all the species and the myology of three species is described. The species have been assigned to primary locomotor categories on the basis of their locomotion. These are 1, climbing, arboreal walking; 2, arboreal and terrestrial walking and jumping; 3, general terrestrial walking and scrambling; and 4, trotting. In the climbing arboreal walking category the most distinctive morphological adaptations are powerful flexors and extensors as well as a flexible plantigrade manus with retractile claws. In the arboreal and terrestrial walking category the shoulder, elbow and carpal joints are flexible and the manus has retractile claws, though the flexor and extensor musculature is insufficiently developed for controlled climbing. The trotting category is characterised by a high humero-radial index and a rigid antibrachium. The foot is digitigrade with the claws short and stout. Species in the general walking and scrambling category show many differences in the morphology of their feet, even though the proximal parts of the forelimb appear similar. Due to the restricted nature of the adaptations, these species have been assigned to secondary locomotor categories. Morphological characters typical of the locomotor categories are summarized in the discussion.
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  • 123
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Scanning electron microscopy revealed spores of Nosema apis and Thelohania fibrata to be egg-shaped, but only the mature spore of T. fibrata was shown to possess a horseshoe-like concavity at the posterior pole. Freezeetched preparations indicated that this concavity was due to a thin area of the spore coat. Freeze-etching studies also show spores of N. apis do possess an umbrella-shaped polaroplast, and a polar filament which is arranged in a double layer with over 30 coils. The spore of T. fibrata contains a pear-shaped arrangement of the polaroplast membrane, and a polar filament arranged in a single layer of 22 coils.
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  • 124
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 125
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 126
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The sensory innervation of the mandibular stylets of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) has been examined by electron microscopy. Two groups of sensory neurones are present in the mandible. Each has two neurones, one with a short dendrite extending into the base of the mandible and ending in the base and another with a long microtubular process which extends 500 m̈ down to the distal tip of the mandible. The two neurones are enclosed by an ensheathing cell comparable to the trichogen cell enveloping the group of neurones innervating pegs and hairs. This ensheathing cell is supported by extensive electron-dense filaments to form a scolopale and is embedded in the mass of stylet-forming cells at the base of the mandible. The inner segments of the dendrites are anchored to the ensheathing cell by desmosome junctions. Desmosome junctions also bind the microtubular outer segments of the short and long dendrite to each other. There is no evidence of a dendritic sheath enclosing the distal portion of the short dendrite which ends while still in the extracellular space within the ensheathing cell. The microtubular process of the long dendrite extends down the lumen of the mandible enclosed by a close-fitting extracellular sheath which penetrates and is attached to the cuticular wall of the mandible tip. Distally this sheath is thickened on one side. Deflection of the mandible would therefore deform the dendritic membrane asymmetrically because the thin walls of the sheath would bend more than the thick walls. This would exert an unequal mechanical strain on the dendritic membrane which could result in depolarization in response to deflection in a particular direction. The arrangement of the dendrites and their sheaths within the mandible is such that deflection to the right would distort one dendrite in the same way as deflection to the left would distort the other.
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  • 127
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 365-383 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ampullary receptor organs of African mormyrids consist of a cavity beneath the epidermis. The wall of the cavity contains embedded receptor cells and two types of supporting cells. A canal extends from the cavity to an opening at the surface. The lumen of the canal and the ampulla are filled with a jelly-like material and dense cylinders apparently secreted by two types of supporting cells. Flattened cells of the canal wall are joined by occluding junctions. Synapses between receptor cells and the afferent nerve fiber are characterized by a presynaptic dense body, but presynaptic vesicles were not observed. Degenerating receptor cells are occasionally seen among normal receptor cells in the base of the organ.
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  • 128
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 385-395 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This paper examines the effect of early thymectomy on the subsequent development of lymphoid tissues in the toad, Xenopus laevis. At the time of thymic removal (8 days post-fertilization) all the lymphoid organ anlagen are at a rudimentary state of differentiation and contain few, if any, small lymphocytes. Despite the absence of any thymic tissue all thymectomized animals grew normally.Thymectomized larvae developed relatively normal lymphoid organs. However, lymphoid depletion was apparent in the splenic red pulp and in the pharyngeal ventral cavity bodies. Examination of the lymphoid organs of post-metamorphic Xenopus revealed reduction in spleen size following thymectomy. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the splenic red pulp of many thymectomized toadlets and reduction in proportion of white to red pulp was also noted in a few of these animals. Absence of the thymus had no apparent effect on the histology of the other lymphoid organs examined.
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  • 129
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Notes: Extraocular muscles from representative species of vertebrate groups ranging from amphibians to the higher mammals were examined in serial histological sections for the presence of muscle spindles. These observations and data from the literature indicate that extraocular muscles of the pig, calf, sheep and other even-toed ungulates are richly supplied with well-defined spindles having a generous complement of intrafusal fibers distinguishable as nuclear bag and chain fibers. Spindles in human eye muscles are also numerous. In macaque and chimpanzee muscles a few poorly developed spindles were present in some, but not all, muscles. No encapsulated receptors were found in 20 other mammalian and submammalian species examined in this study. When present, spindles tended to be located in the zone of small muscle fibers found along the orbital surface of the muscle. Rectus and oblique muscles in all species had such a zone, so that its existence did not determine whether spindles would occur.
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  • 130
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 409-433 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gonadotrophic cells in the pars distalis of Anolis carolinensis often contain juxtanuclear concentrations of filaments with diameters intermediate in size (approximately 100 Å) between microtubules and microfilaments. Their size and their substructure, which gives them a tubular appearance when they are displayed in cross-section, appear to place these filaments in the “intermediate filament” category (Ishikawa et al., '68). In their juxtanuclear position in the intact animal, the intermediate filaments are collected in randomly-oriented tangles. In castrated specimens of Anolis, gonadotrophs degranulate and elongate. During this elongation, increased numbers of microtubules appear in orientation parallel to the long axis of the cell, and the 100 Å filaments reassemble in rod-like masses oriented parallel to the microtubules. This apparent distributional interaction may facilitate the elongation of the cell. Intimate physical associations between the intermediate filaments and secretory granules suggest that the filaments may act in the movement of the granules during the processes of degranulation and secretion.
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  • 131
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 435-443 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The long antennal flagellum of Neoconocephalus ensiger is covered with many sharp-tipped hairs that appear to be non-innervated; thick-walled chemoreceptors, that may also have a tactile function; thin-walled chemoreceptors of several kinds and coeloconic chemoreceptors. All of the chemoreceptors are innervated by small groups of neurons. The first flagellar subsegment is unusual in that it bears a small protuberance on its latero-ventral surface. This marks the site of the attachment, internally, of a scoloparium containing about eleven scolopales in which the dendrites of some 23 sensory neurons terminate. The most distal subsegment lacks the scoloparium reported earlier for the grasshopper. No conspicuous difference between the antennae of males and of females was found.
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  • 132
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 445-455 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The antennae of two species of thrips, Bagnalliella yuccae (Hinds) and Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), have been examined with the light and electron microscopes. The antennal flagellum of both species is provided with tactile hairs, thick-walled chemoreceptors and thin-walled chemoreceptors. In addition, B. yuccae, but not F. tritici, has a single coeloconic chemoreceptor on the dorsal surface of the pedicel. Observations were made on the fluids in the lumen of the antennae of E. yuccae in the living insect. The movement of the fluids probably has an important physiological significance.
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  • 133
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    Notes: The locomotor function of the caudal muscle cells of ascidian larvae is identical with that of lower vertebrate somatic striated (skeletal) muscle fibers, but other features, including the presence of transverse myomuscular junctions, an active Golgi apparatus, a single nucleus, and partial innervation, are characteristic of vertebrate myocardial cells.Seven stages in the development of the compound ascidian Distaplia occidentalis were selected for an ultrastructural study of caudal myogenesis. A timetable of development and differentiation was obtained from cultures of isolated embryos in vitro.The myoblasts of the neurulating embryo are yolky, undifferentiated cells. They are arranged in two bands between the epidermis and the notochord in the caudal rudiment and are actively engaged in mitosis.Myoblasts of the caudate embryo continue to divide and rearrange themselves into longitudinal rows so that each cell simultaneously adjoins the epidermis and the notochord. The formation of secretory granules by the Golgi apparatus coincides with the onset of proteid-yolk degradation and the accumulation of glycogen in the ground cytoplasm.Randomly oriented networks of thick and thin myofilaments appear in the peripheral sarcoplasm of the muscle cells of the comma embryo. Bridges interconnect the thick and thin myofilaments (actomyosin bridges) and the thick myofilaments (H-bridges), but no banding patterns are evident. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), derived from evaginations of the nuclear envelope, forms intimate associations (peripheral couplings) with the sarcolemma.Precursory Z-lines are interposed between the networks of myofilaments in the vesiculate embryo, and the nascent myofibrils become predominantly oriented parallel to the long axis of the muscle cell.Muscle cells of the papillate embryo contain a single row of cortical myofibrils. Myofibrils, already spanning the length of the cell, grow only in diameter by the apposition of myofilaments. The formation of transverse myomuscular junctions begins at this stage, but the differentiating junctions are frequently oriented obliquely rather than orthogonally to the primary axes of the myofibrils.With the appearance of H-bands and M-lines, a single perforated sheet of sarcoplasmic reticulum is found centered on the Z-line and embracing the I-band. The sheet of SR establishes peripheral couplings with the sarcolemma.In the prehatching tadpole, a second collar of SR, centered on the M-line and extending laterally to the boundaries with the A-bands, is formed. A single perforated sheet surrounds the myofibril but is discontinuous at the side of the myofibril most distant from the sarcolemma. To produce the intricate architecture of the fully differentiated collar in the swimming tadpole (J. Morph., 138: 349, 1972). the free ends of the sheet must elevate from the surface of the myofibril, recurve, and extend peripherally toward the sarcolemma to establish peripheral couplings.Morphological changes in the nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, and Golgi bodies are described, as well as changes in the ground cytoplasmic content of yolk, glycogen, and ribosomes.The volume of the differentiating cells, calculated from the mean cellular dimensions, and analyses of cellular shape are presented, along with schematic diagrams of cells in each stage of caudal myogenesis. In an attempt to quantify the differences observed ultrastructurally, calculations of the cytoplasmic volume occupied by the mqjor classes of organelles are included.Comparison is made with published accounts on differentiating vertebrate somatic striated and cardiac muscles.
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  • 134
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 85-117 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anolis embryos have limb buds at the time eggs are laid and require about 39 days to complete development at 28°C. Rathke's pouch is present at five days, and the subdivisions of the adenohypophysis are differentiated by ten days after oviposition. The cells of the rostral half of the pars distalis (PD) are derived from the anterior face of Rathke's pouch; cells of the caudal half from the posterior face. Lateral lobe cells differentiate on the lateral margins of the developing caudal PD, and knob-like outgrowths of this tissue attach to the walls of the diencephalon to form the pars tuberalis (PT). Subsequently, the cells of the PT lose their connection with the PD and become a pair of flattened oblong plaques. They reach maximal size in midincubation, and are gradually invaded by nervous elements and incorporated into the walls of the hypothalamus. Electron micrographs demonstrate that the embryonic PT is secretory.Ultrastructurally the pars intermedia (PI) and PD are composed of parenchymous secretory cells in a framework of stellate cells. Stellate cells surround the lumen of Rathke's pouch and are connected laterally by complex junctions that exclude the secretory cells from the luminal surface. They extend in sheet-like processes among the secretory cells to the outer margin of the gland where they form a partial sheath within the basal lamina around the secretory tissue. As development proceeds, the lumen becomes subdivided and the resulting reduced lumina are recognizable as the forerunners of the follicles of the adult adenohypophysis.The cells of the PI are differentiated into secretory or stellate cells halfway through incubation. At this time only half of the cells of the PD can be so classified. Four of the five granulated cell types described in the adult are recognizable by mid-incubation; the fifth cell type (prolactin cell) becomes distinguishable within ten days thereafter, and at hatching appears to be actively synthesizing secretory products.
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  • 135
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 131-141 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hydranth of the gymnoblastic hydroid Syncoryne tenella is invested by a cuticle approximately 530 mμ thick which is continuous with the periderm of the hydrocaulus. The ectodermal cells of the hydranth possess regularly spaced microvilli orientated with their long axis perpendicular to the ectodermal surface. The microvilli project into the cuticle, and probably serve to anchor the cuticle to the ectoderm. In the hydrocaulus the periderm is loosely applied to the ectoderm: in this region microvilli are absent from ectodermal cells. The periderm is a layered structure composed of finely filamentous material. No structural basis is found for the previously reported differential staining of peridermal layers in the hydrocaulus.
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  • 136
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 167-183 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nuchal organs of polychaetes from four different families (Nereidae, Nephtyidae, Phyllodocidae and Glyceridae) were examined with the light and electron microscopes. In each case, the organ consists of ciliated cells and primary sensory elements. The ciliated cells are similar to the cells of the adjacent epidermis but bear motile cilia. Primary sensory neurons are situated within the organs in Nephtyidae and Phyllodocidae, but are located within the brain in Nereidae and Glyceridae. Each sensory cell gives rise to a distal process which penetrates between the ciliated cells to form an apical sensory bulb bearing modified cilia. Apically these processes are lined with juxtamembranous plaques. The ciliated cells are innervated by efferent axons from the brain, and in Nereis the axons appear to be peptidergic. The elements comprising the nuchal organs closely resemble those of the vertebrate olfactory mucosa.
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  • 137
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    Notes: The cuticle of five species of Oligochaeta, chosen to represent differences in size and a variety of biotopes, was studied electron microscopically after fixation with the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method. Five distinct layers in the cuticle of all studied species were found. Staining with lead and uranyl ions or with silver proteinate visualized basically the same structural components of the cuticle, but the degree of electron opacity and the distribution of the electron-opaque stain in these components differed according to the staining method used. Since the acrolein-TAPO-osmium tetroxide method visualized the cuticular zones preferentially stained by Thiéry's silver proteinate method, it was concluded that the TAPO method may be considered suitable for the visualization of polysaccharides. Staining with phosphotungstic acid provided some information on the composition of the cuticle of Oligochaeta not obtained by staining ultrathin sections with lead and uranyl ions nor with silver proteinate. The conclusion is that phosphotungstic acid binds to polysaccharides which do not contain vicglycol groups nor active sites responsible for the positive reaction with lead and uranyl salts. Structural components in the cuticle of the oligochaetes studied were characteristic for each species. The taxonomic value of such components, however, must be confirmed by examination of a larger number of species of oligochaetes.
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  • 138
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    Notes: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the venom producing parotoid glands of Bufo marinus has been studied by light and electron microscopy and reactions for the presence of glycoprotein and mucopolysaccharides, the catechollamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine or dopamine, glucose-6-phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and the steroid nucleus and cholesterol and its esters have been performed. The gland is composed of numerous individual lobules, each lobule surrounded by a double cell layer. The interior surface of the outer layer is thrown into small cytoplasmic projections which traverse an intercellular space and interdigitate with microvilli formed by the outer plasmalemma of the inner layer. The outer layer resembles smooth muscle-like cells, is rich in adenosine triphosphatase, contains many pinocytotic vesicles and various organelles and may function in some aspect of venom synthesis, active cellular transport and contraction in the discharge of the secretory product. The inner layer shows a positive chromaffin reaction, contains various organelles, appears devoid of a plasmalemma on its inner surface and is involved in venom formation and release via an apocrine type of secretion. The intercellular space is rich in PAS positive materials, while the secretory product, itself, demonstrates a positive chromaffin reaction. The significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 139
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    Notes: The synganglion of Dermacentor variabilis Say is a single nerve mass, condensed around the esophagus and within the periganglionic sinus of the ciculatory system. Protocerebral, cheliceral (including stomodeal bridge), and pedipalpal ganglia lie in the pre-esophageal portion of the nerve mass and bear optic, cheliceral, and pedipalpal nerves respectively. The unpaired stomodeal and the recurrent nerve which forms the hyper-esophageal ganglion arise from the stomodeal bridge. Paired primary and accessory nerves to the retrocerebral organ complex have mixed protocerebral-cheliceral origins. Pedal ganglia (including ventral olfactory lobes of pedal ganglia I) and composite opisthosomal ganglion lie in the post-esophageal nerve mass and bear pedal nerve trunks and two pairs of opisthosomal nerves respectively.Internally, the synganglion consists of cellular rind and fibrous core. A welldefined neurilemma with a laminar matrix covers nerve mass and peripheral nerves. The rind contains the somata of ganglionic neurons and ensheathing glial cells and is restricted to the synganglion mass. It is limited by two specialized glial layers, the external perineurium and internal subperineurium. Discrete glomerular formations are present within the protocerebrum and olfactory lobes. Olfactory glomeruli located in pedal ganglia I are associated with a pair of globuli cell groups.Possible physiological relationships between anatomical specializations of the synganglion, extraneural sinuses and circulating hemocytes are considered. The evolutionary significances of condensation in the stomatogastric neuropile regions and throughout the synganglion, together with the simplification and loss of glomerular formations, are discussed.
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  • 140
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    Notes: Regions of the crayfish kidney were examined by electron microscopy. Coelsmosac cells are loosely bound together by desmosome-like spot junctions, and connected to the basal lamina via characteristic pedicels. The cytoplasm contains numerous vesicles and vacuoles of various sizes and is often crowded with large, lysosome-like granules or dense bodies. The morphology suggests a filtration mechanism with reabsorption of materials such as protein from the filtrate and secretion of other substances into the lumen.The labyrinth is composed of cuboidal to columnar cells which possess a brush border, long and narrow intercellular spaces, basal plasmalemmal invaginations and typical cytoplasmic components. Two sub-regions are distinguishable. The morphology of labyrinth I suggests that these cells move fluid isotonically across the epithelium. Labyrinth II, in addition to isotonic transport, appears to be more active in the endocytic uptake and intracellular digestion of large molecules such as protein.The nephridial canal consists of cells which lack a brush border, but display extensive basal invaginations associated with elongated mitochondria. A proximal and distal region are cytologically distinguishable. Proximally, the cells are small and filled with mitochondria throughout. Scattered within the cytoplasm are vesicles, vacuoles, diffuse glycogen, free ribosomes, dense bodies and some rough endoplasmic reticulum. Distally, the cells are less compact, larger, and cuboidal to columnar in shape. The cytoplasm is similar to that of the proximal cells, but the basal invaginations are even larger and more extensive. The morphology of cells in both regions of the nephridial canal is highly suggestive of active solute reabsorption, probably occurring against an osmotic gradient.
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  • 141
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 277-284 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The intraspecific mean length of medullary cones in avian kidneys is analogous to medullary thickness in the mammalian kidney. Hence, relative medullary thickness (based upon kidney volume) can be calculated for birds as was done in mammals years ago. Comparative figures are given for 26 species from nine avian orders. The organizational pattern of cortex and medulla in the bird kidney is reviewed, and a simplified diagram of this relationship is presented. With some exceptions, urine concentrating ability and relative medullary thickness are directly proportional in mammals. Contrarily, no similar trend was evident in birds when current information on water economy was compared to relative medullary thickness in various species. There are a number of factors (such as the respective functional roles of reptilian and mammalian-type nephrons, interspecific variations in ion transport, etc.) which require study before the significance of relative thickness in the avian medulla can be evaluated more thoroughly.
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  • 142
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    Notes: The stylocyte (Gr. stylos; pillar) of Corvomeyenia carolinensis Harrison (Spongillidae), a previously undescribed proiferan cell type, was examined using phase contrast microscopy, histochemistry and electron microscopy. The stylocyte, an anucleolate amoebocyte, is characterized by a rhomboidal intranuclear crystal. The crystal, lacking an investing membrane, is embedded directly into the nucleoplasm. It is homogenous with no demonstrable crystalline subunits. Histochemical studies suggest that the crystal is proteinaceous, containing no DNA or RNA. Cytoplasmically, the stylocyte contains promienent homogenous smooth membrane-bound inclusions which contain high levels of neutral (PAS-positive) and polycarboxylated mucopolysaccharides but low levels of glycogen and no significant phosphatase activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed. Correspondingly, with various histochemical methods, little or no cytoplasmic RNA is demonstrated. Because electron microscopic studies of C. carolinensis indicate the probable absence of viral inclusions in the sponge and because the crystal contains no histochemically demonstrable nucleic acid, the evidence appears to suggest that the crystal neither represents an assemblage of mature virus units nor a virus-induced structure. The stylocyte cell type may play a role in nutrient cycling in C. carolinensis with the crystal acting either as a site of protein storage or as an excretory product.
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  • 143
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 285-299 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gastric mucosa of both the echidna and platypus is aglandular and the lining epithelium is stratified squamous. The latter exhibits three principle layers: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, and stratum corneum. The cytoplasm of cells composing the first two strata of both species shows bundles of tonofibrils and numerous free ribosomes. Cells of the stratum spinosum in the platypus also show numerous dense granules limited to the peripheral cytoplasm. The stratum spinosum of both species is comprised of fusiform-shaped cells whose adjacent cell membranes show extensive interlocking. The stratum spinosum of the echidna in addition shows numerous intercellular bridges. Cells of the stratum corneum become flattened and elongate and in the echidna nuclei near the surface appear to degenerate. Cells comprising the stratum corneum of the platypus exhibit well preserved nuclei and contain scattered large granules of varying electron density. Prior to sloughing, cells near the surface of both species show a separation of adjacent cell membranes. True keratinization is not found in the gastric lining epithelium of either species and the epithelium lining of the stomach of the echidna more closely represents a form of parakeratosis. Delicate papillae containing capillaries extend considerable distances into the overlying epithelium of both species and are thought to contribute to its nutrition.
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  • 144
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 301-319 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The epidermis of Eisenia is covered by a cuticle and rests on a basement lamella. The cuticle, which is resistant to a variety of enzymes, is composed of non-striated, bundles of probable collagen fibers that are orthogonally oriented and are embedded in a proteoglycan matrix. The basement lamella consists of striated collagen fibers with a 560 Å major periodicity. Proximity and morphology suggest that the epidermis may contribute to both the cuticle and the basement lamella  -  that is, the single tissue may synthesize at least two types of collagen. The epidermis is a pseudostratified epithelium containing three major cell types (columnar, basal and gland) and a rare fourth type with apical cilia. The esophagus is lined by a simple cuticulated epithelium composed predominantly of a single cell type, which resembles the epidermal columnar cell. Rare gland cells occur in the esophageal epithelium, but basal cells are lacking.
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  • 145
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 321-327 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distal depression of the ventral pedal groove of Mytilus californianus was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This part of the byssus forming system is responsible for the formation of the attachment plaque of the byssus thread.The longitudinal pedal ducts open into this area and the floor of the distal depression is covered by specialized cilia which terminate as biconcave flattened discs or “paddles.” The disc is formed by a 360° curvature of the axoneme tip within the ciliary membrane. The diameter of the disc is about 1.33 μ while that of the shaft portion is 0.24 μ. There are about 11 cilia per square micron of surface area and the necks of the cilia are separated from each other by a web-like extension of apical cytoplasm extending from the epithelial cells.It is proposed that these specialized cilia function as microscopic spatulas for the application of the adhesive plaque material to substrate surfaces. The pattern of surface convection currents seen in vivo tends to support this hypothesis.
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  • 146
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  • 147
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 351-363 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gill development begins on the sixth day of incubation at 10°C and is complete by 31 days (hatching). Gill arches are formed by fusion and perforation of ectoderm and endoderm across the pharyngeal wall. A primary branchial artery forms within each arch and a second branchial artery forms as a branch from its ventral end. A series of filament loop vessels forms connecting the two arteries and when several are patent a unidirectional blood flow is established via afferent (second) branchial artery, filament loop vessels to efferent (primary) branchial artery. Part of the efferent branchial artery just above its junction with the afferent branchial artery constricts and occludes. It is suggested that this change in the pattern of blood flow is dependent on differences in resistance of the two branchial arteries. A later extension of the gill ventrally is thought not to be homologous with similar regions in elasmobranchs and Acipenser.
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  • 148
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were conducted on the antennal sensory sensilla of the hymenopteran parasitoid, Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck, of the family Braconidae. Distinct morphological differences were found between the chemoreceptors of the male and female. Curved, non-fluted, thin-walled sensilla were found to be very abundant on the male and restricted in location and number on the female. Trichoid, placoid and fluted basiconic sensilla were numerous on the antennal flagella of both sexes. Smooth basiconic sensilla were restricted in number to one per flagellar segment in both sexes. Behavioral data suggest that bent-tipped, thick-walled sensilla unique to the female are involved in detecting a chemical(s) emitted from the host, Heliothis virescens (Fab.).
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  • 149
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: Well preserved transitional cells were found between differentiated cells and horny cells of the frog epidermis, thus facilitating the study of the sequential events involved in horny cell formation. Autolysosomes appear to play an important role in the formation of horny cells. These structures preferentially digest those cytoplasmic components which are not necessary constituents of the terminal horny cell. The release of the contents of the small mucous granules into the intercellular spaces is one of the initial events in horny cell formation. Filaments and large mucous granules seem to be resistant to the lytic digestion and contribute to the bulk of the horny cell. Loss of fluids through the plasma membrane and consolidation of the remaining constituents, results in a flattened horny cell. The appearance of a thickened membrane around the horny cell signifies the completion of the transformation process.
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  • 150
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    Journal of Morphology 142 (1974), S. 395-409 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Light and electron microscope studies of development of the ultraviolet-reflecting scales of male Colias eurytheme butterflies show that basic developmental processes are similar to those of other scales. The ridges form between bundles of microfilaments and as they form they buckle to produce the lamellae seen in the adult scales. There is evidence that the buckling may be purely in response to mechanical stress and that some of the bundles of microfilaments may produce such stresses.
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  • 151
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A large extrachromosomal mass of Feulgen positive material, the DNA body, has been visualized in early prophase oocytes of crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) representative of the closely related subfamilies Gryllinae and Nemobiinae. A similar structure is present in oocytes of representatives of two subfamilies of crickets (subfamilies Oecanthinae and Gryllotalpinae) which taxonomically and phylogenetically are quite separate from those mentioned previously. In situ hybridization demonstrates that the body contains amplified copies of genes coding for ribosomal RNA. Unlike the DNA body in early diplotene oocytes of representatives of the subfamily Gryllinae, which is closely associated with the developing nucleolar apparatus, the DNA body in oocytes of the Oecanthinae and Gryllotalpinae cannot be demonstrated during diplotene. In the Oecanthinae, the nucleolar apparatus of early diplotene stage oocytes is composed of four to seven separate structures, the ribonucleoprotein of which has a characteristically lamellated appearance. During late diplotene, these nucleoli give rise to many smaller structures which are distributed throughout the germinal vesicle. In early diplotene stage oocytes of Scapteriscus acletus (Subfamily: Gryllotalpinae), the nucleolar apparatus consists of a single compact mass of ribonucleoprotein. In contrast to the oocytes of all other crickets that have been studied, the nucleolus of S. acletus remains single throughout diplotene. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that the amplified genes coding for rRNA which are localized in the DNA body of early prophase oocytes become incorporated into this compact nucleolar mass. Differences in nucleolar structure appear to reflect differences in the organization of amplified genes coding for rRNA.
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  • 152
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cells in secretory glands of globiferous pedicellariae from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson) were studied with the electron microscope and subjected to preliminary light microscopic, histochemical analysis. Specimens for electron microscopic observation were fixed with chilled 2% glutaraldehyde in sea water postfixed in cold 1.33% osmic acid, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin Samples for histochemical analysis were fixed in the same manner, and then embedded in n-butylmethacrylate.Secretory cells line and fill partially bifurcated, muscular gland sacs located peripherally on each of three jaw elements comprising the pedicellarial head. Cells from venom glands are typically mucoid in appearance, possessing small volumes of basally displaced, vesiculated cytoplasm and an extensive system of vacuoles dominating the apical nine-tenths of each cell. These vacuoles enclose ground substances of various densities and staining affinities. Despite their extensive vacuolation, gland cells contain numerous cytomembrane complexes indicating metabolic activity just prior to fixation. Deciduous endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, large vacuoles, and various species of vesicles associated with these membrane systems are found in spatial proximity which indicates an apparent biosynthetic association.Preliminary histochemical tests on sections embedded in acrylic plastic indicate vacuolar products may consist of protein and nonsulfated acid mucosubstances.Gland cells are probably holocrine in function, releasing their vacuolar complement upon constriction of the muscular gland sac. There is no evidence indicating delivery of non-membrane bounded, granular secretion to an acellular lumen within the gland sac.
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  • 153
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 154
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies demonstrate the stimulatory effect of synthetic salmon calcitonin on the fine structure of fibroblasts and on collagen formation in cutaneous wounds experimentally induced in rabbits. Long-term administration of calcitonin enhances fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The fibroblasts hypertrophy and exhibit a highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), several polyribosomes, large nuclei, hypertrophic Golgi complex, and many dense granules and lysosomes. Mitochondria are elongate and ramify; intracellular as well as extracellular synthesis of collagen increases. Fibrils appear tightly packed, in large heaps or spicula, with a characteristic periodicity and striation.Scanning electron micrographs of topography and relationships with collagen fibers and fibrils and cells surface changes demonstrate an extensive network of fine fibrils between collagen fibers, marked ruffling of cell membranes as well as numerous blebs on the cell surface. The latter are significant in collagen formation and egestion.
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  • 155
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An arbitrary classification scheme is presented for the thirteen distinct types of secretory cells distinguished within the central nervous system of Dermacentor variabilis by several specific and general neurosecretory staining techniques. Comparisons to classic arthropod neurosecretory cell types are made and the histochemical implications of the chromophilic response of various secretory products are discussed. Dermacentor cells of Types I, VII, IX and X may be considered neurosecretory on the basis of intracellular elaboration and discharge of secretory product. Type II, III, IV, V, VI, XI and XII cells are considered as putative neurosecretory cells although secretory products were detected only within the perikarya. The large Type XII cells are also similar to motor neurones reported from other arachnids. Cells of Types VIII and XIII appear to be glial elements. The secretory products of Type XIIIA are distributed within trabecular processes in the subperineurium. These products may play a trophic role or they may have some endocrine function as a form of “gliosecretion”.
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  • 156
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sperm enter the anterior vas deferens individually in the spider crab male. There they become surrounded by secretion products from the cells of the vas deferens, and are compartmentalized into spermatophores of varying size. The anterior vas deferens can be divided into three regions. The epithelium of the anterior vas deferens varies regionally from low to high columnar. The cytoplasm contains vast arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes but few mitochondria. Intercellular spaces contain septate junctions, gap junctions and vesicles.Once the spermatophores have been formed in the anterior vas deferens, they are moved posteriorly to the middle vas deferens where they are stored and surrounded by seminal fluids. The epithelial cells of the middle vas deferens contain large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles appear, forming at the cell surface and within the apical cytoplasm. Their suggested function is the resorption of secretion products of the anterior vas deferens which initiated compartmentalization of the spermatozoa into spermatophores.The posterior vas deferens functions primarily as a storage center for spermatophores until they are released at the time of copulation. Seminal fluid surrounding the spermatophores is produced in this region as well as in the middle vas deferens. The cells of this region contain vast arrays of vesicular rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The cells are multinucleate. Microtubules are numerous throughout the length of the cells and appear to insert on the plasma membrane.
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  • 157
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rostral pores are epidermal invaginations which occur on the internarial region of most chelonians. Representatives of all Recent chelonian families and 67 of the 74 extant genera were examined grossly and/or histologically. Pores are absent only in the families Carettochelyidae, Cheloniidae, and Dermochelyidae. The number and microscopic structure of pores vary markedly within and between taxa. Morphological data suggest that rostral pores could function in mechanoreception. The possible origin and evolution of rostral pores are discussed in the context of other chelonian integumentary speializations.
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  • 158
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    Journal of Morphology 143 (1974), S. 21-75 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Basicranial anatomy of mammalian carnivores is significant in the determination of carnivore evolution. One of the least understood yet most often studied features of the basicranium is the auditory bulla, a bony capsule enclosing the middle ear. Although previously believed to be formed by a tympanic bone alone, or by tympanic and entotympanic, it is shown here that the carnivore bulla is formed by three and in some cases four ontogenetic elements: tympanic, rostral entotympanic, caudal entotympanic(s). These elements in Carnivora appear to correspond to bulla elements discovered over 50 years ago by Van der Klaauw in representative species of several other orders of mammals.Increased auditory sensitivity appears to have been attained in various carnivore lineages by increase in the volume of the middle ear cavity, principally by hypertrophy of the caudal entotympanic, but also by different yet less common anatomical strategies such as invasion of the mastoid bone by the middle ear space. Five basic types of bulla among living Carnivora can be recognized, based largely on the relationship of the caudal entotympanic to the other bulla elements.Closely associated with the bulla in the auditory region are the median and promontory branches of the internal carotid artery. These branches exhibit a precise relationship to the bulla elements, particularly the rostral entotympanic. The promontory branch is much reduced or completely lacking in all living carnivores. Reduction or loss of the median branch is explained as the result of the development of arterial retia on the anastomotic artery in the orbital region. Reduction of the median branch is particularly characteristic of the aeluroid Carnivora, in which a greater proportion of the cerebral blood supply passes to the brain in the external carotid artery via the anastomotic branch, and is cooled in the orbital region by a countercurrent heat exchange mechanism formed by arterial retia closely associated with venous blood in surrounding sinuses. The arctoid and cynoid Carnivora are characterized by only rudimentary development of retia along the anastomotic artery, and the median branch is much better developed than in the aeluroids. Among arctoids, ursids parallel the aeluroids in the development of a countercurrent mechanism but employ the median branch of the internal carotid rather than the anastomotic branch of the external carotid artery.Bulla structure and nature of the carotid circulation in the auditory region can be determined from fossil Carnivora as well as for living forms. This study attempts to define basicranial anatomical patterns characteristic of living Carnivora which then can be used to trace the evolution of lineages in the fossil record.
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  • 159
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 160
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Laboratory-reared outgrowths of the freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia carolinensis Harrison were examined using histological and histochemical techniques, supplemented by phase contrast observations of cellular behavior. The tissue and cellular components of the spongillid outgrowth region were defined in terms of function and morphogenic state. Archeocytes differ considderably, in both histochemical and morphological characteristics, from other cell types of the adult sponge, being histochemically similar to stem cells reported from a variety of developmental series. Archeocytes exhibit cytological characteristics of unspecialized cells capable of high levels of synthetic activity while other cell types of C. carolinensis, for the most part, can be characterized as fully differentiated cells displaying more restricted synthetic capabilities but often accumulating neutral mucoproteins. The presence of aggregates of amebocytes, not identifiable as archeocytes and possibly engaged in gemmule formation, is discussed in terms of current concepts of gemmulation and cellular developmental capabilities in sponges.
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  • 161
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 162
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 237-253 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study of the testicular capsule of rat, dog, cat and human has confirmed the presence of three layers, viz., the tunica vaginalis, the tunica albuginea proper and an innermost tunica vasculosa. Smooth muscle cells are present in the tunica albuginea of all four species and are more prominent at the posterior pole of the testis where the capsule merges with the mediastinum testis. In the rat and the dog, a few striated muscle fibers also are present.While the tunica albuginea is to be considered as a dense connective tissue, the arrangement of the collagen bundles and the presence of a relatively high content of elastic fibers probably permits changes in size of the testis following spontaneous contractions of the muscle elements, which are known to occur. The role of the testicular capsule in sperm transport is discussed in relation to other factors, the spontaneous contractions of the capsule presumably having a “pumping” action and aiding the movement of non-motile spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis.The presence of striated muscle fibers in two species is of interest and, while these may function in a similar manner to the smooth muscle, they may represent simply an unusual differentiation of embryonic myoblasts.
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  • 163
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The surface structures of the antennular flagella of Pagurus alaskensis are described in detail. Attention is directed towards the surface morphology of two types of possible sensilla: (1) exoskeletal pores (1.0-3.0 μm in diameter); (2) setae of various kinds. In addition, small (0.1-0.2 μm) pits occur in the exoskeleton which are not considered to be sensory in function. The exoskeletal pores are found at fairly specific locations on both the inner and outer flagella, particularly on the short segments of the outer flagella. Neither the inner nor the outer flagella are bilaterally symmetrical with respect to their setal armature. On the outer flagellum six groups of setae may be distinguished: lateralmesial; dorsal; ventral; accessory; aesthetasc; setae of the distal segment. On the inner flagellum setae of the mesial and lateral rows form distinctive groups. The morphology, orientation and locations of all the flagellar setae are defined and where possible the numbers of the various morphological types within the specific setal groups are given. It is noteworthy that many setal types have obvious apical pores and yet no pores could be found in the chemoreceptive aesthetasc setae. The functions of the various setae are discussed in relation to their topographical position and to existing electrophysiological and behavioral data. Some suggestions are made about future experiments to demonstrate the central connections of specific sensilla or groups of sensilla and to show their significance in the whole animal.
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  • 164
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 217-235 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Blood vessels in Nereis japonica were studied by electron microscopy. It was found that blood vessels regardless of location were similar in the basic organization of the basal lamina and the usual presence of collagen fibrils on the vessel wall. Differences arise, depending on whether the outside of the basal lamina is covered by peritoneal cells, by gut epithelium, or by epidermis. These relate to the location of the vessels in mesenteries, gut or epidermis, but do not reflect basic structural differences in the vessels themselves. Furthermore, it was concluded that true endothelial cells do not exist in the circulatory system of Nereis japonica and that, in this respect, the system is essentially different from that of vertebrates, in which endothelial cells line the vessels of a closed circulatory system. These considerations lead to the further conclusion that the vascular lumen in Nereis is essentially interstitial space and that the system, which has been known as a typical “closed” circulatory system in annelids, is actually an open circulatory system. Peritoneal cells covering the walls of internal vessels show various degrees of muscular differentiation and those possessing myofilaments may be called “myomesothelial cells.”
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  • 165
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nymphal and adult cervicothoracic skeleton of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) is described and discussed.
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  • 166
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    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mean number (± S. D.) of nucleoli per hepatic cell was determined for inbred mice of the BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains, using azure B bromide. Because thyroid hormones have been reported to increase nucleolar number in cultured human cells, certain of the males received parenteral triiodothyronine (T3). Hormone effect was demonstrated by a two-fold increase in hepatic mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity. Results included the following: (1) In the BALB/c strain, the nucleolar number of the T3 treated males (5.0 ± 2.4) was slightly but significantly higher (p 〈 0.001) than that of the controls (4.8 ± 2.3). For the C57BL/6J strain, however, the nucleolar number of the treated males (4.0 ± 1.7) was significantly lower than the controls (4.2 ± 1.8; p 〈 0.001). (2) The difference in nucleolar numbers of untreated males of both inbred strains was highly significant (p 〈 0.001). (3) The nucleolar number in BALB/c female cells (4.1 ± 1.8) was significantly lower than that of male BALB/c cells (p ≪ 0.001).
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  • 167
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    Journal of Morphology 144 (1974), S. 297-321 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Each silk gland of Calpodes ethlius consists of five distinct regions: the duct, the green, anterior, middle and posterior regions. Although the gland increases approximately tenfold in length during the larval life, the number of cells remains constant with a concomitant increase in ploidy which is not constant either throughout larval life or in the different regions of the gland. Histochemistry on the glands of the mid-fifth instar larva shows that progressively more mucosubstances are deposited in the lumen, so that while in the distal regions there is only one weakly acidic deposit, this is increased to three more acidic bands in the proximal regions. These bands can be correlated with materials of different electron density. All five regions have characteristic secretory ultrastructure, with prominent secretory vesicles or granules and microvilli. However, the posterior and middle regions have electron-translucent vesicles and relatively short microvilli, while the other three regions have electron dense granules and a more complex, microvillate apical surface. This complexity is greatest in the duct which suggests that it may function in water reabsorption.
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