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  • General Chemistry  (611)
  • ab initio calculations  (44)
  • 11
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: cobalt compounds ; cyclopentadienyl ligands ; metallocenes ; peralkylations ; rhodium compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The acidity of methyl protons in the 18-electron cationic complexes [MCp*Cp]1PF6- and [MCp2*]+PF6- (M = Co or Rh, Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp* = η5- C5Me5) has been used for novel syntheses of starburst organometallic complexes. [CoCp*Cp]+PF6- was deprotonated at -30 °C with Si2Me6NK (1 equiv) in THF to give the fulvene complex [CoICp(η4-C5Me4CH2)]. This was not stable at 20°C, but was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR at -30 °C. The complexes [MCp*Cp]+PF6- (M = Co or Rh) reacted with excess base (KOH or tBuOK) and alkyl halides (RX = CH3I, C2H5I, CH2=CHCH2Br, or PhCH2Br) to give decasubstituted complexes (i.e., two hydrogens of each methyl group are replaced by two R groups). Distinct endo and exo alkyl groups are observed in the new complexes by NMR at room temperature. Coalescence occurs at higher temperatures; this indicates that the bulky alkyl groups are rotating. The calculated activation parameters (ΔG≠) are 71.3±0.8, 70.3±0.8, and 81.0±0.8 kJmol-1 for [Co(C5iPr5)Cp]+PF6-, [Rh(C5iPr5)-Cp]+PF6- (in C6D5NO2), and [Co{C5-(CHEt2)5}Cp]+PF6 (in o-C6H4Cl2), respectively. The single directionality of these ligands is confirmed by the X-ray crystal structure of [Co(C5iPr5)Cp]+PF6. This structure clearly shows the “paddle wheel” conformation adopted in the C5iPr5 ligand, due to steric hindrance between adjacent isopropyl groups and the staggered conformation of the two rings. The relative E° values measured by cyclic voltammetry show that the electron-donating properties of the new C5(CHR2)5 ligand are between those of C5H5 and C5Me5- With the decamethylcobalticinium salt [CoCp2*]+PF6-, the permethylation reactions with base and CH3 I did not go to completion, even under forcing conditions and with repeated reaction (the maximum number of methyl groups introduced was 14). On the other hand, [RhCp2*]+PF6-, in which the distance between rings is larger than in the Co analogue, reacted with excess KOH and CH3I to give [Rh(C5iPr5)2]+PF6 in 55% yield; only one diastereoisomer was detected by NMR (ΔG≠ = 85.5±0.8 kJ mol-1 in C6D5NO2). The C5iPr5 sandwich complexes are extremely robust, even at the 19-electron (CoII) stage. The 20-electron K+ salt of the CoI anion was regiospecifically protonated by H2O at the Cp ligand to give [Co(C5iPr5)(η4-C5H6)] and was decomplexed at 190°C to K+(C5iPr5)-.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: crystal structure ; differential thermal analysis ; nitrogen oxides ; phase transitions ; twinning ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mixtures of N2O3 and N2O4 have been prepared from measured volumes of NO and O2. Phase relationships in the system N2O3/N2O4, which depend on the composition of the samples and on the temperature, were studied by the Guinier technique and differential thermal analysis. Single crystals of phases A and B of N2O3 were grown in situ on a diffractometer and studied at temperatures between -107 and -170°C by X-ray diffraction. The structure analysis of A-N2O3 (tetragonal, space group I41/a, T = -170°C, a = 1625.57 (16), c = 880.49(13) pm, Z = 32, R1 = 0.051 for 1030 unique reflections) is hampered by twinning and additional disorder of one of two crystallographically independent molecules. B-N2O3 is nicely ordered with one molecule in the asymmetric unit (orthorhombic, space group P212121, T = -160°C, a = 506.86(4), b = 647.96(5), c = 863.26(6) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.023 for 1352 unique reflections). The most interesting features of the N2O3 molecule are its planarity and the extraordinarily long N—N bond (189.0(1) pm).
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chemistry - A European Journal 1 (1995), S. 403-413 
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: conjugation ; ferromagnetism ; helices ; magnetic properties ; polymers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The electronic structures of conjugated polymers containing methyl radicals, carbenes, and nitrogen-based radicals coupled in various ways through benzene rings are examined, employing band-structure calculations in the extended Hückel approximation. The structural and electronic properties of polymers with a para-phenylene or meta-phenylene coupling unit are compared. In the polymer with methyl radicals coupled through a para-phenylene unit, a pairing or Peierls distortion occurs to remove the degeneracy at the Fermi level. The resulting bandgap is nevertheless relatively small; we conclude that such polymers are likely to exhibit high electrical conductivity upon doping, very much like polyacetylene. On the other hand, in the polymers with a meta-phenylene coupling unit, striking symmetry-determined, halfoccupied narrow bands appear at the Fermi level and contribute to the stability of the ferromagnetic state. The relation of a potential ferromagnetic state to metallic, CDW, and SDW states is discussed from the viewpoint of orbital interactions in extended systems. We suggest novel 3- and 4-fold helical structures for the meta-phenylene-coupled polymers.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: biomineralization ; calcite ; crystal morphology ; mosaic structure ; symmetry reduction ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Organisms can exert a remarkable degree of control over crystal growth. One way of achieving this is by the adsorption of specialized macromolecules on specific planes of the growing crystals. With continued growth of the crystal, the macromolecules are incorporated inside the crystal bulk. Their presence does not change the crystal structure, but creates discontinuities in the perfect lattice. Here we study in detail three unusual cases of reduction in symmetry at the level of crystal domain shapes, induced by this controlled intercalation. We examined sponge spicules, which are single crystals of Mg-bearing calcite. They were specifically chosen for this study, because their morphologies do not reflect the hexagonal symmetry of calcite. Their crystal textures (coherence lengths and angular spreads) were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction with well-collimated synchrotron radiation. The results are compared to analogous studies of synthetic calcite and Mg-bearing calcite. In all the selected spicules reduction in symmetry is observed in the coherence lengths among symmetry-related crystallographic directions. The reconstructed shapes of the domains of perfect structure closely match the specific spicule morphologies. The synthetic crystals show no such reduction in symmetry. Although the manner by which such exquisite control is achieved is not known, we envisage it involving a combination of oriented nucleation with either physical or stereochemically driven adsorption.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: kinetics ; peroxyl radicals ; pulse radiolysis ; radicals ; superoxide radicals ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Hydroxyl radicals were generated radiolytically and reacted with a number of benzene derivatives (PhH). In the presence of oxygen, the hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals thus formed were converted into their corresponding peroxyl radicals. Pulse radiolysis has shown the oxygen addition (forward reaction, f) to be reversible (reverse reaction, r) [Eq. (1)]. The peroxyl radicals can eliminate HO2· to yield phenols, alongside some ring-fragmentation products (product-forming reaction, p). The rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions (kf and kr) and the corresponding stability constants K (= kf/kr) were determined for the hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radicals derived from anisole, toluene, fluorobenzene, benzene, chlorobenzene, benzyl chloride, benzoate ion, phenylalanine, and terephthalate ion. The constants kf lie between 8 × 108 (anisole) and 1.6 × 107 dm3 mol-1 s-1 (terephthalate ion), and kr between 7.5 × 104 (toluene) and 3.4 × 103 s-1 (terephthalate ion). The stability constants lie between 2.6 × 104 (benzene) and 3.3 × 103 dm3 mol-1 (phenylalanine). The rate constants for the product-forming reactions kp are between 5.5 × 103 (anisole) and 3.4 × 102 s-1 (benzoate). For the peroxyl radical derived from phenylalanine, a bond dissociation energy of 5.5 kcal mol-1 has been derived. A number of hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radicals (e.g., those derived from benzoic acid, ethylbenzoate, benzonitrile, and nitrobenzene) react too slowly to allow the equilibrium constant to be determined by means of pulse radiolysis. These reactions have rate constants kf in the order of 5 × 106 dm3 mol-1 s-1, except for nitrobenzene where the reaction is too slow for measurement. The rate constants kr are below 500 s-1, and the product-forming reaction is too slow to be detected by pulse radiolysis. γ-Radiolysis of N2O/O2(4:1)-saturated aqueous solutions of benzonitrile gave dimeric compounds (e.g., dicyanobiphenyls) in low yield, alongside the three isomeric phenols; this again proves the low reactivity of its hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical toward oxygen.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: amino acids ; asymmetric synthesis ; BNCT ; carboranes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two α-amino acids containing the 1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane (12) cage, namely, 5-(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran (12)-1-yl)-2-aminopentanoic acid (1) and 5-(2-methyl-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran (12)-1-yl)-2-aminopentanoic acid (2), were prepared by asymmetric synthesis (e.p. 〉 98%) by using the chiral glycine equivalent, imidazolidinone 3, introduced by Seebach, and Oppolzer's camphor-derived sultam derivative 4. The dextrorotatory enantiomers (sodium D line in methanol) of the amino acids 1 and 2 were both shown to have (S) configuration.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: electron transfer ; iron-sulfur proteins ; NMR spectroscopy ; proteins ; solution structures ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the 1H NMR spectrum of the oxidized form of the high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIPI) from Ectothiorhodospira halophila, 91% of the total proton resonances and 100% of the residues have been assigned. The standard COSY, NOESY, and TOCSY sequences have been optimized for the paramagnetism of the molecule. Extensive assignment of the 15N NMR spectrum has been obtained through HMQC spectra. With 1437 dipolar connectivities, of which about 10% involved fast-relaxing protons, a family of 18 structures was generated with an RMSD of 0.65 Å by using the programs developed by Wüthrich. The family of structures was further refined by various calculation steps; the final RMSD was 0.48 Å. The structures appear to be very similar but not equal to the structures of the reduced protein. Despite the similarity in structure, significant variations in the chemical shifts are observed. A similar behavior was observed for the homologous protein from Chromatium vinosum. It is concluded that NMR is a sensitive tool to monitor differences between oxidized and reduced proteins; however, the detailed structural variations should be evaluated with caution at the present level of resolution, which roughly corresponds to a resolution of 2.5 Å in an X-ray structure.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: gas-phase chemistry ; mass spectrometry ; periodic trends ; peroxides ; transition-metal ions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The bimolecular gas-phase reactions of d-block transition-metal cations M+ with dimethyl peroxide were screened by means of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The rich chemistry can be classified into four types of reactions: i) Oxygen-atom transfer to generate MO+, ii) elimination of radicals, mostly CH3O·, iii) intramolecular redox reaction of dimethyl peroxide to form CH3OH, CH2O and CO, and iv) charge transfer from the metal cation to produce CH3OOCH3+. Some general trends became apparent from this study. For example, the “early” transition metals almost exclusively induce oxygen transfer to generate MO+, in line with the notoriously high oxophilicities of these metals, and electron transfer is only observed for Zn+ and Hg+. Both the radical loss and the disproportionation reaction emerge from a rovibrationally highly excited insertion intermediate (CH3O)2M+, and for the first-row metals the branching ratio of the competing processes seems to be affected by the M+—OR bond strengths as well as the electronic groundstate configurations of M+. For the 4d and 5d cations Ru+—Ag+ and Pt+—Au+, respectively, products resulting from intramolecular redox reactions dominate; this probably reflects the higher propensity of these metal ions to facilitate β-hydrogen atom shifts.
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