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  • 1995-1999  (1,011)
  • 1920-1924  (1,010)
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The status of the availability and appropriateness of standard reference materials (RMs) currently available for Pb in paint, dust, soil and drinking water is reviewed. The need for RMs which will be most appropriate for environmental Pb analysis in the context of the analytical techniques used, government regulations and health effects, is assessed. Also, the importance of factors such as bioavailability, sample size, homogeneity and composition that should be considered in developing appropriate RMs certified for Pb in paint, dust, soil and drinking water is stressed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In spite of its abundant occurrence in the earth's crust (310 mg Rb/kg) and its composition of a stable (72.2%) and a radioactive (27.8%) isotope, rubidium (Rb) belongs to the forgotten ultratrace elements. The interest in this ultratrace element grew considerably after Rb deficiency experiments with goats had shown that their growth was depressed, that 〉80% of them aborted their kids. The geological origin of the site takes significant effect on the Rb content of the flora. Granite and gneiss weathering soils produce the by far Rb-richest plant populations, and drinking water. The water of the gneiss sites contained 18 μg Rb/l, that of diluvial sands 3 μg/l. Herbivores store most Rb whereas carnivores and omnivores accumulate significantly less Rb. The analysis of 137 foodstuffs and beverages in 15-fold repetition showed that the starch-and sugar-rich cereals, pasta, bread and confectionary are poor in Rb (1 mg/kg dry mater (DM)). Fruit and vegetables accumulate between 5 and 〉60 mg Rb/kg (asparagus). Boiling drastically reduces the Rb content of vegetables. Animal foodstuffs are relatively poor in Rb. Poultry meat as well as freshwater fish are relatively rich in Rb. Coffee (40 mg/kg DM) and black tea (100 mg Rb/kg DM) store much Rb, 85% of which pass into the beverage.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)) issued the first botanical reference material certified for elemental content in January 1971, as Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1571, Orchard Leaves. In the following years a total of nine additional botanical certified reference materials have been issued by NIST. Each of these materials was certified for major, minor and trace elements except for SRM 2695, certified for fluorine only. Botanical SRMs issued since 1991 are significantly improved over previous materials in a number of ways. Probably the most significant change is the use of a jet-milling process to grind them to extremely fine particles. This has resulted in botanical SRMs with significantly improved homogeneity. These NIST reference materials are described with information on homogeneity, drying techniques and grit content.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The programmes of the European Commission for the certification of reference materials are presented: the Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme (formerly “BCR Programme”) funds research and development aiming at improved ability to measure and at improved comparability of measurements; reference materials result from many of its projects; the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (formerly “CBNM”) prepares some of these, stores nearly all of them, will distribute them from 1995 on and certifies some additional ones. The principles adopted for the certification of “BCR” reference materials are explained. The procedure for a typical matrix reference material is that a group of laboratories first refines their methods (e.g. by intercomparisons and technical discussion) until they achieve agreement of results to within random experimental error and then analyses the reference material; certified value and uncertainty are calculated on the basis of their results. Recent achievements and projects in progress are listed.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract IRMM is developing more and more isotopic spike reference materials since these are increasingly needed in trace analysis. In addition, they appear to play an increasingly important role in ensuring traceability to the SI system of isotope-specific measurements made by e.g. isotope dilution mass spectometry (IDMS). Their present availability and future development is summarised. IDMS is also applied in a definitive way to establish reference measurements for IRMM's international measurement evaluation programme (IMEP), which aims at the realisation of traceability for field laboratories. IRMM uses its advanced technology for the preparation and contamination-free handling of large quantities of biological and environmental reference materials. These facilities are used for the preparation of both BCR CRM's (orange juice, sheep milk curd, sediments, etc.) and reference materials for private customers (catalytic converter materials, apple powder, flour, animal innards, tomato powder, etc.).
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The contents of 21 chemical elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Zn, Zr) in synthetic reference materials (SRMs) were compared with those in natural reference materials (NRMs) using short- and long-lived radionuclides. SRMs called synthetic standards (SSs) and synthetic standards, biological (SSBs) were prepared on the basis of phenol-formaldehyde resol resins in the Institute of Physics, Georgian Academy of Science. The NRMs included such IAEA reference materials as H-4 (animal muscle), A-13 (animal blood), H-5 (animal bone), SL-1 (lake sediment), SOIL-7 (soil), A-9 (mixed human diet), and IAEA-153 (milk powder). It was shown that SSB-SRMs possessed good representativity of the 30–50 mg tablets, high precision, operational convenience, and could be recommended for the INAA of a wide range of medico-biological and bioecological objects.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A lichen research material, prepared from the species Evernia prunastri, was produced by a co-operation between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Instituto de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares (INETI) in Sacavém, Portugal. An international intercomparison study was carried out, with 42 independent sets of results being reported from participants in 26 countries. The statistical evaluation of the collected data resulted in recommended values for 17 elements and information values for 15 elements. The criteria for assigning the values are provided, including the use of information obtained through the parallel analysis of a second material, IAEA-359, Cabbage.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The global recognition that quality is an economic issue is requiring analytical chemists to look at the chemical measurement process in a way that has not been done before. Much work has been done in certifying reference materials, writing measurement protocols, creating measurement networks, developing analytical measurement techniques and other efforts to make good measurements. This article explores the meaning of quality in chemical measurements and discusses quality in terms of credibility, reliability, traceability and comparability. The importance of understanding the contribution of comparability and traceability to quality in chemical measurements and chemical metrology is emphasized.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Kanechlor (KC)-300, 400, 500 and 600, Japanese polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) products, and their equivalent mixture were analyzed by using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an SE-54 capillary column/electron capture detector (ECD) and a GC/mass spectrometer in the selected ion monitoring mode (MS-SIM). All peaks were assigned to the composing congeners based on the data on peak assignment of Clophen A-30, 40, 50, 60 and Aroclor 1016, 1242, 1254, 1260 [1] and on the relative retention time values of 209 PCB congeners [2]. The weight percentage of the congener(s) which corresponds to each peak in the mass chromatograms was calculated by comparison of its height with that of certified reference standard with the same molecular weight. Each weight percentage of PCB congener(s) corresponding to each ECD peak was obtained by summing up the percent contribution values of the PCB congeners co-eluting. The results showed that it was possible to use KC products and their equivalent mixture as secondary reference standards for congener-specific PCB quantification.
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