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  • 1995-1999  (578)
  • 1935-1939  (96)
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: 2-D full-waveform inversion of double-couple earthquake sources is implemented. Temporally and spatially extended sources are represented by superposition of double-couples. The source parameters solved for are the spatial location, origin time, amplitude and orientation of each double-couple. The velocity and density distribution and source time function are assumed to be known a priori but may be arbitrarily complicated. The non-linear inverse problem is solved by iterative linear approximation. The Jacobian matrix elements for source depth and rupture angle are computed by wavefield extrapolation forward in time, while those for origin time and amplitude are computed analytically. A smoothing technique that results in faster convergence and avoids local minima associated with cycle skipping is applied at each iteration. A spatial sampling interval, between discrete sources, of one-quarter wavelength of the dominant shear wave is optimal for inversion if high uniqueness of the result is desired. The presence of a fault is inferred from the spatial continuity of the rupture solution, rather than being imposed a priori. The method is illustrated by successful application to three synthetic source models: a single double-couple, a single extended rupture and a double extended rupture. The resolutions of the source depth and origin time are higher, and their posterior covariances are lower than those of the amplitude and rupture angle at each source point. Source depth, origin time and amplitude are primarily determined by the data; the rupture angle is more strongly influenced by the a priori information.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The effects of fractures on the seismic velocity and attenuation of a rock are investigated using theoretical results and experimental data. Fractures in a rock mass influence the traveltimes and amplitudes of seismic waves that have propagated through them. The displacement discontinuity model, recently employed in fracture investigations, is modified to describe the effect of fractures on seismic-wave velocity and attenuation. This new model, the modified displacement discontinuity model (MDD), is formulated in a way analogous to transmission-line analysis. The fractures are treated as transmission lines for the passage of seismic waves. The MDD takes into consideration realistic fracture parameters which include the fracture length, the fractional area of a fracture surface in contact, and the nature of the infilling material. A single fracture of varying geometric and material properties is shown to affect dramatically the transmission properties of a propagating waveform, and hence the seismic velocity and attenuation. These effects have been shown to result in a frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation. The sensitivity of the fracture parameters to seismic-wave velocity and attenuation was investigated and interesting results were obtained. Fracture parameters used in designing experimental models consisting of synthetically manufactured cracks were fed into the MDD and a well-known crack model, Hudson's model, for comparison. Velocities as a function of the incident-wave angle were obtained from both numerical models and were compared with the results from the experimental modelling. For P waves, the MDD model results show better agreement with those of the experimental model for all crack densities investigated than those from Hudson's model.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Elastic-wave propagation in strongly scattering media is described by an energy diffusion equation derived directly from the coupled mode equations. The physical model we assume consists of a stack of layers over a homogeneous, non-scattering half-space. The overlying stack contains the heterogeneities that cause the diffusion of energy by scattering and may have an arbitrary mixture of fluid and solid layers. The coupled mode equations provide a formally exact representation of the displacement-stress field in 2-D heterogeneous media, so the resulting diffusion equation is physically based rather than phenomenological. By allowing the mode spacing to become very small, the diffusion equation is derived from a differential-difference coupled energy equation. All assumptions and approximations must be explicitly staled and implemented in the derivation of the energy diffusion equation. Strong forward scattering is assumed to dominate. The mean free path for multiple scattering must be large compared with the size of the medium fluctuations responsible for the scattering, and the spatial scale of the heterogeneities must be large compared with the wavelength. The energy diffusivity is a range- and frequency-dependent functional of the displacement-stress field components and the horizontal gradients of the medium properties including anisotropy. The diffusivity functional is derived directly from the continuum limit of the mode-coupling matrix; it is essentially the spatial autospectrum of the coupling matrix weighted by a function describing the density of modes in spectral space. The approach presented in this paper is in contrast to energy diffusion equations derived from radiative transfer theory in which the diffusivity must be specified separately in an ad hoc manner. Although our energy diffusion equation is range-dependent, the computation of the diffusivity depends on local medium properties and field values for a plane-layered medium. An additional difference between the diffusion equation of this paper and previously published treatments of elastic-energy diffusion is that this paper describes energy diffusion in spectral space, for example slowness, as a function of range rather than diffusion in physical space as a function of time. The dimensions of the diffusivity in slowness space are [slowncss2/length].
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Acoustic reciprocity theorems have proved their usefulness in the study of forward and inverse scattering problems. The reciprocity theorems in the literature apply to the two-way (i.e. total) wavefield, and are thus not compatible with one-way wave theory, which is often applied in seismic exploration. By transforming the two-way wave equation into a coupled system of one-way wave equations for downgoing and upgoing waves it appears to be possible to derive ‘one-way reciprocity theorems” along the same lines as the usual derivation of the ‘two-way reciprocity theorems'. However, for the one-way reciprocity theorems it is not directly obvious that the ‘contrast term’ vanishes when the medium parameters in the two different states are identical. By introducing a modal expansion of the Helraholtz operator, its square root can be derived, which appears to have a symmetric kernel. This symmetry property appears to be sufficient to let the contrast term vanish in the above-mentioned situation.The one-way reciprocity theorem of the convolution type is exact, whereas the one-way reciprocity theorem of the correlation type ignores evanescent wave modes. The extension to the elastodynamic situation is not trivial, but it can be shown relatively easily that similar reciprocity theorems apply if the (non-unique) decomposition of the elastodynamic two-way operator is done in such a way that the elastodynamic one-way operators satisfy similar symmetry properties to the acoustic one-way operators.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A general one-way representation of seismic data can be obtained by substituting a Green's one-way wavefield matrix into a reciprocity theorem of the convolution type for one-way wavefields. From this general one-way representation, several special cases can be derived.By introducing a Green's one-way wavefield matrix for primaries, a generalized Bremmer series representation is obtained. Terminating this series after the first-order term yields a primary representation of seismic reflection data. According to this representation, primary seismic reflection data are proportional to a reflection operator, ‘modified’ by primary propagators for downgoing and upgoing waves. For seismic imaging, these propagators need to be inverted. Stable inverse primary propagators can easily be obtained from a one-way reciprocity theorem of the correlation type.By introducing a Green's one-way wavefield matrix for generalized primaries, an alternative representation is obtained in which multiple scattering is organized quite differently (in comparison with the generalized Bremmer series representation). According to the generalized primary representation, full seismic reflection data are proportional to a reflection operator, ‘modified’ by generalized primary propagators for downgoing and upgoing waves. Internal multiple scattering is fully included in the generalized primary propagators {either via a series expansion or in a parametrized way). Stable inverse generalized primary propagators can be obtained from the one-way reciprocity theorem of the correlation type. These inverse propagators are the nucleus for seismic imaging techniques that take the angle-dependent dispersion effects due to fine-layering into account.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Rayleigh hysteresis, as defined by the well-known Rayleigh relations, has been observed not only when magnetization of pyrrhotite-bearing KTB-samples is measured in parallel to a weak dc magnetic field, but also in experiments where field and measuring directions have been adjusted strictly perpendicularly to each other. Nine-tupels of independent Rayleigh hysteresis loops could thus be compiled. Their characteristic coefficients Xijk of initial susceptibility together with the Rayleigh loss coefficients αjk have been proved to determine completely the samples’ weak-field magnetic anisotropy. Interpreting the coefficient matrices (Xijk) and (αjk) as the tensor of initial susceptibility and the Rayleigh tensor, respectively, generalization of the isotropic Rayleigh relations in terms of corresponding tensor relationships has been suggested for the anisotropic case. Application to the KTB samples showed 3-D Rayleigh hysteresis measurements to be an excellent tool for rock magnetic analysis in terms of ore content and crystalline texture. In particular, a magnetocrystalline double texture of the basal planes of pyrrhotite precipitates and their [1120] directions of easy magnetization have been clearly detected. Surprisingly, the welt-known theorem α= const. X2I, formulated by Néel (1942) for the isotropic case, has been found to hold true even in tensor generalization (αjk) = const (X2jk). To reach sufficient resolution for the measurements performed, a sensitive vibrating coil magnetometer (VCM) has been developed.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The concept of a deformation of a simple, non-rotating, spherically symmetric earth model with a fluid outer core, although it is a highly artificial physical situation, provides a useful computational algorithm that allows one lo determine analytically modes of vibration without any Love-number theory. In particular, on these analytically determined modes, we impose regularity conditions at the centre and boundary conditions at the surface, as well as conditions of continuity at the inner-core-outer-core boundary and at the core-mantle boundary. They lead to an eigenvalue equation for the frequency of oscillation. The range of frequencies obtained in this way for different earth models gives an indication of the influence of compressibility and non-homogeneity on the spectrum of eigenfrequencies.
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