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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: n our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: Abstract: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-11-14
    Description: The effects of ocean warming on the physiological performance of marine organisms have been widely studied. However, few studies have considered the relevance of seasonal acclimation to elevated temperatures and whether native and non-native species have similar tolerances to warming. We tested the hypotheses that the susceptibility to warming in two species of sea anemones from temperate latitudes is (i) higher in winter than in summer, and (ii) higher in the native than in the non-native species. Seasonal variability in the upper thermal tolerance limit of Anthothoe chilensis (native) and Anemonia alicemartinae (non-native) individuals from the northern-central coast of Chile was assessed in laboratory experiments during the austral winter 2015 and summer 2016. In line with our predictions, seawater warming (up to 16 °C above natural levels) significantly suppressed individual performance proxies such as survival and asexual reproduction (longitudinal fission) in the native species, but not in the non-native species. However, asexual reproduction in the non-native sea anemone was rare across warming treatments, and the native species showed a stronger capacity to detach from the substratum under adverse thermal conditions. Negative effects of warming on survival and fission were evident only in winter, when asexual reproduction is more intense in these taxa. Finally, water temperatures of 30 °C or more were lethal for both native and non-native sea anemones. These results show that the non-native species may have a broader thermal tolerance (in terms of survival) than the native taxonomically related species, but the latter displays behavioral adaptations to avoid adverse conditions of high temperatures. We suggest that knowledge about life history traits related to seasonal variations in water temperature and the invasion status of a species can help to predict its performance in a warming ocean.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-11-18
    Description: Boron isotope (δ11B) analysis using bulk foraminifera samples is a widely used method to reconstruct paleo sea water pH conditions. Although, these analyses exhibit high analytical precision, short term information is lost due to the pooling of tests with distinct and diverse boron isotope signatures resulting in average values for the time interval encompassed in the sample. Here we present and assess the analysis of δ11B of individual foraminifera by means of Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to obtain seasonal variability patterns and to test the limits of precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS on the planktonic foraminifera Orbulina universa. The results show that relative seasonal differences (of ∼11 ‰) can be captured from either uncleaned or cleaned individual O. universa tests with an average precision of ±2.9 ‰ (2 SE). The δ11B variability among foraminifera representing the same season is on average 7.4 ‰ (2 SD) irrespective of cleaning state. With our approach, analyses on oxidatively cleaned O. universa do not require the use of a matrix matched standard to obtain B isotope values in the range of those expected for solution multi-specimen analyses from determining local pH. Our results are useful for considering the potential spread caused by foraminifera vital effects and for obtaining information of seasonal ranges of pH and possible bias related to seasonality hidden within conventional solution based δ11B analyses.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-11-22
    Description: Highlights • There is direct and indirect evidence for hydrate occurrence in several areas around Europe. • Hydrate is particularly widespread offshore Norway and Svalbard and in the Black Sea. • Hydrate occurrence often coincides with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces. • The regional abundance of hydrate in Europe is poorly known. Abstract Large national programs in the United States and several Asian countries have defined and characterised their marine methane hydrate occurrences in some detail, but European hydrate occurrence has received less attention. The European Union-funded project “Marine gas hydrate – an indigenous resource of natural gas for Europe” (MIGRATE) aimed to determine the European potential inventory of exploitable gas hydrate, to assess current technologies for their production, and to evaluate the associated risks. We present a synthesis of results from a MIGRATE working group that focused on the definition and assessment of hydrate in Europe. Our review includes the western and eastern margins of Greenland, the Barents Sea and onshore and offshore Svalbard, the Atlantic margin of Europe, extending south to the northwestern margin of Morocco, the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the western and southern margins of the Black Sea. We have not attempted to cover the high Arctic, the Russian, Ukrainian and Georgian sectors of the Black Sea, or overseas territories of European nations. Following a formalised process, we defined a range of indicators of hydrate presence based on geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Our study was framed by the constraint of the hydrate stability field in European seas. Direct hydrate indicators included sampling of hydrate; the presence of bottom simulating reflectors in seismic reflection profiles; gas seepage into the ocean; and chlorinity anomalies in sediment cores. Indirect indicators included geophysical survey evidence for seismic velocity and/or resistivity anomalies, seismic reflectivity anomalies or subsurface gas escape structures; various seabed features associated with gas escape, and the presence of an underlying conventional petroleum system. We used these indicators to develop a database of hydrate occurrence across Europe. We identified a series of regions where there is substantial evidence for hydrate occurrence (some areas offshore Greenland, offshore west Svalbard, the Barents Sea, the mid-Norwegian margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, parts of the eastern Mediterranean, the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) and regions where the evidence is more tenuous (other areas offshore Greenland and of the eastern Mediterranean, onshore Svalbard, offshore Ireland and offshore northwest Iberia). We provide an overview of the evidence for hydrate occurrence in each of these regions. We conclude that around Europe, areas with strong evidence for the presence of hydrate commonly coincide with conventional thermogenic hydrocarbon provinces.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-11-26
    Description: We emphasize the importance of marine silicate weathering (MSiW) reactions in anoxic sediment as fundamental in generating alkalinity and cations needed for carbonate precipitation and preservation along continental margins. We use a model that couples thermodynamics with aqueous geochemistry to show that the CO2 released during methanogenesis results in a drop in pH to 6.0; unless these protons are buffered by MSiW, carbonate minerals will dissolve. We present data from two regions: the India passive margin and the active subduction zone off Japan, where ash and/or rivers supply the reactive silicate phase, as reflected in strontium isotope data. Offshore India and Korea, alteration of continent-derived silicates results in pore water enriched in radiogenic 87Sr, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios as high as 0.7095 and 0.7104, respectively. Off Japan, strontium in pore water influenced by ash alteration is depleted in 87Sr, with 87Sr/86Sr as low as 0.7065. Carbonate minerals formed by alkalinity and cations generated through MSiW carry these strontium isotopic signals, and are typically dolomite, siderite, and Fe-rich calcite. These contrast with the aragonite and high-magnesium calcite that form during anaerobic oxidation of methane and incorporate the coeval seawater 87Sr/86Sr signal. We show that MSiW is necessary for authigenic carbonate formation and preservation along continental margins, which remove carbon from Earth's surface at rates previously estimated to be at least 1012 mol yr−1. In addition, these authigenic carbonates are of relevance to studies of the deep biosphere, fluid flow, seismogenesis, slope stability, and reservoir characteristics.
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    In:  Marine and Petroleum Geology, 113 (Article number 104122).
    Publication Date: 2019-11-27
    Description: Highlights • Total amount of generated biogenic methane is estimated at ~3100 Gt. • Total amount of generated thermogenic methane is estimated at ~1,560 Gt. • The Maykop formation is partially productive in the central basin and not yet fully productive towards the basin peripherals. A new numerical model reconstructing the depositional history (98–0 Ma) of the Western Black Sea sub-basin is presented. The model accounts for changing boundary conditions (i.e. water depth, bottom water temperature, heat flow evolution over time) and estimates the rates and total amounts of the in-situ biogenic methane generation and thermally-driven organic matter maturation in the source rocks. The overall thermogenic and biogenic gas generation predicted by the model is estimated at ~1560 Gt and ~3100 Gt, respectively.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-12-13
    Description: Highlights: • Assessment of the Indian Ocean simulation from global forced sea- ice models. • SST biases are 2 times smaller in forced simulations than the coupled simulations. • Coupled model shows large inter-model spread over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. • Refinement in model horizontal resolution does not significantly improve simulations. • Uncover a secondary pathway of northward cross-equatorial transport along 75 °E. • Models are unable to capture the observed thick barrier layer in the north Bay of Bengal. Abstract: We present an analysis of annual and seasonal mean characteristics of the Indian Ocean circulation and water masses from 16 global ocean–sea-ice model simulations that follow the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) interannual protocol (CORE-II). All simulations show a similar large-scale tropical current system, but with differences in the Equatorial Undercurrent. Most CORE-II models simulate the structure of the Cross Equatorial Cell (CEC) in the Indian Ocean. We uncover a previously unidentified secondary pathway of northward cross-equatorial transport along 75 °E, thus complementing the pathway near the Somali Coast. This secondary pathway is most prominent in the models which represent topography realistically, thus suggesting a need for realistic bathymetry in climate models. When probing the water mass structure in the upper ocean, we find that the salinity profiles are closer to observations in geopotential (level) models than in isopycnal models. More generally, we find that biases are model dependent, thus suggesting a grouping into model lineage, formulation of the surface boundary, vertical coordinate and surface salinity restoring. Refinement in model horizontal resolution (one degree versus degree) does not significantly improve simulations, though there are some marginal improvements in the salinity and barrier layer results. The results in turn suggest that a focus on improving physical parameterizations (e.g. boundary layer processes) may offer more near-term advances in Indian Ocean simulations than refined grid resolution.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-12-07
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75491
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: The clumped isotope (Δ47) proxy is a promising geochemical tool to reconstruct past ocean temperatures far back in time and in unknown settings, due to its unique thermodynamic basis that renders it independent from other environmental factors like seawater composition. Although previously hampered by large sample-size requirements, recent methodological advances have made the paleoceanographic application of Δ47 on small (〈5 mg) foraminifer samples possible. Previous studies show a reasonable match between Δ47 calibrations based on synthetic carbonate and various species of planktonic foraminifers. However, studies performed before recent methodological advances were based on relatively few species and data treatment that is now outdated. To overcome these limitations and elucidate species-specific effects, we analyzed 14 species of planktonic foraminifers in sediment surface samples from 13 sites, covering a growth temperature range of ∼0–28 °C. We selected mixed layer-dwelling and deep-dwelling species from a wide range of ocean settings to evaluate the feasibility of temperature reconstructions for different water depths. Various techniques to estimate foraminifer calcification temperatures were tested in order to assess their effects on the calibration and to find the most suitable approach. Results from this study generally confirm previous findings that there are no species-specific effects on the Δ47-temperature relationship in planktonic foraminifers, with one possible exception. Various morphotypes of Globigerinoides ruber were found to often deviate from the general trend determined for planktonic foraminifers. Our data are in excellent agreement with a recent foraminifer calibration study that was performed with a different analytical setup, as well as with a calibration based exclusively on benthic foraminifers. A combined, methodologically homogenized dataset also reveals very good agreement with an inorganic calibration based on travertines. Our findings highlight the potential of the Δ47 paleothermometer to be applied to recent and extinct species alike to study surface ocean temperatures as well as thermocline variability for a multitude of settings and time scales.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Highlights • Common HIMU end member in adjacent continental and oceanic volcanic provinces. • End member St. Helena HIMU derived from deep upwelling(s)/plume(s). • Plateau collision & plume interaction with Gondwana active margin causes breakup. • Hybrid volcanic-tectonic margins resulted from Zealandia – Antarctica breakup. Abstract Margins resulting from continental breakup are generally classified as volcanic (related to flood basalt volcanism from a starting plume head) or non-volcanic (caused by tectonic processes), but many margins (breakups) may actually be hybrids caused by a combination of volcanic and tectonic processes. It has been postulated that the collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana margin ∼110 Ma ago caused subduction to cease, followed by large-scale extension and ultimately breakoff of the Zealandia micro-continent from West Antarctica through seafloor spreading which started at ∼85 Ma. Here we report new geochemical (major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for Late Cretaceous (99-69 Ma) volcanism from Zealandia, which include the calc-alkalic, subduction-related Mount Somers (99-96 Ma) and four intraplate igneous provinces: 1) Hikurangi Seamount Province (99-88 Ma), 2) Marlborough Igneous Province (98-94 Ma), 3) Westland Igneous Province (92-69 Ma), and 4) Eastern Chatham Igneous Province (86-79 Ma). Each of the intraplate provinces forms mixing arrays on incompatible-element and isotope ratio plots between HIMU (requiring long-term high U/204Pb) and either a depleted (MORB-source) upper mantle (DM) component or enriched continental (EM) type component (located in the crust and/or upper mantle) or a mixture of both. St. Helena end member HIMU could be the common component in all four provinces. Considering the uniformity in composition of the HIMU end member despite the type of lithosphere (continental, oceanic, oceanic plateau) beneath the igneous provinces, we attribute this component to a sublithospheric source, located beneath all volcanic provinces, and thus most likely a mantle plume. We propose that the plume material rose beneath the active Gondwana margin and flowed along the subducting lithosphere beneath the Hikurangi Plateau and neighboring seafloor and through slab tears/windows beneath the Gondwana (later to become Zealandia) continental lithosphere. We conclude that both plateau collision, resulting in subduction cessation, and the opening of slab tears/windows, allowing hot asthenosphere and/or plume material to upwell to shallow depths, were important in causing the breakup of Zealandia from West Antarctica. Combined tectonic-volcanic processes are also likely to be responsible for causing breakup and the formation of other hybrid type margins.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-12-16
    Description: Highlights • First systematic dissolved neodymium isotope distributions in Angola and Cape Basins. • Deep water neodymium isotopes dominated by conservative mixing in study area. • Neodymium isotopes trace surface waters from Mozambique Channel in Angola Basin. • Cape Basin bottom water neodymium isotopes are unaffected by neodymium from sediments. • Glacial Cape Basin bottom waters may show effects of sedimentary neodymium inputs. Abstract In contrast to the vigorous deep ocean circulation system of the north- and southwestern Atlantic Ocean, no systematically sampled datasets of dissolved radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope signatures exist to trace water mass mixing and provenance for the more restricted and less well ventilated Angola Basin and the Cape Basin in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, where important parts of the return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are generated. Here, to improve our understanding of water mass mixing and provenance, we present the first full water column Nd isotope (expressed as εNd values) and concentration data for a section across the western Angola Basin from 3° to 30° S along the Zero Meridian and along an E-W section across the northern Cape Basin at 30° S sampled during GEOTRACES cruise GA08. Compared with the southwestern Atlantic basin we find overall less radiogenic εNd signatures reaching −17.6 in the uppermost 200 m of the Angola and Cape basins. In the western Angola Basin these signatures are the consequence of the admixture of a coastal plume originating near 13° S and carrying an unradiogenic Nd signal that likely resulted from the dissolution of Fe-Mn coatings of particles formed in river estuaries or near the West African coast. The highly unradiogenic Nd isotope signatures in the upper water column of the northern Cape Basin, in contrast, originate from old Archean terrains of southern Africa and are introduced into the Mozambique Channel via rivers like the Limpopo and Zambezi. These signatures allow tracing the advection of shallow waters via the Agulhas and Benguela currents into the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. The Nd isotope compositions of the deep water masses in both basins primarily reflect conservative water mass mixing with the only exception being the central Angola Basin, where the signatures are significantly overprinted by terrestrial inputs. Bottom waters of the Cape Basin show excess Nd concentrations of up to 6 pmol/kg (20%), originating from resuspended bottom sediments and/or dissolution of dust, but without significantly changing the isotopic composition of the waters due to similar εNd values of particles and bottom waters ranging between −9.6 and −10.5. Given that bottom waters within the Cape Basin today are enriched in Nd, non-conservative Nd isotopic effects may have been resolvable under past glacial boundary conditions when bottom waters were more radiogenic.
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: Highlights • Nd isotope records from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. • New Early Cretaceous general circulation model. • Opening history of gateways on the Falkland Plateau. • Gateway opening controlled organic carbon burial. Organic carbon burial is an important driver of carbon cycle and climate dynamics on geological and shorter time scales. Ocean basins emerging during the Early Cretaceous break-up of Gondwana were primary sites of organic carbon burial, implying that their tectonic and oceanographic evolution may have affected trends and perturbations in global climate via changes in local organic carbon burial. Assessing the role of individual ocean basins in the global carbon-climate context requires a sound understanding of the processes that induced large-scale changes in carbon burial and the timing of these changes. Here we reconstruct the oceanographic evolution, and its links to organic carbon burial, in the Barremian to Albian South Atlantic and Southern Ocean basins, which may have acted as carbon sinks of global importance. Our reconstruction is based on combined seawater neodymium isotope and sedimentological records obtained from multiple deep sea drill sites and a new general circulation model. Deep water circulation within and between those basins was primarily controlled by the opening of the shallow Falkland Plateau Gateway (between ∼118 Ma and ∼113 Ma) and the deep Georgia Basin Gateway (by ∼110 Ma), for which we provide new age constraints based on biostratigraphic and carbon isotope data. The opening of these gateways was accompanied by local to basin-wide decreases in organic carbon burial, suggesting that ocean circulation affected the oxygenation state via changes in deep water ventilation. Although our data do not provide quantitative information on the impact of changes in regional organic carbon burial on the global carbon cycle, the synchronicity between the reduction of organic carbon burial in the South Atlantic basin and global warming during the Early Albian points to a strong causal relationship.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-12-19
    Description: Mangrove forest conservation can help reduce global C emissions. Despite this benefit to climate change mitigation and adaptation, mangrove forests are being deforested or degraded at an alarming rate, though restoration efforts may offset these losses. The impacts of deforestation to C stocks are relatively intuitive and result in significant decreases in C stocks. It remains unclear how degradation from selective harvesting of trees affects C stocks or how effective restoration efforts are at restoring C stocks. Furthermore, total ecosystem C (TEC) stocks of pristine mangroves can significantly vary spatially. To address these issues, we conducted an intensive, national assessment of mangrove forests across Cambodia using a grid approach to: 1) examine how land use land cover (i.e., pristine, deforested, degraded, and restored forests) impacts TEC stocks, and 2) how TEC stocks vary spatially across the country. TEC stocks from deforested mangroves were always lower than pristine forests, resulting in an overall loss of 60% C (480 Mg C ha−1). However, TEC stocks from degraded and 25-year-old restored mangroves forests did not differ from pristine forests. Mean TEC in mangroves was 784.7 ± 30.1 Mg C ha−1, decreasing from 957.2 ± 32.8 Mg C ha−1 in the northern region to 628.9 ± 33.1 Mg C ha−1 in the central region to 386.2 ± 19.1 Mg C ha−1 in the southern region of Cambodia. Intensive sampling in mangroves across Cambodia verified impacts of deforestation reported elsewhere, revealed the lack of degradation impacts on TEC stocks, and demonstrated the effectiveness of restoration on TEC stocks after only 25 years. Our gridded sampling approach was able to capture spatial variability across Cambodia and provide a more realistic TEC stock information that can be used for national reporting or participation in C markets.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-12-14
    Description: In 1988 DARPA provided funding to NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to support the development of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP). The goal was to make a single element photodetector that might be expandable to a two-dimensional array format. Ultimately, this led to the development of a 128 x 128 element array in collaboration with AT&T Bell Labs and Rockwell Science Center in 1990. We continued to develop numerous generations of QWIP arrays most recently resulting in the multi-QWIP focal plane for the NASA-US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 mission launched in 2013 and a similar instrument on the Landsat 9 mission to be launched in 2020. Toward the end of the Landsat 8 QWIP-based Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instrument the potential of the newly developed Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detector array technology became of great interest to NASA for three primary reasons: 1) higher operating temperature; 2) broad spectral response and; 3) higher sensitivity. We have collaborated extensively with QmagiQ, LLC and Northwestern University to further pursue and advance the SLS technology ever since we started back in 2012. In December of 2018 we launched the first SLS-based IR camera system to the International Space Station on board the Robotic Refueling Mission #3 (RRM3). This paper will describe the evolution of QWIP technology leading to the current development of SLS-based imaging systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center over the past 30 years.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75338 , SPIE Photonics West; Dec 10, 2019; San Francisco, CA
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-01-01
    Description: The SPLICE project is continuing NASAs efforts to develop precision landing GN&C technologies for future lander missions. One of those technologies is the next generation Hazard Detection (HD) System, which consists of a new HD Lidar and HD Algorithms. The HD System is a modular system that will be adapted to meet specific mission needs in the future. This paper presents the design approach, the nominal concept of operations for which the first prototype is being designed, and the expected performance of the system.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76321 , AIAA Scitech Forum 2019; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: Hydrogeological processes influence the morphology, mechanical behavior, and evolution of subduction margins. Fluid supply, release, migration, and drainage control fluid pressure and collectively govern the stress state, which varies between accretionary and nonaccretionary systems. We compiled over a decade of published and unpublished acoustic data sets and seafloor observations to analyze the distribution of focused fluid expulsion along the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. The spatial coverage and quality of our data are exceptional for subduction margins globally. We found that focused fluid seepage is widespread and varies south to north with changes in subduction setting, including: wedge morphology, convergence rate, seafloor roughness, and sediment thickness on the incoming Pacific plate. Overall, focused seepage manifests most commonly above the deforming backstop, is common on thrust ridges, and is largely absent from the frontal wedge despite ubiquitous hydrate occurrences. Focused seepage distribution may reflect spatial differences in shallow permeability architecture, while diffusive fluid flow and seepage at scales below detection limits are also likely. From the spatial coincidence of fluids with major thrust faults that disrupt gas hydrate stability, we surmise that focused seepage distribution may also reflect deeper drainage of the forearc, with implications for pore-pressure regime, fault mechanics, and critical wedge stability and morphology. Because a range of subduction styles is represented by 800 km of along-strike variability, our results may have implications for understanding subduction fluid flow and seepage globally.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: Bottom trawling alters the abundance, diversity, size-composition, and function of benthic communities. However, the ability to detect these impacts over large spatial scales can be obscured by various complicating factors, such as community adaptation to disturbance and co-varying environmental conditions. An ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management therefore requires ecological indicators which can ‘disentangle’ trawling effects from other natural and human drivers, and respond effectively to shifts in ecological quality. We collected benthic macrofaunal samples at 21 sites across a Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fishing ground in the Kattegat, and separated the benthic community into small (1–4 mm) and large (〉4 mm) size fractions. Four taxonomic indicators (total density, species density, Shannon diversity, and biomass) and four functional indicators (functional diversity, functional richness, functional evenness, and functional dispersion) were calculated based on each size fraction, and the two fractions combined (pooled community). Here, we compare the ability of these indicators to detect trawling impacts across size categories. We show that indicators derived from large macrofauna were highly effective in this regard, and were less influenced by other environmental drivers, such as depth, sediment grain size, bottom current velocity, salinity, and temperature. This suggests that the taxonomic and functional characteristics of benthic communities display a size-dependent sensitivity to trawling disturbance, and therefore community metrics based on large benthic macrofauna may provide useful indicators. By contrast, indicators derived from the small fraction performed poorly, and those based on the pooled community demonstrated a varied ability to detect trawling. Small macrofauna are typically characterised by high density, diversity, and population growth rates, and their relative resilience to trawling may mask the response of the more sensitive macrofauna. This highlights an underlying issue with calculating indicators based on the whole benthic community. The approach outline here is easily applied, improves indicator performance, and has the potential to reduce laboratory workloads due to the fewer taxa and individuals required for analyses.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: Ecosystems are controlled by 'bottom-up' (resources) and 'top-down' (predation) forces. Viral infection is now recognized as a ubiquitous top-down control of microbial growth across ecosystems but, at the same time, cell death byviral predation influences, and is influenced by, resource availability. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the biogeochemical impact of viruses, focusing on how metabolic reprogramming of host cells during lytic viral infection alters the flow of energy and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. Our synthesis revealed several emerging themes. First, viral infection transforms host metabolism, in part through virus-encoded metabolic genes; the functions performed by these genes appear to alleviate energetic and biosynthetic bottlenecks to viral production. Second, viral infection depends on the physiological state of the host cell and on environmental conditions, which are challenging to replicate in the laboratory. Last, metabolic reprogramming of infected cells and viral lysis alter nutrient cycling and carbon export in the oceans, although the net impacts remain uncertain. This Review highlights the need for understanding viral infection dynamics in realistic physiological and environmental contexts to better predict their biogeochemical consequences.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Description: Highlights • Glendonites are widely distributed in Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China. • Host strata are characterized by positive δ13C and record excursion EP1. • Calcitic glendonites are characterized by variable and extremely negative δ13C. • Doushantuo glendonites represent a cooling event prior to EN3 or Shuram excursion. • Low T°C, phosphate, and anoxic conditions facilitated glendonite/ikaite formation. Abstract: Glendonites are pseudomorphs of syndepositional or early authigenic ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) that often forms at near-freezing temperatures. Silicified glendonite has been reported from inner-shelf deposits of the lower Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation at a single stratigraphic section in South China, where they are stratigraphically associated with the positive δ13C excursion EP1 but predate the negative δ13C excursion EN3 (=Shuram excursion), indicating a period of cool climate somewhere between ~609 Ma and ~551 Ma. This interpretation predicts a wider geographic distribution of Ediacaran glendonites in equivalent strata in the Yangtze Block of South China. To test this prediction, we conducted a regional survey of Doushantuo Formation and found that, although glendonites are not universally present, they occur in expected stratigraphic intervals and in association with EP1 at two new sections representing inner-shelf and intrashelf basin facies. The wide but not ubiquitous distribution of Doushantuo glendonites indicates that ikaite precipitation and glendonite formation was controlled by both regional climatic and local geochemical factors. Glendonites at the new localities are stellate clusters pseudomorphed by calcite spar and sometimes are rimmed with silica. The calcite spar is characterized by highly variable and mostly negative δ13C values as low as −37‰, indicating that diagenetic transformation of precursor ikaite to calcitic glendonite may be related to anaerobic oxidation of organic matter or methane in sediment. The new data suggest an early Ediacaran cold period prior to EN3 or the Shuram excursion and facilitation of glendonite/ikaite formation by both climatic and local geochemical conditions such as redox conditions and phosphate concentrations.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Description: Zosteraphenols, two new tetracyclic diarylheptanoids were isolated from the seagrass Zostera marina. The rotameric equilibrium of the strained tetracyclic structures, involving a diastereomeric minor rotamer with opposite axial chirality, resulted in coalescent NMR spectra. Although the elusive minor rotamer was only characterized with 1H chemical shifts, the excellent agreement between experimental and DFT-calculated chemical shifts of both rotamers unequivocally supported this analysis. Absolute configuration of zosteraphenols was determined by DFT prediction of their ECD spectra.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 24
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    In:  [Poster] In: Euromarine 2020 Generyl Assembly, 16.-17.01.2020, Piran, Slovenia .
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Description: About six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea underwent a period of isolation from the ocean and widespread salt deposition known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), allegedly leading to a kilometer-scale level drawdown by evaporation. One of the competing scenarios proposed for the termination of this environmental crisis 5.3 million years ago consists of a megaflooding event refilling the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar: the Zanclean flood. The main evidence supporting this hypothesis is a nearly 390 km long and several hundred meters deep erosion channel extending from the Gulf of Cádiz (Atlantic Ocean) to the Algerian Basin (Western Mediterranean), implying the excavation of ca. 1000 km3 of Miocene sediment and bedrock. Based on the understanding obtained from Pleistocene onshore megaflooding events and using ad-hoc hydrodynamic modeling, here we explore two predictions of the Zanclean outburst flood hypothesis: 1) The formation of similar erosion features at sills communicating sub-basins within the Mediterranean Sea, specifically at the Sicily Sill; and 2) the accumulation of the eroded materials as megaflood deposits in areas of low flow energy. Recent data show a 6-km-wide amphitheater-shaped canyon preserved at the Malta Escarpment that may represent the erosional expression of the Zanclean flood after filling the western Mediterranean and spilling into the Eastern Basin. Next to that canyon, a ~1600 km3 accumulation of chaotic, seismically transparent sediment has been found in the Ionian Sea, compatible in age and facies with megaflood deposits. Another candidate megaflood deposit has been identified in the Alborán Sea in the form of elongated sedimentary bodies that parallel the flooding channel and are seismically characterized by chaotic and discontinuous stratified reflections, that we interpret as equivalent to gravel and boulder megabars described in terrestrial megaflood settings. Numerical model predictions show that sand deposits found at the Miocene/Pliocene (M/P) boundary in ODP sites 974 and 975 (South Balearic and Tyrrhenian seas) are consistent with suspension transport from the Strait of Gibraltar during a flooding event at a peak water discharge of ~108 m3 s−1.
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  • 26
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:23
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Mit dieser angewandt-geographischen Arbeit wird erstmals von Seiten der Anthropogeographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ein Ansatz zur Landschaftsbewertung für die Erholung vorgelegt. Es werden die grundlegenden Standortbedingungen für den Erholungsreiseverkehr im Mittelgebirge erklärt; mit Hilfe eines Modells wird die potentielle Eignung der Gemeinden für den Erholungsreiseverkehr berechnet; die Verteilung der potentiell gut für den Erholungsreiseverkehr geeigneten Gemeinden erlaubt eine begründete und nachvollziehbare Abgrenzung von Vorranggebieten für den Erholungsreiseverkehr, deren Grenzen bislang von der Regional- und Landesplanung sowie der Wirtschaftsförderung sehr subjektiv festgelegt wurden.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Teilfragen zu Hessen {Geographie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 27
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:25
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Die vorliegende Untersuchung wurde durch einen Forschungs- und Studienaufenthalt in den USA von September 1969 bis Juli 1970 ermöglicht. Sie wurde in der Appalachenregion Kentuckys durchgeführt, bei der es sich um eines der ärmsten ländlichen Gebiete der USA handelt, das zudem großteils vom Kohlebergbau abhängig ist. Als Teilraum des Staates Kentucky boten sich in wirtschaftlicher und sozialer Hinsicht außerdem gute Vergleichsmöglichkeiten mit dem übrigen Staatsgebiet. Die Problemstellung dieser Arbeit wird aus bestimmten theoretischen Überlegungen zur Regionalentwicklung in den USA abgeleitet. Sie besteht darin, erstens Konzeption und Funktion der Regionalentwicklung bzw. -planung in Ost-Kentucky darzustellen und zu analysieren und zweitens ihre konkreten Auswirkungen und ihren Beitrag zur Veränderung der gegebenen ökonomischen und sozialen Verhältnisse zu erfassen und kritisch zu bewerten.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Kentucky {Geographie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Highlights • Combining porewater geochemistry, geochemical modeling and subsurface geophysical data in order to understand the fluid flow system of Kerch seep area. • This seep area is not in steady state. • Methane transport is in the form of gas bubbles not porewater advection. • High surface temperatures are the result of hydrate formation and not an indication for elevated geothermal gradients. • Modeling says this seep is young (〈500 years old). Abstract High-resolution 3D seismic data in combination with deep-towed sidescan sonar data and porewater analysis give insights into the seafloor expression and the plumbing system of the actively gas emitting Kerch seep area, which is located in the northeastern Black Sea in around 900 m water depth, i.e. well within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Our analysis shows that the Kerch seep consists of three closely spaced but individual seeps above a paleo-channel-levee system of the Don Kuban deep-sea fan. We show that mounded seep morphology results from sediment up-doming due to gas overpressure. Each of the seeps hosts its own gas pocket underneath the domes which are fed with methane of predominantly microbial origin along narrow pipes through the GHSZ. Methane transport occurs dominantly in the form of gas bubbles decoupled from fluid advection. Elevated sediment temperatures of up to 0.3 °C above background values are most likely the result of gas hydrate formation within the uppermost 10 m of the sediment column. Compared to other seeps occurring within the GHSZ in the Black Sea overall only scarce gas indications are present in geoacoustic and geophysical data. Transport-reaction modeling suggests that the Kerch seep is a young seep far from steady state and probably not more than 500 years old.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: The boreoatlantic gonate squid (Gonatus fabricii) represents important prey for top predators—such as marine mammals, seabirds and fish—and is also an efficient predator of crustaceans and fish. Gonatus fabricii is the most abundant cephalopod in the northern Atlantic and Arctic Ocean but the trace element accumulation of this ecologically important species is unknown. In this study, trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were analysed from the mantle muscle and the digestive gland tissue of juveniles, adult females, and adult males that were captured south of Disko Island off West-Greenland. To assess the feeding habitat and trophic position of this species, stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were measured in their muscle tissue. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with size (mantle length) and trophic position. The Hg/Se ratio was assessed because Se has been suggested to play a protective role against Hg toxicity and showed a molar surplus of Se relative to Hg. Cadmium concentrations in the digestive gland were negatively correlated with size and trophic position (δ15N), which suggested a dietary shift from Cd-rich crustaceans towards Cd-poor fish during ontogeny. This study provides trace element concentration data for G. fabricii from Greenlandic waters, which represents baseline data for a northern cephalopod species. Within West-Greenland waters, G. fabricii appears to be an important vector for the transfer of Cd in the Arctic pelagic food web.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Highlights • A modified cementation theory is developed by introducing generalized pressure-dependent normalized contact-cemented radii. • A generalized effective medium model is proposed to merge the effective medium theory and cementation theory. • Modeling and inversion schemes are proposed to quantify hydrate saturation and morphology from laboratory and well-log data. • Hydrates mainly grow as matrix-supporting form (~54%) in sands and as pore-filling form (~59%) in clay-rich marine sediments. Abstract Numerous models have been developed for prediction of gas hydrate saturation based on the microstructural relationship between gas hydrates and sediment grains. However, quantification of hydrate saturation and morphology from elastic properties has been hindered by failing to account for complex hydrate distributions. Here, we develop a generalized effective medium model by applying the modified Hashin-Shtrikman bounds to a newly developed cementation theory. This model is validated by experimental data for synthetic methane and tetrahydrofuran hydrates. Good comparison of model predictions with experimental measurements not only reveals its ability to merge the results of contact cementation theory and effective medium theory, but also indicates its feasibility for characterizing complex morphologies. Moreover, the results of inverting acoustic measurements quantitatively confirm that for synthetic samples in “excess-gas” condition gas hydrates mainly occur as a hybrid-cementing morphology with a low percentage of pore-filling morphology, whereas for pressure-core hydrate-bearing sediments in natural environments they exist as matrix-supporting and pore-filling morphologies with a very low percentage of hybrid-cementing morphology. The hydrate saturations estimated from sonic and density logs in several regions including northern Cascadia margin (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, Hole U1326D and Hole U1327E), Alaska North Slope (Mount Elbert test well) and Mackenzie Delta (Mallik 5L-38), are comparable to the referenced hydrate saturations derived from core data and resistivity, and/or nuclear magnetic resonance log data, confirming validity and applicability of our model. Furthermore, our results indicate that ~8% hybrid-cementing, ~33% matrix-supporting and ~59% pore-filling hydrates may coexist in the fine-grained and clay-rich marine sediments on the northern Cascadia margin, whereas ~10% hybrid-cementing, ~54% matrix-supporting and ~36% pore-filling hydrates may coexist in the coarse-grained and sand-dominated terrestrial sediments of the Alaska North Slope and Mackenzie Delta.
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  • 31
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    In:  [Talk] In: Baugrundtagung 2020, 16.-19.09.2020, Wiesbaden, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key mechanism of heat, freshwater, and carbon redistribution in the climate system. The precept that the AMOC has changed abruptly in the past, notably during and at the end of the last ice age, and that it is “very likely” to weaken in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change is a key motivation for sustained observations of the AMOC. This paper reviews the methodology and technology used to observe the AMOC and assesses these ideas and systems for accuracy, shortcomings, potential improvements, and sustainability. We review hydrographic techniques and look at how these traditional techniques can meet modern requirements. Transport mooring arrays (TMAs) provide the “gold standard” for sustained AMOC observing, utilizing dynamic height, current meter, and other instrumentation and techniques to produce continuous observations of the AMOC. We consider the principle of these systems and how they can be sustained and improved into the future. Techniques utilizing indirect measurements, such as satellite altimetry, coupled with in situ measurements, such as the Argo float array, are also discussed. Existing technologies that perhaps have not been fully exploited for estimating AMOC are reviewed and considered for this purpose. Technology is constantly evolving, and we look to the future of technology and how it can be deployed for sustained and expanded AMOC measurements. Finally, all of these methodologies and technologies are considered with a view to a sustained and sustainable future for AMOC observation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 33
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:28
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Die Stadt Perugia übt im Spannungsfeld zwischen den beiden Großstädten Rom und Florenz eine zentralörtliche Funktion aus, die sich auf historische Bindungen, moderne Prozesse eines marktwirtschaftlich orientierten Wirtschaftssystems, innenpolitische Verhältnisse und spezifische sozialräumliche Verhaltensweisen der Bevölkerung des Umlandes gründet. Dadurch sind die Siedlungsprozesse Umbriens gekennzeichnet von einer Konzentration der Bevölkerung auf die beiden Provinzhauptstädte Perugia und Terni und die mittel- bis kleinstädtischen Zentren der Region. In diesem Rahmen ist es die Hauptaufgabe der Arbeit, die zentralörtliche Funktion der Stadt Perugia hinsichtlich ihres Ausmaßes und ihrer Bedeutung für die sozioökonomischen Prozesse im Umland zu untersuchen, um schließlich auf dieser Basis praktikable Entscheidungshilfen für die Stadt- und Regionalplanung zu entwickeln.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Einzelne Orte in Italien {Geographie} ; Zentralitätsforschung {Siedlungsgeographie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 34
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:26
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Die Friedhöfe wurden bisher fast ausschließlich aus der kulturhistorischen Sicht betrachtet. Jeder Mensch erwartet, dass das System zur Bestattung der Toter: reibungslos funktioniert, aber welchen Standort der Friedhof in der Gesellschaft und in der Stadt von heute einnimmt, ist nicht geklärt. Wenn es der Geographie um die Organisation der Erdräume geht und die Stadt neben ihrer Funktion als Organisationszentrum auch ein Teil des Erdraumes ist, muss sich die Geographie auch mit dem Teil des Erdraumes "Stadt" auseinandersetzen.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Stadt- und Gemeindeplanung {Raumordnung und Raumplanung} ; Teilfragen zu Berlin {Geographie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 35
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:32
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Die von SCHULZ (1976; 1979; 1980) für den Wandel in den kleinen Staaten des Golfs entworfene übergreifende These kann für diese Studie als Arbeitshypothese dahingehend formuliert werden, dass (1) auch eine begrenzte Entwicklungsplanung die von staatlicher Herrschaft mehr (Badū) oder weniger (Fischer) freien Bevölkerungsgruppen der Küstenprovinz Al Bāţinah in ein verändertes übergreifendes sozioökonomisches Umfeld einzubeziehen sucht; (2) die traditionalen Außenkontakte beide Lebensformgruppen in Teilbereichen mit Innovationen früher vertraut gemacht haben als in anderen Landesteilen. Daher bestehen geringere Anpassungsprobleme, der Einschub einer Phase bzw. die Gefahr sozialorganisatorischer Orientierungslosigkeit und/oder des sozialen Abstiegs wird vermieden; (3) obgleich der Erdölsektor Inneromans keinen direkten Einfluss auf die Bevölkerungsgruppen der Küstenprovinz hat, der Wandlungsprozess der traditionalen Wirtschafts- und Lebensform durch eine große Dynamik gekennzeichnet ist. Sie stellt auf Seiten der Badū und Fischer eine Voraussetzung zur Teilhabe an der übergeordneten Entwicklung dar.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Oman {Geographie} ; Teilfragen der Bevölkerungsgeographie ; Mobilität ; Nomadismus
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 36
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:34
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit soll versucht werden, einen Beitrag zur Erhellung der stadtplanerischen Vorgänge und der sich daraus ergebenden baulich-funktionalen Struktur und der Bevölkerungszusammensetzung in einem Großsiedlungsgebiet Berlins (West) aus der Zeit nach dem 2. Weltkrieg zu leisten. Die Untersuchung des Märkischen Viertels umfasst folgende Problemkreise: 1. die Genese des Siedlungsgebietes 2. die infrastrukturelle Ausstattung 3. die bevölkerungsgeographische Analyse.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Teilfragen zu Berlin {Geographie} ; Stadtgeografie ; Struktur ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 37
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:30
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Die vorliegende Arbeit soll durch die Analyse eines ausgewählten Industriezweiges dazu beitragen, beispielhaft die Entstehung und Veränderung der Industrie in einer Region und ihren Einfluss auf natürliche und sozioökonomische Gegebenheiten zu zeigen. Anhand der Darstellung der historischen Entwicklung und der zur Zeit der Untersuchung bestehenden Struktur eines Industriezweiges soll zum einen das sich wandelnde Verhältnis des Menschen zu einer natürlichen Ressource untersucht werden. Dabei wird insbesondere zu berücksichtigen sein, welche Auswirkung veränderte Anschauungen für den Industrialisierungsprozess hatten und inwieweit das Verhalten der Industrie die Einstellung des Menschen zu seiner natürlichen Umwelt verändert. Die Arbeit versucht zum anderen zu klären, welche Standortfaktoren die Industrieansiedlung beeinflusst haben, und versucht darüber hinaus zu zeigen, welche Bedeutung der untersuchte Wirtschaftszweig für die Struktur des Arbeitsmarktes und die Bodennutzung besaß.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Kulturgeographie der USA ; Holzhandel ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 38
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    Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Freien Universität Berlin
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar | QA = 4 Z GEOGR 107:31
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Unter Berücksichtigung der Forschungssituation und der Resultate der wissenschaftstheoretischen Vororientierung stellt sich diese Arbeit zum einen die Aufgabe, die bei SOULAVIE mit den Bezeichnungen "géographie physique des plantes“, "géographie physique des animaux" und "geographie physique de l'homme et de la femme" verbundenen Grundannahmen, Fragestellungen, Verfahrensweisen und Ergebnisse aus seinen naturhistorischen Schriften zu erschließen, sie zu systematisieren und als Gedankensystem zu rekonstruieren. Zum anderen fragt sie nach dem Spannungsverhältnis von Konventionalität und Neuartigkeit, in dem diese Forschungsansätze SOULAVIES zu den naturwissenschaftlichen Bemühungen seiner Epoche stehen. Da die wesentlichen Aussagen eines einzelnen Forschers nur aus ihrer Einbettung in die Wissenschaft ihrer Zeit verständlich werden, erfordert auch die Bearbeitung der erstgenannten Problemstellung einen Rekurs auf den zeitgenössischen wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund. Es versteht sich von selbst, dass angesichts dieses doppelten Rückbezuges auch Licht auf die ideengeschichtlichen Wurzeln der geographischen Konzeptionen SOULAVIES fällt.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Biogeographie ; Geschichte der Geographie ; Biogeografie ; Pflanzengeografie ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , French
    Type: monograph_digi
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: We present new measurements of 138Ce/142Ce and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. The mean value obtained from nine chondrites defines the 138Ce/142Ce ratio of the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR) as (2sd). MORBs and OIBs define the mantle array in the εNd vs. εCe diagram to be . From MORB measurements, we derive the isotopic composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM) to be (2sd). Both CHUR and a modelled early-depleted mantle reservoir plot on the mantle array. Thus, the precise determination of the mantle array does not further constrain the La/Ce and Sm/Nd ratios of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE; i.e., primitive mantle). The composition of 1.8 Ga upper continental crust obtained from aeolian sediments is (2sd; ), and that of its 2.2 Ga equivalent is (2sd; ). Binary mixing models between depleted (DMM) and enriched (upper crust or mafic crust composition) components do not reproduce the linear Ce-Nd mantle array but plots close to the island arc basalt data. When the bulk Ce isotopic composition of the continental crust is calculated from the range of accepted Nd isotope values and a mass-balance budget of the BSE, the mixing curves are closer to the mantle array. However the calculated Ce isotopic composition for the bulk crust is always less radiogenic than measurements. Adjusting the Ce-Nd isotopic composition or the Ce/Nd ratio of the end-members to fully linearise the mixing curve leads to unrealistic values never measured in terrestrial samples. We propose a recycling model to reconstruct the mantle array with the participation of both oceanic crust and sediments in the mantle through time. Cerium is a redox sensitive element, making the La-Ce and Sm-Nd systematics an ideal combination to investigate sediment recycling through time. In this recycling model, the most extreme EM-like signatures require the involvement of oceanic sediments that formed under reduced conditions before the Great Oxygenation Event at 2.4 Ga, and which are devoid of Ce elemental anomalies.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: Die Relativierung des mathematischen Begriffs der direkten Proportionalität führt in der Geologie zur Darstellung der geometrischen und der arithmetischen Relation und zur Begründung des geologischen Binärsystems. Die mathematischen Sonderfälle des geologischen Binärsystems stellen das Wesen räumlicher Zusammenhänge in der Geologie dar. Die Anwendung der linearen Regression verifiziert die theoretischen Erkenntnisse durch die Berechnung faktischer Daten im geologischen Bau der Altmark.
    Description: research
    Keywords: e-docs::Geologische Wissenschaften ; Proportionalität, proportional, geologisches Binärsystem, arithmetische Relation, geometrische Relation
    Language: German
    Type: article_first
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: Apart from the traditional contribution of geographers to the study of population, this particular thesis attempts to divert the emphasis of geographical enquiry towards the examination of how particular innovations affect the population distribution and the organization of human society. It deals specifically with questions concerning the demographic, social and economic impact of population mobility on both sending in receiving areas. It attempts to shed light on the different variables that work to produce a selective type of population mobility within a particular socio—economic set-up. Although various aspects of population mobility have been studied in some detail during the present decade, no attempt has been made, however, towards a concrete presentation of its multiple causes and its socio-economic impact on the areas and people that are left behind. Far from assuming complete coverage of all interrelated fields of study we attempt here to draw attention t0 the expected socio-economic repercussions of population mobility as induced by a particular factor, namely agricultural mechanization. Certain limitations‚ however, have made it difficult to deal with every aspect of population mobility in the Sudan.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Wanderungen {Entwicklungsländerforschung} ; Wirtschaft {Entwicklungsländerforschung} ; Sudan {Geographie} ; Mechanisierung ; Landwirtschaft ; Mobilität ; Landwirtschaft ; Mechanisierung ; Mobilität ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: monograph_digi
    Format: V, 287 Seiten, 2 Karten
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  • 42
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union) | Wiley
    In:  (In Press / Accepted) Geophysical Research Letters .
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
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  • 43
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    Armann & Pillmeier, Cassel
    In:  SUB Göttingen | KART B 140:4622;KART H 140:4622[1908]
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Geologische Karte 1: 25 000 mit Erläuterungen. Digitalisat des FID GEO (Fachinformationsdienst Geowissenschaften der festen Erde), erstellt durch das GDZ (Göttinger Digitalisierungszentrum), Karte aus dem Bestand der SUB Göttingen. Koordinaten Vorlage: Nullmeridian Ferro E 027 00 - 027 10 / N 051 24 - 051 18.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: map
    Keywords: 912 ; 554.3 ; Geologische Karte ; Wilhelmshöhe ; Kassel ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Highlights • Five new authigenic Nd isotope records from the mid-depth Southwest Atlantic. • The Holocene εNd depth gradient is indicative of the different water masses. • No Nd isotope depth gradient during the last glacial and early deglaciation. • Nd end member properties of Antarctic Intermediate Water potentially changed by dust. • Combination of C and εNd yield improved constraints on glacial water mass boundary. Abstract Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) plays a central role in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as the return flow of Northern Sourced Water (NSW) and is therefore of significant importance for the global climate. Past variations of the boundary between AAIW and NSW have been extensively investigated, yet available results documenting the prevailing depth of this boundary and the southern extent of NSW during the last ice age remain ambiguous. Here, we present five new timeseries focusing on the authigenic neodymium isotope signal in sediment cores retrieved from the Southwest Atlantic covering the past 25,000 years. The sites are situated along the southern Brazil Margin and form a bathymetric transect ranging between 1000 and 3000 m water depth, encompassing the modern water mass boundaries of AAIW and NSW and therefore allow their reconstruction since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The new Nd isotope records show little change between the LGM and early deglaciation as well as relatively homogeneous values over the full depth range of the cores during these times. These results strongly contrast with epibenthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope records ( C) from the same sites which exhibit highest glacial values at mid-depths, presumably related to NSW mixing into southern sourced water. We propose that the discrepancy between these two independent water mass proxies is partly related to changes in Nd end member properties of glacial AAIW. The combination of elevated glacial dust fluxes and, as a result, sustained export productivity caused high sinking particle flux in the western South Atlantic, where AAIW is forming. Higher particle flux would have increased the removal (scavenging) of Nd from shallow waters thus reducing the Nd concentration and overprinting the isotopic signature of the glacial AAIW end member. Only under consideration of changes in Nd end member properties along with non-conservative processes such as remineralization of organic matter influencing past seawater C can we reconcile the water mass reconstructions from both proxies.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: It is fundamentally important for many animal ecologists to quantify the costs of animal activities, although it is not straightforward to do so. The recording of triaxial acceleration by animal-attached devices has been proposed as a way forward for this, with the specific suggestion that dynamic body acceleration (DBA) be used as a proxy for movement-based power. Dynamic body acceleration has now been validated frequently, both in the laboratory and in the field, although the literature still shows that some aspects of DBA theory and practice are misunderstood. Here, we examine the theory behind DBA and employ modelling approaches to assess factors that affect the link between DBA and energy expenditure, from the deployment of the tag, through to the calibration of DBA with energy use in laboratory and field settings. Using data from a range of species and movement modes, we illustrate that vectorial and additive DBA metrics are proportional to each other. Either can be used as a proxy for energy and summed to estimate total energy expended over a given period, or divided by time to give a proxy for movement-related metabolic power. Nonetheless, we highlight how the ability of DBA to predict metabolic rate declines as the contribution of non-movement-related factors, such as heat production, increases. Overall, DBA seems to be a substantive proxy for movement-based power but consideration of other movement-related metrics, such as the static body acceleration and the rate of change of body pitch and roll, may enable researchers to refine movement-based metabolic costs, particularly in animals where movement is not characterized by marked changes in body acceleration.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Cold-water corals (CWC), dominantly Desmophyllum pertusum (previously Lophelia pertusa), and their mounds have been in the focus of marine research during the last two decades; however, little is known about the mound-forming capacity of other CWC species. Here, we present new 230Th/U age constraints of the relatively rarely studied framework-building CWC Solenosmilia variabilis from a mound structure off the Brazilian margin combined with computed tomography (CT) acquisition. Our results show that S. variabilis can also contribute to mound formation, but reveal coral-free intervals of hemipelagic sediment deposits, which is in contrast to most of the previously studied CWC mound structures. We demonstrate that S. variabilis only occurs in short episodes of 〈 4 kyr characterized by a coral content of up to 31 vol%. In particular, it is possible to identify distinct clusters of enhanced aggradation rates (AR) between 54 and 80 cm ka−1. The determined AR are close to the maximal growth rates of individual S. variabilis specimens, but are still up to one order of magnitude smaller than the AR of D. pertusum mounds. Periods of enhanced S. variabilis AR predominantly fall into glacial periods and glacial terminations that were characterized by a 60–90 m lower sea level. The formation of nearby D. pertusum mounds is also associated with the last glacial termination. We suggest that the short-term periods of coral growth and mound formation benefited from enhanced organic matter supply, either from the adjacent exposed shelf and coast and/or from enhanced sea-surface productivity. This organic matter became concentrated on a deeper water-mass boundary between South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water and may have been distributed by a stronger hydrodynamic regime. Finally, periods of enhanced coral mound formation can also be linked to advection of nutrient-rich intermediate water masses that in turn might have (directly or indirectly) further facilitated coral growth and mound formation.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Deformation during CO2 injection can lead to problems, like seismicity or fluid leaks, but small strains have the potential to be a useful signal for monitoring. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possible evolution of the strain field during injection, and then assess existing and emerging techniques for measuring the strain field. Poroelastic analyses show that normal strains caused by injection into a reservoir are tensile in the vicinity of the well, but everywhere else at least one strain component is compressive. The vertical strain is compressive in the confining unit, and the radial strain decreases and changes sign from tensile to compressive with distance from the well. Tilting is away from the injection well at the ground surface, but it is towards the well overlying the reservoir. Methods for measuring in-situ strain include instruments that are grouted in the annulus between casing and wall rock (∼ 0.1 microstrain resolution), portable strain sensors that are temporarily clamped to the borehole wall (∼ 0.01 microstrain resolution), and strainmeters that are grouted in place (∼0.001 microstrain resolution). Instruments for measuring in-situ normal strains at the magnitudes and rates expected during injection are emerging, but they have yet to be fully evaluated in applications related to CO2 storage. In-situ strain data measured with emerging instruments promises to fill an important gap between the episodes of fast strain rates measured by seismic data, and the slow strains measured over relatively long periods of time by InSAR and GPS.
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  • 48
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    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research
    In:  GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany, 1 pp.
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Vermessung des Meeresbodens - ein deutscher Beitrag zur Vervollständigung der Weltkarte bis 2030 / Bathymetric mapping of the seafloor - a German contribution to completing the map by 2030. 19.12.2019 - 14.01.2020 von Mindelo (Cabo Verde) - nach Bridgetown (Barbados)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: There is a zonally oriented teleconnection pattern over the high-latitude Eurasian continent, which is maintained through baroclinic energy conversion. In this study, we investigate the unique features of the maintenance mechanism of this teleconnection. It is found that the baroclinic energy conversion is most efficient in both the mid-troposphere and the lower troposphere, and that the baroclinic energy conversion in the lower troposphere is comparable to that in the mid-troposphere. Further results indicate that the basic state plays a crucial role in the baroclinic energy conversion. For both the mid and lower troposphere, the atmospheric stability is low and the Coriolis parameter is large over high-latitude Eurasia, favoring strong baroclinic energy conversion. Particularly, in the lower troposphere, the atmospheric stability exhibits a clear land-sea contrast, favoring baroclinic energy conversion over the continents rather than the oceans. Furthermore, in the lower troposphere, the in-phase configuration of the meridional wind and temperature anomalies, which results from the strong meridional gradient of mean temperature around the north edge of the Eurasian continent, also significantly contributes to baroclinic energy conversion. This study highlights the role of the basic state of temperature rather than zonal wind in maintaining the high-latitude teleconnection through baroclinic energy conversion.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: We report on the geochemistry of hydrocarbons and pore waters down to 62.5 mbsf, collected by drilling with the MARUM‐MeBo70 and by gravity coring at the Lunde pockmark in the Vestnesa Ridge. Our data document the origin and transformations of volatiles feeding gas emissions previously documented in this region. Gas hydrates are present where a fracture network beneath the pockmark focusses migration of thermogenic hydrocarbons characterized by their C1/C2+ and stable isotopic compositions (δ2H‐CH4, δ13C‐CH4). Measured geothermal gradients (~80°C km‐1) and known formation temperatures (〉70°C) suggest that those hydrocarbons are formed at depths 〉800 mbsf. A combined analytical/modeling approach, including concentration and isotopic mass balances, reveals that pockmark sediments experience diffuse migration of thermogenic hydrocarbons. However, at sites without channeled flow this appears to be limited to depths 〉 ~50 mbsf. At all sites we document a contribution of microbial methanogenesis to the overall carbon cycle that includes a component of secondary carbonate reduction (CR) – i.e. reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generated by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in the uppermost methanogenic zone. AOM and CR rates are spatially variable within the pockmark and are highest at high‐flux sites. These reactions are revealed by δ13C‐DIC depletions at the sulfate‐methane interface at all sites. However, δ13C‐CH4 depletions are only observed at the low methane flux sites because changes in the isotopic composition of the overall methane pool are masked at high‐flux sites. 13C‐depletions of TOC suggest that at seeps sites, methane‐derived carbon is incorporated into de novo synthesized biomass.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: Most eukaryotic microbial diversity is uncultivated, under-studied and lacks nuclear genome data. Mitochondrial genome sampling is more comprehensive, but many phylogenetically important groups remain unsampled. Here, using a single-cell sorting approach combining tubulin-specific labelling with photopigment exclusion, we sorted flagellated heterotrophic unicellular eukaryotes from Pacific Ocean samples. We recovered 206 single amplified genomes, predominantly from underrepresented branches on the tree of life. Seventy single amplified genomes contained unique mitochondrial contigs, including 21 complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes from formerly under-sampled phylogenetic branches, including telonemids, katablepharids, cercozoans and marine stramenopiles, effectively doubling the number of available samples of heterotrophic flagellate mitochondrial genomes. Collectively, these data identify a dynamic history of mitochondrial genome evolution including intron gain and loss, extensive patterns of genetic code variation and complex patterns of gene loss. Surprisingly, we found that stramenopile mitochondrial content is highly plastic, resembling patterns of variation previously observed only in plants.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: Highlights • Cadomian continental arc crust of NE Iran was built during ∼15 Myr of magmatism. • Magmatic flare-up in Iran Cadomia occurred over ∼45 Myr; 570 to 525 Ma. • Geochemical differentiation in “hot zones” built the stratified continental crust of Iran. Abstract The generation and differentiation of continental crust by arc magmatism is strongly influenced by episodes of high magmatic flux (“flare-ups”). Magmatic flare-ups encourage the development of deep crustal hot zones where magmatic differentiation and density stratification combine to form the upper felsic and lower mafic continental crust. Such processes, which are responsible for the construction of continental arc crust, are prolonged events, which build a ∼30-40 km arc crust over tens of million years (∼100 Myr). New zircon U-Pb data reveal that the construction of Cadomian crust from NE Iran occurred over ∼15 ± 0.3 Myr. However, compiled zircon U-Pb ages reveal a prolonged magmatic flare-up of ∼45 Myr; ∼570 to 525 Ma. Basement outcrops in NE Iran expose lower- and upper crust that show how magmatic-geochemical differentiation occurred deep beneath a Cadomian continental arc in a crustal hot zone. Isotopic data for igneous rocks produced during this 45 Myr episode reveal interactions between mantle-derived melts and old continental crust. Synthesis of new and published data indicates that this type of interaction is common during periods of high magmatic fluxes. Our results indicate that differentiation of mafic melts in the lower crust during prolonged magmatic flare-ups plays a key role in building a stratified continental crust.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: The effluents containing the discarded water from the textile industry are graded as one of the foremost pollutants in all industrial sectors. The wide varieties of dyes, which is susceptible to the possibility of carcinogens or mutagens, and it will be harmful to entire ecosystem. The titanium dioxide, one of the foremost heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysts, has been acknowledged for the wide applications in hydrogen production from water splitting and degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants since last few decades. The present work is successively advanced for the removal of methylene blue from the seawater. The work was carried under natural sunlight with the presence of C/TiO2 and Cu–C/TiO2. The photocatalytic removal experiment was carried out with different catalyst dosages (0.25–1.25 g/L), different initial concentrations from 5 to 30 μM and at different pH values (3–9). The highest removal rate was found at the optimum condition of pH 8 and 1 g/L. At the optimum condition, 100% efficiency was achieved under natural sunlight. The kinetic studies reveal the pseudo-first-order kinetics and half-life time comparison proves the enhanced visible light harvesting of Cu–C/TiO2.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: The immune system affects senescence (declines in probabilities of survival or reproduction with age), by shaping late age vulnerability to chronic inflammatory diseases and infections. It is also a dynamic interactive system that must balance competing demands across the life course. Thus, immune system function remains an important frontier in understanding the evolution of senescence. Here, we review our expanding mechanistic understanding of immune function over the life course, in the context of theoretical predictions from life-history evolution. We are especially interested in stage- and sex-dependent costs and benefits of investment in the immune system, given differential life-history priorities of the life stages and sexes. We introduce the costs likely to govern immune allocation across the life course. We then discuss theoretical expectations for differences between the sexes and their likely consequences in terms of how the immune system is both modulated by and may modulate senescence, building on information from life-history theory, experimental immunology and demography. We argue that sex differences in immune function provide a potentially powerful probe of selection pressures on the immune system across the life course. In particular, differences in 'competing' and 'caring' between the sexes have evolved across the tree of life, providing repeated instances of divergent selection pressures on immune function occurring within the same overall bauplan. We conclude by detailing an agenda for future research, including development of theoretical predictions of the differences between the sexes under an array of existing models for sex differences in immunity, and empirical tests of such predictions across the tree of life. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non-native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non-native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill-adapted, but also small founding population size should be associated with reduced adaptive potential. As such, biological invasions are considered valuable real-time evolutionary experiments. Here, we investigated the population structure and adaptive potential of the highly invasive topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) across Europe and East Asia. We RAD-sequenced 301 specimens from sixteen populations and three distinct within-catchment invaded regions as well as two locations in the native range. With 13,785 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we provide conclusive evidence for a genome-wide signature of two distinct invasion events, in Slovakia and Turkey, each originating from a specific area in the native range. A third invaded area, in France, appears to be the result of dispersal within the invasive range. Few loci showed signs of selection, the vast majority of which being identified in the Slovakian region. Functional annotation suggests that faster early stage development, resistance to pollution and immunocompetence contribute to the invasion success of the local habitats. By showing that populations in the invasive range have different evolutionary histories, our study reinforces the idea that populations, rather than species, are the units to consider in invasion biology.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: Marine algae represent a prolific source of filamentous fungi for bioprospecting. In continuation of our search for new anticancer leads from fungi derived from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, an endophytic Pyrenochaetopsis sp. FVE-001 was selected for an in-depth chemical analysis. The crude fungal extract inhibited several cancer cell lines in vitro, and the highest anticancer activity was tracked to its CHCl3–soluble portion. A bioactivity-based molecular networking approach was applied to C18-SPE fractions of the CHCl3 subextract to predict the bioactivity scores of metabolites in the fractions and to aid targeted purification of anticancer metabolites. This approach led to a rapid isolation of three new decalinoylspirotetramic acid derivatives, pyrenosetins A–C (1–3) and the known decalin tetramic acid phomasetin (4). The structures of the compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR, HR-ESIMS, FT-IR spectroscopy, [α]D and Mosher’s ester method. Compounds 1 and 2 showed high anticancer activity against malignant melanoma cell line A-375 (IC50 values 2.8 and 6.3 μM, respectively), in line with the bioactivity predictions. This is the first study focusing on secondary metabolites of a marine-derived Pyrenochaetopsis sp. and the second investigation performed on the member of the genus Pyrenochaetopsis.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-01-13
    Description: The Asian summer monsoon affects the lives of billions of people. With the aim of identifying geochemical tracers for the monsoon-related freshwater input from the major rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Andaman Sea (AnS), we have analyzed the yttrium and rare earth element (YREE) concentration of surface seawater samples from various locations spanning the Andaman Islands in 2011 to 2013. In some locations, samples have been taken in March, July, and November 2011, thus spanning the seasonal cycle and including different monsoon phases. Generally, the YREE patterns are similar to those reported for offshore samples from the BoB and AnS in January 1997, with seawater-normalized patterns of most samples characterized by middle REE enrichments. An enhancement of these middle REE bulges accompanies large increases in dissolved REE concentrations from streams and sediment-rich areas such as mangrove environments. Conversely, some samples, in particular those taken 1–2 days after heavy rainfall in March 2011, show pronounced REE scavenging accompanied by the preferential removal of dissolved light REEs (LREEs) and by higher Y/Ho ratios. The Nd isotope signature of the remaining dissolved REE phase of these low YREE samples is more radiogenic than local rocks and sediments. The time series at a location away from local input sources show remarkably similar REE patterns and concentrations in March and July. Then in October–November, following the peak in monsoon-induced river discharge, the dissolved REE concentrations increase by almost a factor of two, whereas Nd isotopes become less radiogenic by 1.5 εNd units. These unradiogenic values are found at the same site in the winter dry season of the following year, demonstrating the decoupling of sea surface salinity (SSS) and Nd. The large sub-annual variability of YREE concentrations and Nd isotopes encountered was likely caused by the conversion of YREE from the dissolved (probably colloidal) pool to the labile particulate fraction. The comparison of unfiltered and filtered sample concentrations reveals the existence of a large labile particulate pool in the BoB and AnS that most likely originates from the massive river sediment fluxes and is instrumental in the seasonal changes observed.
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  • 58
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    Geounion Alfred-Wegener-Stiftung, Potsdam
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: This volume contains the program, abstracts and field guides of the 25th Latin-American Colloquium of Geosciences (LAC). In the tradition of the holistic approach of Alexander von Humboldt in approaching complex research problems, the LAC celebrates transdisciplinary milestones achieved through German-Latin American cooperation in the geosciences. It also highlights the results of individual research projects and identify future avenues of cooperation. The following topics are central to the LAC: Ocean-continent transition, Continental growth and modification, Earth-surface processes and their climatic and tectonic forcings. The main topics of the LAC are complemented by contributions regarding methodological and technical advances, coIlection-based and paleo-environmental research, and resource formation. The scientific goal of the LAC is at the heart of a deeper understanding of the interactions between solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere with a focus on Latin America. The forcing factors governing the Earth's systems also involve the interaction with humankind.
    Description: conference
    Keywords: VEX 000 ; VEW 000 ; Mittelamerika und Karibischer Raum {Geologie} ; Lateinamerika ; Geologie ; Südamerika {Geologie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: anthology , publishedVersion
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: Structural changes in plankton primary producers have large implications for food web dynamics, energy fluxes and the vertical export of biogenic particulate carbon. Here we examine phytoplankton data spanning the period 1993–2008 from the Bay of Tunis, southwestern Mediterranean Sea, in relation to long term hydroclimate variability. We show a conspicuous shift in the structure of the phytoplankton community characterized by an increase of small-sized species and diversity loss, revealing a dominance of smaller blooming diatoms and cyanobacteria. Such changes were concurrent with marked modifications in hydroclimatic patterns experienced in the Bay of Tunis consisting of a shift towards enhanced winter precipitation together with rising temperatures. This novel study shows an overall rise in the proportion of small phytoplankton cells and a decreasing trend in phytoplankton diversity in the southern Mediterranean area. These findings warn of a potential decline of trophic efficiency and lesser food web stability resulting from mean size reduction and the diversity loss.
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  • 60
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    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research
    In:  GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany, 1 pp.
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: Vermessung des Meeresbodens - ein deutscher Beitrag zur Vervollständigung der Weltkarte bis 2030 / Bathymetric mapping of the seafloor - a German contribution to completing the map by 2030. 19.12.2019 - 14.01.2020 von Mindelo (Cabo Verde) - nach Bridgetown (Barbados)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Highlights • Seismic depth imaging gives insight into the southern Hikurangi subduction zone. • Velocities reveal regional variations in compaction and drainage of input sediments. • Dewatering of subducted sediments might influence décollement strength. • Thrusts at the leading edge of deformation are upper-plate dewatering pathways. • Stratigraphic host of the décollement changes at the southern end of the margin. Abstract The southern end of New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin accommodates highly oblique convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates. We carry out two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection tomography and pre-stack depth migrations on two seismic lines to gain insight into the nature of subducted sediments and upper plate faulting and dewatering at the toe of the wedge. We also investigate the NE to SW evolution of emergent upper plate thrust faulting using 47 seismic lines spanning an along-strike distance of ∼270 km. The upper sequence of sediments that ultimately gets subducted (the MES sequence) has an anomalously-low seismic velocity character. At the southwestern end of the margin, ∼150 km east of Kaikōura, the MES sequence has experienced greater compaction (for an equivalent effective vertical stress) than it has some 200 km further to the northeast. This difference is likely attributable to greater horizontal compression in the southwest caused by impingement of the Chatham Rise on the deformation front. Relationships between velocity and effective vertical stress suggest that the MES sequence is well-drained in the vicinity of frontal thrusts, corroborated by evidence for upper plate dewatering along those thrusts. Effective drainage of the MES sequence likely promotes interplate coupling on the southern Hikurangi margin. The décollement is generally hosted near a seismic reflector known as “Reflector 7”. East of Kaikōura, however, Reflector 7 becomes accreted, indicating that subduction slip at the southwestern end of the margin is no longer hosted at (or above) this reflector. Instead, the décollement steps down to a deeper stratigraphic level further inboard. Further to the SW, approximately in line with the lower Kaikōura Canyon, the offshore manifestation of subduction-driven compression ceases.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Highlights • Previous age estimates of the Laacher See Eruptions (LSE) around 12,900 years are still diverging and imprecise. • The combination of dendrochronology, wood anatomy, and 14C measurements holds the potential to establish a precise LSE date. • An absolute calendric date of the LSE would improve the synchronization of European Late Glacial to Holocene archives. Abstract The precise date of the Laacher See eruption (LSE), central Europe’s largest Late Pleistocene volcanic event that occurred around 13,000 years ago, is still unknown. Here, we outline the potential of combined high-resolution dendrochronological, wood anatomical and radiocarbon (14C) measurements, to refine the age of this major Plinian eruption. Based on excavated, subfossil trees that were killed during the explosive LSE and buried under its pyroclastic deposits, we describe how a firm date of the eruption might be achieved, and how the resulting temporal precision would further advance our understanding of the environmental and societal impacts of this event. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of an accurate LSE date for improving the synchronization of European terrestrial and lacustrine Late Glacial to Holocene archives.
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  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 389 (Article number 106688).
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Highlights • First recorded example of tephra fallout damming a major river. • Repeated massive syn-eruptive damming. • Floods triggered by multiple breaches of tephra dam caused widespread mass erosion. • Striking large-scale upper flow regime deposits. Abstract The Rhine - the largest river in Western Europe – was dammed during the Plinian Laacher See Eruption (LSE; 12,900 BP). Damming during the climactic Plinian episode of LSE occurred both upstream and downstream of the broad tectonic Lower Neuwied Basin (LNB) that interrupts the narrow Rhine canyon. We here document details of the upstream damming at the bottleneck entrance to the LNB near the present city of Koblenz. Our reconstruction is based on a high-resolution analysis and correlation of the complex intercalation of primary fallout tephra relics with fluvially reworked Laacher See Tephra in the LNB. Tephra units representing complete eruptive cycles repeatedly fell on drained ground in between one minor and 4 major flooding events - even at the base of side channels that had been active prior to the LSE and that had been flooded by a preceding flooding event. This demonstrates that flooding occurred generally during breaks and not during fallout events. The repeated formation and breach of a dam at the upstream entrance of the LNB (Koblenz Dam) consisting of fallout components and driftwood washed together convincingly explains the multiple repetition of the drainage of the channels in the LNB followed by large-magnitude flooding in rapid succession. The strongly pulsating nature of the LSE reflected in multiple interruptions of eruptive activity fundamentally controlled the damming and flooding dynamics. The Rhine became completely blocked during distinct fallout phases due to overloading with pumice that had fallen into the river and its major tributaries. The temporary dam collapsed during eruptive breaks. This is the first recorded example of tephra fallout damming a major watercourse. The extremely low gradient of the Rhine River allowed the repeated accumulation of large volumes of water in a long, multi-phase dammed-up lake (Lake Koblenz) that extended along the upstream course of the river for up to c. 30 km despite the low height (〈10 m) of the dams. Each breach of Koblenz Dam caused extensive and wide-spread erosion and reworking of freshly deposited tephra throughout the entire LNB up to 3.5 km perpendicular to the major axial Rhine channel. The floods deposited striking, large-scale upper flow regime structures interpreted as in-phase wave draping, antidunes and chute-and-pool structures consisting largely of gravel-sized tephra components. Primary tephra sheets - several meters thick - became detached by undercurrents above impermeable boundaries and floated potentially along the full length of both active and abandoned channels. Large tephra bodies with the dimensions of a garage were lifted off by the flood waves and transported downstream for at least tens of meters. Damming of a major river while a large Plinian eruption is in full progress represents an extraordinary challenge for hazard mitigation. This is especially pertinent for an area close to, and downwind from, the vent and therefore simultaneously affected by massive Plinian fall such as in the LNB.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Improved comparability of nutrient concentrations in seawater is required to enhance the quality and utility of measurements reported to global databases. Significant progress has been made over recent decades in improving the analysis and data quality for traditional laboratory measurements of nutrients. Similar efforts are required to establish high-quality data outputs from in situ nutrient sensors, which are rapidly becoming integral components of ocean observing systems. This paper suggests using the good practices routine established for laboratory reference methods to propose a harmonized set of deployment protocols and of quality control procedures for nutrient measurements obtained from in situ sensors. These procedures are intended to establish a framework to standardize the technical and analytical controls carried out on the three main types of in situ nutrient sensors currently available (wet chemical analyzers, ultraviolet optical sensors, electrochemical sensors) for their deployments on all kinds of platform. The routine reference controls that can be applied to the sensors are listed for each step of sensor use: initial qualification under controlled conditions in the laboratory, preparation of the sensor before deployment, field deployment and finally the sensor recovery. The fundamental principles applied to the laboratory reference method are then reviewed in terms of the calibration protocol, instrumental interferences, environmental interferences, external controls, and method performance assessment. Data corrections (linearity, sensitivity, drifts, interferences and outliers) are finally identified along with the concepts and calculations for qualification for both real time and time delayed data. This paper emphasizes the necessity of future collaborations between research groups, reference-accredited laboratories, and technology developers, to maintain comparability of the concentrations reported for the various nutrient parameters measured by in situ sensors.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: The establishment of epibacterial communities is fundamental to seaweed health and fitness, in modulating ecological interactions and may also facilitate adaptation to new environments. Abiotic factors like salinity can determine bacterial abundance, growth and community composition. However, influence of salinity as a driver of epibacterial community composition (until species level) has not been investigated for seaweeds and especially under long time scales. We also do not know how abiotic stressors may influence the ‘core’ bacterial species of seaweeds. Following an initial (immediately after field collection) sampling of epibacterial community of an invasive red seaweed Agarophyton vermicullophylum, we conducted a long term mesocosm experiment for 5 months, to examine the influence of three different salinities (low, medium and high) at two different time points (3 months after start of experiment and 5 months, i.e., at the end of experiment) on the epibacterial community richness and composition of Agarophyton. Metagenomic sequencing showed that epibacterial communities changed significantly according to salinity and time points sampled. Epibacterial richness was significantly different between low and high salinities at both time points. Epibacterial richness also varied significantly between 3 months (after start of experiment) and 5 months (end of experiment) within low, medium and high salinity level. Irrespective of salinity levels and time points sampled 727 taxa consistently appeared in all Agarophyton samples hinting at the presence of core bacterial species on the surface of the alga. Our results indicate that both salinity and time can be major driving forces in structuring epibacterial communities of seaweeds with respect to richness and β-diversity. We highlight the necessity of conducting long term experiments allowing us to detect and understand epibacterial succession over time on seaweeds.
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  • 67
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Kraatz, Berlin
    In:  SUB Göttingen | KART B 140:5227;KART H 140:Altenbreitungen
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Geologische Karte 1: 25 000 mit Erläuterungen. Digitalisat des FID GEO (Fachinformationsdienst Geowissenschaften der festen Erde), erstellt durch das GDZ (Göttinger Digitalisierungszentrum), Karte aus dem Bestand der SUB Göttingen. Koordinaten Vorlage: Nullmeridian Ferro E 027 50 - 028 00 / N 050 48 - 050 42.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: map
    Keywords: 912 ; 554.3 ; Geologische Karte ; Altenbreitungen ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German
    Type: map_digi
    Format: 27