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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,408)
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • 1
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: We have investigated the interaction of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite, with the Io plasma torus. The interaction of Io with the plasma surrounding it has been a subject of interest for almost 30 years, dating from the discovery by Bigg (1964) that radio emissions from the Jovian magnetosphere are controlled by Io's position. Since that time, both ground-based and spacecraft observations have shown that Io is a unique satellite that influences the Jovian magnetosphere in important ways. In particular, material from Io is a major source of plasma for the magnetosphere, and the energy that this plasma harnesses from Jupiter's co-rotating magnetic field is an important power source for the magnetosphere. It is apparent that the local interaction of the torus plasma with Io plays a key role in the formation, composition, and energetics of the Io torus; the interaction is also highly nonlinear. We have modeled this interaction using time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. During this past year, we have used NASA support to develop a new MHD code to study the interaction. As part of the Galileo spacecraft's recent successful insertion into orbit around Jupiter, the spacecraft passed within 900 km of Io's surface. Our calculations have focused on using Galileo particles and fields data to examine a question that was not resolved by the Voyager observations: Does Io have an intrinsic magnetic field? In this progress summary, we describe our efforts on this problem to date.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-200134 , NAS 1.26:200134 , SAIC-95/1381:APPAT-174 , NIPS-96-07877
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A newly discovered source of energetic particle streams directed at Venus' nightside may cause several exosphere phenomena. The streams evolve from dispersed cosmoids, a surreptitious population of meteoroids in nearly hyperbolic orbits, measured with three dust experiments on Pioneer 10/11. Loose fragile comet-like ensembles of frozen volatile material, they are orders of magnitude more populous than short-period meteoroids. Dispersion is forced near a planet masking the meteor signature at Earth, but recently terrestrial exosphere interactions have been detected principally from VLF radar returns and as suddenly formed layers of neutral sodium and iron probed by lidar. Venus influx is estimated greater than 10(exp -14)(g)/((sq cm)(s)) with nightside directed kinetic power of greater than 0.3 (erg)/((sq cm)s)). Compared to Earth, Venus, lacking a dipole field with almost no rotation, has a readily recognized set of nightside interaction signatures of these downward energetic particle streams: i.e., density depressions of the neutral thermosphere, hydrogen and helium bulges, a non-disappearing ionosphere, electron holes, nightglows, VLF bursty signals, and local magnetic fields. From Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) measurements, the cosmoid population, its temporal and solar azimuthal variation may be determined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)123-(4)129
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: High-resolution, near-infrared (1.09 to 2.5 micrometers) spectra of the night side of Venus have been obtained in 1990 and 1991 using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Absorptions due to H2O were detected in spectral windows near 2.3, 1.74, and 1.18 micrometers. Our analysis of these absorptions constrains the abundance of water vapor in three different altitude ranges located between the clouds and the surface: 30-40 km, 15-25 km and 0-15 km. A constant water vapor mixing ratio of 30 +/- 15 ppm below the clouds can fit the observations. These values are consistent with recent near-infrared studies of the night side of Venus at lower spectral resolution. The atmosphere of Venus appears to be dryer than originally suggested by the in-situ measurements made by the Pioneer Venus and Venera mass-spectrometers and gas-chromatographs.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)79-(4)88
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Using Pioneer Venus data, hydrogen and deuterium ions are shown to escape from the hydrogen bulge region in the nightside ionosphere. The polarization electric field propels these light ions upward through the ionosphere and into the ion-exosphere, where H(+) and D(+) continue to be accelerated away from Venus and move into the ionotail and beyond. The vertical flow speeds of H(+) and D(+) are found to be about the same; therefore, selective escape between H(+) and D(+) is negligible for this mechanism. Present day planetary loss rates of about 8.6 x 10(exp 25)/s and 3.2 X 10(exp 23)/s were obtained for H(+) and D(+), respectively. Such rates, persisting over a few billion years, should have significantly affected the planetary water budget.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)117-(4)122
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present the first results of a new technique for imaging the lunar Na atmosphere. The technique employs high resolution, a narrow bandpass, and specific observing geometry to suppress scattered light and image lunar atmospheric Na I emission down to approximately 50 km altitude. Analysis of four latitudinally dispersed images shows that the lunar Na atmosphere exhibits intersting latitudinal and radial dependencies. Application of a simple Maxwellian collisionless exosphere model indicates that: (1) at least two thermal populations are required to adequately fit the soldium's radial intensity behavior, and (2) the fractional abundances and temperatures of the two components vary systematically with latitude. We conclude that both cold (barometric) and hot (suprathermal) Na may coexist in the lunar atmosphere, either as distinct components or as elements of a continuum of populations ranging in temperature from the local surface temperature up to or exceeding escape energies.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 109; 2; p. 835-841
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Estimates of the mass of dust suspended in the Martian atmosphere are derived from global and regional 9-micrometer opacity maps produced from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data. During the peak of the 1977b storm, a total dust mass of approximately 4.3 x 10(exp 14) g was suspended, equivalent to 4.3 x 10(exp -4) g/sq cm, or a layer 1.4 micrometers thick. During a local dust storm near Solis Planum at L(sub s) 227 deg, approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 13) g of dust were lofted, equal to about a 6-micrometer layer in that vicinity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7509-7512
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Based on the conservation of chemical elements in chemical reactions, a rule is proved that the number of boundary conditions given by densities and/or nonzero velocities should not be less than the number of chemical elements in the system, and the boundary conditions for species given by densities and velocities should include all elements in the system. Applications of this rule to Mars are considered. It is shown that the problem of the CO2-H2O chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars, say, in the range of 0-80 km does not have a unique solution, if only CO2 and H2O densities are given at the lower boundary, and the remaining boundary conditions are fluxes. Two examples of models of this type are discussed. Two models of the photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere, with and without nitrogen chemistry, are considered. The oxygen nonthermal escape ratio of 1.2 x 10(exp 8)/cu cm/s is given at 240 km and is balanced with the total hydrogen escape rate within an uncertainty of 1% for both models. Both models fit the measured O2 and CO mixing ratios, the O3 abundance, and the O2 1.27-micrometer dayglow almost within the uncertainties of the measured values, though the model without nitrogen chemistry fits better. The importance of nitrogen chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars depends on a fine balance between production of NO and N in the upper atmosphere which is not known within the required accuracy.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3263-3276
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The valley network channels on the heavily cratered ancient surface of Mars suggest the presence of liquid water approximately 3.8 Gyr ago. However, the implied warm climate is difficult to explain in the context of the standard solar model, even allowing for the maximum CO2 greenhouse heating. In this paper we investigate the astronomical and planetary implications of a nonstandard solar model in which the zero-age, main-sequence Sun had a mass of 1.05 +/- 0.02 Solar Mass. The excess mass was subsequently lost in a solar wind during the first 1.2(-0.2, +0.4) Gyr of the Sun's main sequence phase. The implied mass-loss rate of 4(+3, -2) x 10(exp -11) M/yr, or about 10(exp 3) x that of the current Sun, may be detectable in several nearby young solar type stars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5457-5464
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Visible and near-IR refectivity, Moessbauer, and X ray diffraction data were obtained on powders of impact melt rock from the Manicouagan Impact Crater located in Quebec, Canada. The iron mineralogy is dominated by pyroxene for the least oxidized samples and by hematite for the most oxidized samples. Phyllosilicate (smectite) contents up to approximately 15 wt % were found in some heavily oxidized samples. Nanophase hematite and/or paramagnetic ferric iron is observed in all samples. No hydrous ferric oxides (e.g., goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite) were detected, which implies the alteration occurred above 250 C. Oxidative alteration is thought to have occurred predominantly during late-stage crystallization and subsolidus cooling of the impact melt by invasion of oxidizing vapors and/or solutions while the impact melt rocks were still hot. The near-IR band minimum correlated with the extent of aleration Fe(3+)/Fe(sub tot) and ranged from approximately 1000 nm (high-Ca pyroxene) to approximately 850 nm (bulk, well-crystalline hematite) for least and most oxidized samples, respectively. Intermediate band positions (900-920 nm) are attributed to low-Ca pyroxene and/or a composite band from hematite-pyroxene assemblages. Manicouagan data are consistent with previous assignments of hematite and pyroxene to the approximately 850 and approximately 1000nm bands observed in Martian reflectivity spectra. Manicouagan data also show that possible assignments for intermediate band positions (900-920 nm) in Martian spectra are pyroxene and/or hematite-pyroxene assemblages. By analogy with impact melt sheets and in agreement with observables for Mars, oxidative alteration of Martian impact melt sheets above 250 C and subsequent erosion could produce rocks and soils with variable proportions of hematite (both bulk and nanophase), pyroxene, and phyllosilicates as iron-bearing mineralogies. If this process is dominant, these phases on Mars were formed rapidly at relativly high temperatures on a sporadic basis throughout the history of the planet. The Manicouagan samples also show that this mineralogical diversity can be accomplished at constant chemical composition, which is also indicated for Mars from the analyses of soil at the two Viking landing sites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); pp. 5319-5328
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff) variance approximately 0.8 micrometers), smaller particle size (r(sub mode) approximately 0.02 micrometers) distribution coupled with a 'palagonite-like' composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micrometer absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt, r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub mode) = 0.40 dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971-1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample (Rousch et al., 1991) with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emmission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 micrometers are analyzed to retrieve 9-micrometer dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences (Clancy and Lee, 1991). These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-micrometer extinction opacity ratio (greater than or = 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micrometer absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep aborptions at 20 micrometers which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8-to 9-micrometer absorption presented by the dust in the IRIS spectra, probably due to its low SiO2 content (31%). However, it does provide consistent levels of ultraviolet/visible absorption, 9-to 12-micrometer absorption, and a lack of structured absorption at 20 micrometers. The ratios of dust extinction opacities at visible, 9 micrometers, and 30 micrometers are strongly affected by the dust particle size distribution. The Toon et al. dust size distribution (r(sub mode) = 0.40,r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 2.7 micrometers) predicts the correct ratio of the 9- to 30-micrometer opacity, but underpredicts the visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio considerably (1 versus greater than or = 2). A similar particle distribution width with smaller particle sizes (r(sub mode) = 0.17, r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 1.2 micrometers) will fit the observed visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio, but overpredicts the observed 9-micrometer/30-micrometer opacity ratio. A smaller and much broader particle size distribution (r(sub mode) = 0.002, r(sub eff) variance = 0.8 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 1.8 micrometers) can fit both dust opacity ratios. Overall, the nanocrystalline structure of palagonite coupled with a smaller, broader distribution of dust particle sizes provides a more consistent fit than the Toon et al. model of the dust to the IRIS spectra, the observed visible/9-micrometer dust opacity ratio, the Phobos occulation measurements of the dust particle sizes (Chassefiere et al., 1992), and the weakness of surface near IR absorptions expected for clay minerals (Clark, 1992; Bell and Crisp, 1993).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5251-5263
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Spacecraft navigation was performed with radio tracking data from NASA's Deep Space Network. In the years since then, there has been a great deal of progress in the definition of celestial reference frames and in determining the orbit and orientation of the Earth. Using these improvements, the radio metric range and Doppler data acquired from the Voyager 1 spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed to determine the plane-of-sky position of Jupiter with much greater accuracy than was possible at the time of the encounter. The position of Jupiter at the time of encounter has been determined with an accuracy of 40 nrad in right ascension and 140 nrad in declination with respect to the celestial reference frame defined by the International Earth Rotation Service. This position estimate has been done to improve the ephemeris of Jupiter prior to the upcoming encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report; p 1-8
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: On July 4,1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars and starts conducting technological and scientific experiments. One experiment, the Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer, uses a sensor head placed against rocks and soil to determine their composition. To guarantee proper placement, a deployment mechanism mounted on the Mars Rover aligns the sensor head to within 20 deg of the rock and soil surfaces. In carrying out its task, the mechanism mimics the action of a human hand and arm. Consisting of a flexible wrist, a parallel link arm, a brush dc motor actuator, and a revolutionary non-pyrotechnic fail-safe release device, the mechanism correctly positions the sensor head on rocks as high as 0.29 m and on targets whose surfaces are tilted as much as 45 deg from the nominal orientation of the sensor head face. The mechanism weighs less than 0.5 kg, can withstand 100 g's, and requires less than 2.8 N x m of actuation torque. The fail-safe coupler utilizes Cerrobend, a metal alloy that melts at 60 C, to fuse the actuator and the rest of the mechanism together. A film heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal, and Negator springs drive the mechanism into its stowed position. The fail-safe actuates using 6.75 Watts for 5 minutes in the event of an actuator failure.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; p 61-78
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  • 13
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3277-3284
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Goethite-bearing samples with values of Mn(s) (Mn/(Mn+Fe) mole fraction) up to 0.206 were synthesized by precipitation from alkaline solution. Samples with Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061 were single-phase Mn-goethites: samples with higher Mn(s) values contained another Mn-bearing phase (probably jacobsite). Mn-hematites were prepared by dehydroxylation of corresponding Mn-goethites at 500 C. Orthorhombic a and b unit cell dimensions of Mn-goethites changed in a linear manner with Mn(s), but not at rates predicted by the Vegrad law. Hexagonal unit cell dimensions of Mn-hematites did not vary with Mn(s). Moessbauer parameters isomer shift (IS), quadrupole splitting (QS), and hyperfine field (B(sub hf)) were measured at 293 and 15 K. For all single-phase Mn-goethites and Mn-hematites (Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061), magnetic splitting was observed at both temperatures. At 293 K, small but systematic decreases in B(sub hf) were observed with increasing Mn substitution; IS and QS were not dependent on Mn(s). Mn substitution strongly lowered the Morin transition temperature of hematite. At 15 K, the Morin transition was not present for Mn(s) greater than 0.020(4). The saturation magnetization of Mn-goethites and Mn-hematites (Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061) was the expected zero (within error) for antiferromagnetic goethite and for hematites obtained from dehydroxylation of goethites. Mn-geothites with Mn(s) greater than 0.061 were magnetic because of the presence of strongly magnetic jacobsite. For reflectivity spectra, bands resulting from MN(3+) were centered near 454 and 596 nm for Mn-goethites and near 545 and 700 nm for Mn-hematites. There is evidence for a approximately 700 nm band in spectral data for Martian bright regions, but association of it with Mn(3+) is not a unique interpretation. Comparison of laboratory and Martian spectral data implies that Mn(s) less than 0.032 for the Mn(3+) content of Martian hematites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3285-3295
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Hellas basin on Mars has been the site of volcanism, tectonism, and modification by fluvial, mass-wasting, and eolian processes over its more than 4-b.y. existence. Our detailed geologic mapping and related studies have resulted in the following new interpretations. The asymmetric distribution of highland massifs and other structures that define the uplifted basin rim suggest a formation of the basin by the impact of a low-angle bolide having a trajectory heading S60E. During the Late Noachian, the basin was infilled, perhaps by lava flows, that were sufficiently thick (greater than 1 km) to produce wrinkle ridges on the fill material and extensional faulting along the west rim of the basin. At about the same time, deposits buried northern Malea Planum, which are interpreted to be pyroclastic flows from Amphitrites and Peneus Paterae on the basis of their degraded morphology, topology, and the application of a previous model for pyroclastic volcanism on Mars. Peneus forms a distinctive caldera structure that indicates eruption of massive volumes of magma, whereas Amphitrites is a less distinct circular feature surrounded by a broad, low, dissected shield that suggests generally smaller volume eruptions. During the Early Hesperian, an approximately 1-to 2km-thick sequence of primarily fined-grained, eolian material was deposited on the floor of Hellas basin. Subsequently, the deposit was deeply eroded, except where armored by crater ejecta, and it retreated as much as 200-300 km along its western margin, leaving behind pedestal craters and knobby outliers of the deposit. Local debris flows within the deposit attest to concentrations of groundwater, perhaps in part brought in by outflow floods along the east rim of the basin. These floods may have deposited approximately 100-200m of sediment, subduing wrinkle ridges in the eastern part of the basin floor. During the Late Hesperian and Amazonian, eolian mantles were emplaced on the basin rim and floor and surrounding highlands. Their subsequent erosion resulted in pitted and etched plains and crater fill, irregular mesas, and pedestal craters. Local evidence occurs for the possible former presence of ground ice or ice sheets approximately 100 km across; however, we disagree with a hypothesis that suggest that the entire south rim and much of the floor of Hellas have been glaciated. Orientations of dune fields and yardangs in lower parts of Hellas basin follow directions of the strongest winds predicted by a recently published general circulation model (GCM). Transient frost and dust splotches in the region are, by contrast, related to the GCM prediction for the season in which the images they appear in were taken.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5407-5432
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ferric-iron-bearing materials play an important role in the interpretation of visible to near-IR Mars spectra, and they may play a similarly important role in the analysis of new mid-IR spacecraft spectral observations to be obtained over the next decade. We review exisiting data on mid-IR transmission spectra of ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides and present new transmission spectra for ferric-bearing materials spanning a wide range of mineralogy and crystallinity. These materials include 11 samples of well-crystallized ferric oxides (hematite, maghemite, and magnetite) and ferric oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite). We also report the first transmission spectra for purely nanophase ferric oxide samples that have been shown to exhibit spectral similarities to Mars in the visible to near-IR and we compare these data to previous and new transmission spectra of terrestial palagonites. Most of these samples show numerous, diagnostic absorption features in the mid-IR due to Fe(3+) - 0(2-) vibrational transitions, structural and/or bound OH, and/or silicates. These data indicate that high spatial resolution, moderate spectral resolution mid-IR ground-based and spacecraft observations of Mars may be able to detect and uniquely discriminate among different ferric-iron-bearing phases on the Martian surface or in the airborne dust.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5297-5307
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Contrary to recent assertions in the literature, lunar emission spectra obtained at an altitude of 32 km with a balloon-borne telescope are virtually undistorted by atmospheric absorption, except in the ozone region. These spectra have been found to correlate closely with laboratory emission spectra of returned lunar samples measured in a simulated lunar environment. Thus, lunar spectra obtained with the balloon-borne telescope system are the standards against which groundbased spectral measurements of the Moon should be compared. Comparison of balloon-borne measurements with recent groundbased spectral measurements suggests that the latter suffer from some source of systematic error. When high-quality lunar spectra are available, they will be best interpreted by comparison with returned lunar samples, rather than terrestrial minerals or rocks, because of subtle spectral differences between lunar and terrestrial minerals perhaps associated with incipient alteration of the latter.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 181-190
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We model an infrared outburst on Io as being due to a large, erupting lava flow which increased its area at a rate of 1.5 x 10(exp 5)/sq m and cooled from 1225 to 555 K over the 2.583-hr period of observation. The inferred effusion rate of 3 x 10(exp 5) cu m/sec for this eruption is very high, but is not unprece- dented on the Earth and is similar to the high eruption rates suggested for early lunar volcanism. Eruptions occur approxi- mately 6% of the time on Io. These eruptions provide ample resurfacing to explain Io's lack of impact craters. We suggest that the large total radiometric heat flow, 10(exp 14) W, and the size and temperature distribution of the thermal anomalies (McEwen et al. 1992; Veeder et al. 1994) can be accounted for by a series of silicate lava flows in various stages of cooling. We propose that the whole suite of Io's currently observed thermal anomalies was produced by multiple, high-eruptive-rate silicate flows within the past century.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 113; 1; p. 220-225
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The circulation of the Martian atmosphere during late southern summer is derived from atmospheric temperature and dust distributions retrieved from a subset of the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) thermal emission spectra (LS = 343-348 deg) (Santee and Crisp, 1933). Zonal-mean zonal winds are calculated by assuming gradient wind balance and zero surface zonal wind. Both hemispheres have intense midlatitude westerly jets with velocities of 80-90 m/s near 50 km; in the southern tropics the winds are easterly with velocities of 40 m/s near 50 km. The net effect of the zonal-mean meridional circulation and large-scale waves can be approximated by the diabatic ciculation, which is defined from the atmospheric thermal structure and net radiative heating rates. The radiative transfer model described by Crisp (1990) and Santee (1993) is used to compute solar heating and thermal cooling rates from diurnal averages of the retrieved IRIS temperature and dust distributions. At pressures below 4 mbar, there are large net radiative heating rates (up to 5 K/d) in the equatorial region and large net radiative cooling rates (up to 12 K/d) in the polar regions. These net radiative heating rates are used in a diagnostic stream function model which solves for the meridonal and vertical components of the diabatic circulation simultaneously. We find a two cell circulation, with rising motion over the equator, poleward flow in both hemispheres, sinking motion over both polar regions, and return flow in the lowest atmospheric levels. The maximum poleward velocity is 3 m/s in the tropics at approximately 55 km altitude, and the maximum vertical velocity is 2.5 cm/s downward over the north pole at approximately 60 km altitude. If these large transport rates are sustained for an entire season, the Martian atmosphere above the 1-mbar level is overturned in about 38 days. This diabatic circulation is qualitatively similar to the terrestial diabatic circulation at the comparable season, but is more vigorous.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5465-5484
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: Two symposia related to the exploration of the Venus and Mars atmospheres produced papers which described the results of spacecraft-based and ground-based observations of these two planets. The topics addressed included solar wind interactions, molecular ions, planetary magnetospheres, planetary ionospheres, planetary thermospheres, gravity waves, the homopause, radiative transfer, radiative balance, atmospheric water, planetary lightning, very low frequency bursts, cosmic-ray ionization, planetary loss, and future missions to study Mars aeronomy, energetic particles near Mars, radar exploration of Mars, and the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazards. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor 1, 3, and 6 sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from the Surveyor 3 photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor 3, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends; (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks; and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the Surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-104804 , NAS 1.15:104804 , S-782 , NIPS-96-07702
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  • 22
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Substantial evidence suggests that a UV spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAMs exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SaM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAMs on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAMs has been determined, further constraints on their composition cable made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199361 , NAS 1.26:199361 , SWRI PROJ. 15-5653
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Spectral observations providing evidence for the presence of volatile-bearing minerals on the surface of Mars were obtained in 1988 and 1990 from the KAO. The 1988 data suggest the presence of 1-3 weight percent (wt%) of carbonate/bicarbonate and 10-15 wt% sulfate/bisulfate associated with martian atmospheric dust. Estimates of the optical depths are approximately 0.60 and approximately 0.35 in 1988 and 1990, respectively.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, Volume 73; p 345-348
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  • 24
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Substantial evidence suggests that a UV (ultraviolet) Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-198008 , NAS 1.26:198008
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Magellan radar-mapping mission collected a large amount of science and engineering data. Now available to the general scientific community, this data set can be overwhelming to someone who is unfamiliar with the mission. This user guide outlines the mission operations and data set so that someone working with the data can understand the mapping and data-processing techniques used in the mission. Radar-mapping parameters as well as data acquisition issues are discussed. In addition, this user guide provides information on how the data set is organized and where specific elements of the set can be located.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-RP-1356 , NAS 1.61:1356
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197986 , NAS 1.26:197986
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report the results of a detailed experiment study of the kinetics and mechanism of pyrite (FeS2) chemical weathering under Venus surface conditions. Pyrite is thermodynamically unstable on the surface of Venus and will spontaneously decompose to pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) because the observed S2 partial pressure in the lower atmosphere of Venus is lower than the S2 vapor pressure over coexisting pyrite and pyrrhotite. Pyrite decomposition kinetics were studied in pure CO2 and CO2 gas mixtures along five isotherms in the temperature range 390-531 C. In all gas mixtures studied, pyrite thermally decomposes to pyrrhotite (Fe7S8), which on continued heating loses sulfur to form more Fe-rich pyrrhotites. During this process the pyrrhotites are also being oxidized to form magnetite (Fe3O4), which converts to maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), and then to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3). The reaction rates for pyrite thermal decomposition to pyrrhotite were determined by measuring the weight loss. The thickness of the unreacted pyrite in the samples provided a second independent reaction rate measurement. Finally, Mossbauer spectra done on 42 of the 115 experimental samples provided a third set of independent reaction rate data. Pyrite decomposition follows zero-order kinetics and is independent of the amount of pyrite present. The rate of pyrite decomposition is apparently independent of the gas compositions used and of the CO2 number density over a range of a factor of 40. The derived activation energy of approximately 150 kJ/mole is the same in pure CO2, two different CO-CO2 mixtures, and a ternary CO-SO2-CO2 mixture. Based on data for a CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture with a CO number density approximately 10 times higher than at the surface of Venus and a SO2 number density approximately equal to that at the surface of Venus, the rate of pyrite destruction on the surface of Venus varies from about 1225 +/- 238 days/cm at the top of Maxwell Montes (approximately 660 K) to about 233 +/- 133 days/cm in the plains of Venus (approximately 740 K). These lifetimes are very short on a geological time scale and show that pyrite cannot exist on the surface of Venus for any appreciable length of time.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 159-180
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The quantum yield and reaction threshold for the photochemical dissociation of cyanoacetylene into a hydrogen atom and the cyanoethynyl radical have been determined. The quantum yield at 185 nm is approximately 0.09. The threshold is approximately 240 nm. Combination of this data with literature values shows that production of excited-state cyanoacetylene is the major primary process resulting from irradiation between 185 and 254 nm. Also determined are the relative rate constants for the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from hydrogen, methane, and ethane by the cyanoethynyl radical (k(H2):k(CH4):k(C2H6) = 1:9.3:63). Implications of these results for the proposal that hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the conversion of methane to ethane and in the protection of unsaturated compounds from photoconsumption in the atmosphere of Titan are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 119-125
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of CO at 2.6 mm (115.27 GHz) were made with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter interferometer in 1986 and 1988, yielding high-quality disk-resolved spectra which were inverted to determine the CO mixing ratio profile from distinct regions on the disk, allowing us to map the distribution of CO in the upper mesosphere of Venus both horizontally and vertically. The 1986 observations were of the morning terminator and were particularly useful in searching for a suspected CO maximum ('bulge') on the nightside. The resulting CO mixing ratio profiles were mapped for various altitudes as functions of latitude and local time, and we report that we have resolved the previously inferred CO bulge. The bulge increases in magnitude from a small day-night variation at 90 km to an extensive nightside peak at 100 km, the upper limit of our observations. The peak bulge-to-dayside ratio approached 20-30 at 100 km in 1986 and may have been as large as 50-100, assuming late-afternoon CO abundances found in 1988 were similar to those in 1986. Three-dimensional mapping shows that in the upper mesosphere the bulge was displaced from local midnight toward the morning equator, centered at 3:30 AM local time. Using the qualitative model of mesospheric circulation on Venus proposed by Clancy and Muhleman (1985, 1991), we explain this shift in terms of strong retrograde zonal winds throughout the mesosphere, matching the directly detected mesospheric circulation (Shah, K., D. O. Muhleman, and G. L. Berge 1991) observed with the same dataset in 1988.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 141-158
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Iapetus shows a greater hemispheric albedo asymmetry than any other body in the solar system. Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in the laboratory are used to identify possible compositions for the dark material on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. The materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic residue, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. Three-component mixtures of these materials are modeled in intraparticle mixture of 25% poly-HCN, 10% Murchison residue, and 65% water ice is found to best fit the spectrum, albedo, and phase behavior of the dark material. The Murchison residue and/or water ice can be replaced by kerogen and ice tholin, respectively, and still produce very good fits. Areal and particle mixtures of poly-HCN, Titan tholin, and either ice tholin or Murchison residue are also possible models. Poly-HCN is a necessary component in almost all good models. The presence of poly-HCN can be further tested by high-resolution observations near 4.5 micrometers.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7531-7537
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Emissivity spectra of particulate mineral samples are highly dependent on particle size when that size is comparable to the wavelength of light emitted (5-50 micrometers for the midinfrared). Proper geologic interpretation of data from planetary infrared spectrometers will require that these particle size effects be well understood. To address this issue, samples of quartz powders were produced with narrow, well-characterized particle size distributions. Mean particle diameters in these samples ranged from 15 to 227 micrometers. Emission spectra of these powders allow the first detailed comparison of the complex spectral variations with particle size observed in laboratory data with the predictions of radiative transfer models. Four such models are considered here. Hapke's relectance theory (converted to emissivity via Kirchoff's law) is the first model tested. Hapke's more recently published emission theory is also employed. The third model, the 'Mie/Conel' model, uses Mie single scattering with a two-stream approximation for multiple scattering. This model, like the first, is a converted reflec- tance model. Mie scattering assumes particles are both spherical and well separated, which is not true for the quartz powders, but includes diffraction effects. The fourth model uses the Mie solution for single scattering by spheres and inputs those results into the multiple scattering formalism of Hapke's emission theory. The results of the four models are considered in relation to the values of the optical constants n and k. We have grouped these as class 1 (k large), class 2 (k moderate, n is approximately 2), class 3 (k small, n is approximately 2), and class 4 (k small, n is approximately 1). In general, the Mie/Hapke hybrid model does best at predicting variations with grain size. In particular, it predicts changes of the correct pattern, although incorrect magnitude, for class 1 bands, where large increases in emissivity with decreasing grain size are observed. This model also does an excellent job on moderate (class 2) and very weak and intraband (class 3) regions, and correctly predicts the emission maximum and its invariance with grain size near the Christiansen frequency (class 4). The Mie/Hapke hybrid model also has the fewest free parameters of the four models examined, while maintaining the most physical treatment of the radiative transfer. The Mie/Conel model performs as well as the Mie/Hapke hybrid model in strong bands (class 1) but does not accurately model the behavior of moderate (class 2) and very weak (class 3) bands.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7465-7477
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council charged its Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) to (1) examine the degree to which small missions, such as those fitting within the constraints of the Discovery program, can achieve priority objectives in the lunar and planetary sciences; (2) determine those characteristics, such as level of risk, flight rate, target mix, university involvement, technology development, management structure and procedures, and so on, that could allow a successful program; (3) assess issues, such as instrument selection, mission operations, data analysis, and data archiving, to ensure the greatest scientific return from a particular mission, given a rapid deployment schedule and a tightly constrained budget; and (4) review past programmatic attempts to establish small planetary science mission lines, including the Planetary Observers and Planetary Explorers, and consider the impact management practices have had on such programs. A series of small missions presents the planetary science community with the opportunity to expand the scope of its activities and to develop the potential and inventiveness of its members in ways not possible within the confines of large, traditional programs. COMPLEX also realized that a program of small planetary missions was, in and of itself, incapable of meeting all of the prime objectives contained in its report 'An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010.' Recommendations are provided for the small planetary missions to fulfill their promise.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199590 , NAS 1:26:199590
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  • 33
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The idea of searching for evidence of life on Mars may strike some as far-fetched, even fanciful. But there is a compelling logic to such a quest, as well as an equally compelling excitement. Early environments were apparently sufficiently similar on Mars and Earth, and life arose so rapidly on Earth once conditions became clement, that emergence of life on both planets at that time is scarcely less plausible than emergence on only one. Furthermore, although a fossil on Mars might seem at first like a proverbial needle in a haystack, experience on Earth tell us that if we know where to look, finding evidence of ancient life is not particularly difficult, especially when one considers that such evidence can be relatively widely disseminated in the form of chemical or isotopic signatures. The key is to recognize that the search for ancient life on Mars will involve a logically designed sequence of missions, each of which will focus on defining ever more closely where and how biosignatures may be found. Although one can never rule out a chance discovery, this quest should not be approached as one that will yield to a single, expeditious mission. (In fact, the proposed strategy lends itself particularly well to the use of a series of relatively small, inexpensive spacecraft, rather than a single flagship-class mission). The search for life on Mars will take time and commitment, but the reward could be a discovery of inestimable importance, not just to science, but to humanity as a whole.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-SP-530 , NAS 1.22:530
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: High resolution numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating channel with gravity perpendicular to the rotation vector are described. The convecting columns are subject to a beta-effect resulting from cross-channel topographic vortex stretching. The symmetries of the problem allow many invariant wavenumber sets, and this property is associated with the existence of stable multiple-equilibria at modest supercriticality. The transition to chaotic behavior involves the production of intermittent unstable orbits off a two-torus in energy space. At very high Rayleigh number (of order 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7)) the motion can be turbulent, depending on the size of beta. However, the turbulence is usually characterized by an almost-periodic formation of patches of small scale convection that cause regular pulsations in the accompanying strong zonal jets. The processes maintaining these flows may be related to those responsible for the zonal currents on Jupiter and for cyclic variability on the Sun.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-198646 , NAS 1.26:198646
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report describes a general plan and the pertinent technological requirements for TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems), a staged program to ascertain the prevalence and character of other planetary systems and to construct a definitive picture of the formation of stars and their planets. The first stages focus on discovering and studying a significant number of fully formed planetary systems, as well as expanding current studies of protoplanetary systems. As the TOPS Program evolves, emphasis will shift toward intensive study of the discovered systems and of individual planets. Early stages of the TOPS Program can be undertaken with ground-based observations and space missions comparable in scale to those now being performed. In the long term, however, TOPS will become an ambitious program that challenges our capabilities and provides impetus for major space initiatives and new technologies.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-110609 , NAS 1.15:110609 , PB95-184024
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: All the available nightside electron data obtained during circular orbits at Mars from the Phobos-2 Hyperbolic Retarded Potential Analyzer (HARP) instrument have been examined in detail and are summarized in this paper. An electron flux component with energies exceeding that of the unperturbed solar wind was observed inside the magnetosheath, indicating the presence of acceleration mechanism(s). The character of the electron fluxes measured in the magnetotail cannot be classified in any simple manner, however, there is a correlation between the electron fluxes measured well inside this region and the unperturbed solar wind ram pressure.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 863-866
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report on further studies of radio wave bursts detected by the Orbiting Electric Field Detector (OEFD) on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) in the nightside ionosphere of Venus. We have tested a total of 25 cases of wave burst activity for evidence of whistler-mode propagation to the spacecraft from impulsive subionospheric sources. As in a previous study of 11 of these cases (Sonwalkar et al., 1991) we find at least two distinct classes of events, one, mostly involving bursts at 100 Hz only, that passes certain tests for whistler-mode propagation, and another, mostly involving bursts in two or more of the four PVO narrowband channels (at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz), that fails to pass the tests. The subionospheric lightning hypothesis continues to be tenable as a candidate explanation for many of the 100 Hz-only events, but its number of 100 Hz-only cases that do no pass all the applicable whistler-mode tests, as well as the existence at a wide range of altitudes of multichannel cases that are clearly not propagating whistler-mode waves. The wideband bursts are often observed at altitudes above 1000 km and frequently occur in regions of locally reduced electron density. Those observed at high altitude (and possibly low altitude as well) are believed to be generated near the spacecraft, possibly by an as yet unknown mechanism responsible for similar burst observations made near Earth and other planets.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 5; p. 557-573
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  • 38
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Plasma wave data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter provide the largest body of data cited as evidence for lightning on Venus. These data are also the most controversial, mainly because of the ambiguity in mode identification due to limited spectral information. We review some of the more recent studies of the plasma wave data at Venus, and we demonstrate that the characteristics of the 100 Hz waves are consistent with whistler-mode waves propagating vertically from below the ionosphere. We further show that in situ instabilities are too weak to generate whistler-mode waves, mainly because the thermal pressure is comparable with the magnetic field pressure in the ionosphere of Venus. The lower hybrid drift instability has also been suggested as an alternative source for the 100 Hz waves. However, the wave properties are more consistent with whistler-mode propagation; the lower hybrid dirft instability requires very short gradient scale lengths to overcome damping due to collisions. We also note that an apparent association between Langmuir probe anomalies and 100 Hz waves is much lower than previously reported, once we apply a consistent intensity threshold for identifying wave bursts. The lightning hyposthesis remains the most probable explanation of the plasma waves detected at low altitudes in the nightside ionosphere of Venus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 5; p. 537-556
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  • 39
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 114; 2; p. 217-236
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A general theoretical overview for the sources, sinks, gas-surface interactions, and transport dynamics of sodium and potassium in the exospheric atmsophere of Mercury is given. Information for these four factors, which control the spatial distribution of these two alkali-group gases about the planet, is incorporated in numerical models. The spatial nature and relative importance of the initial source atom atmosphere and the ambient (ballistic hopping) atom atmosphere are then examined and are shown to be controlled and coupled to a great extent by the extremely large and variable solar radiation acceleration experienced by sodium and potassium as they resonantly scatter solar photons. The lateral (antisunward) transport rate of thermally accommodated sodium and potassium ambient atoms is shown to be driven by the solar radiation acceleration and, over a significant portion of Mercury's orbit about the Sun, is sufficiently rapid to be competitive with the short photoionization lifetimes for these atoms when they are located on the summit surface near or within about 30 deg of the terminator. The lateral transport rate is characterized by a migration time determined by model calculations for an ensemble of atoms initially starting at a point source on the surface (i.e., a numerical spacetime dependent Green's function). Four animations for the spacetime evolution of the sodium (or potassium) atmosphere produced by a point source on the surface are presented on a videotape format. For extended surface sources for sodium and potassium, the local column density is determined by competition between the photoionization lifetimes and the lateral transport times of atoms originating from different surface source locations. Sodium surface source fluxes (referenced to Mercury at perihelion) that are required on the sunlit hemisphere to reproduce the typically observed several megarayleighs of D2 emission-line brightness and the inferred column densities of 1-2 x 10(exp 11) atoms per sq cm range from approximately 2-5 x 10(exp 7) atoms/sq cm/sec. The sodium model is applied to study observational data that document an anticorrelation in the average sodium column density and solar radiation acceleration. Lateral transport driven by the solar radiation acceleration is shown to produce this behavior for combinations of different sources and surface accomodation coefficients. The best fit model fits to the observational data require a significant degree of thermal accommodation of the ambient sodium atoms to the surface and a source rate that decreases as an inverse power of 1.5 to 2 in heliocentric distance.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 441; 2; p. 839-864
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The spatial variation of the geoid/topography ratio over the large Venusian volcanic highland Beta Regio is suggestive of thermal compensation, i.e., support of the highland's topography by lithospheric thinning. Both the thickness of the lithosphere and the density contrast at its base can be inferred from a quadratic regression of suitably filtered (600 km less than wavelength less than 4000 km) geoid vs. topography data. The regression yields a mean lithospheric thickness of 270 km and a density contrast of magnitude 2.5% to 3.0%. Simple isostatic balance of the long-wavelength topography at Beta Regio requires thinning of the lithosphere by 50-60% beneath the rise.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 4; p. 429-432
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Glassy objects reportedly found in Pima County, Arizona, have been identified as tektites. A field survey of the area where they were said to occur, however, did not produce any other tektites, nor did it reveal any other geologic features that might indicate a nearby impact crater. The major-, minor-, and trace-element composition of one specimen is similar to those measured in indochinites, which suggests the objects reportedly from Pima County were instead transported to southern Arizona from Indochina by people.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 110-112
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A structurally ordered cubic metal grain containing approximately 39 wt% Co, 61 wt% Fe, and less than 0.6 wt% Ni (approximately Fe3Co2) was found associated with troilite and pentlandite in the matrix of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. This mineral is similar to terrestrial wairauite. Experimental data in the Fe-Co system indicate that this CsCl-type Co-rich metal is stable below 700 C. Phase relations in the Fe-Co-Ni system show that Co cannot fractionate from Ni above 500 C. The dominant opaque minerals of awaruite, magnetite, and pentlandite in Ningqiang suggest relatively oxidizing conditions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 106-109
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  • 44
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A new meteorite find from the Nullarbor Plain in Australia was studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron microprobe techniques. The meteorite, Nullarbor 018, is an orthodox L6 chondrite that experienced minor-to-moderate alteration of metal during terrestrial weathering (grade A-B to B). During weathering, trolite was preferentially altered, and roughly 20% of the original complement of S in the meteorite was removed. Shock metamorphic effects corresponding to shock stage S4 (or shock facies d) are found, including the presence of some diaplectic feldspar (maskelynite). The meteorite is not obviously paired with other finds from the Nullarbor region, but the possibility that it is paired cannot be excluded.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 102-105
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  • 45
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The abundances of alkali elements in the Earth's core are predicted by assuming that accretion of the Earth started from material similar in composition to enstatite chondrites and that enstatite achondrites (aubrites) provide a natural laboratory to study core-mantle differentiation under extremely reducing conditions. If core formation on the aubrite parent body is comparable with core formation on the early Earth, it is found that 2600 (+/- 1000) ppm Na, 550 (+/- 260) ppm K, 3.4 (+/- 2.1) ppm Rb, and 0.31 (+/- 0.24) ppm Cs can reside in the Earth's core. The alkali-element abundances are consistent with those predicted by independent estimates based on nebula condensation calculations and heat flow data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 93-101
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 42-46
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A large (greater than 4.5 x 7 x 4 mm), igneous-textured clast in the Bovedy (L3) chondrite is notable for its high bulk SiO2 content (is approximately equal to 57.5 wt%). The clast consists of normally zoned orthopyroxene (83.8 vol%), tridymite (6.2%), an intergrowth of feldspar (5.8%) and sodic glass (3.1%), pigeonite (1.0%), and small amounts of chromite (0.2%), augite, and Fe,Ni-metal; it is best described as a silica-rich orthopyroxenite. The oxygen-isotopic composition of the clast is similar, but not identical, to Bovedy and other ordinary chondrites. The clast has a superchondritic Si/Mg ratio, but has Mg/(Mg + Fe) and Fe/Mn ratios that are similar to ordinary chondrite silicate. The closest chemical analogues to the clast are radial-pyroxene chondrules, diogenites, pyroxene-silica objects in ordinary chondrites, and silicates in the IIE iron meteorite Weekeroo Station. The clast crystallized from a siliceous melt that cooled fast enough to prevent complete attainment of equilibrium but slow enough to allow nearly complete crystallization. The texture, form, size and composition of the clast suggestion that it is an igneous differentiate from an asteroid or planetesimal that formed in the vicinity of ordinary chondrites. The melt probably cooled in the near-surface region of the parent object. It appears that in the source region of the clast, metallic and silicate partial melt were largely-to-completely lost during a relatively low degree of melting, and that during a higher degree of melting, olivine and low-Ca pyroxene separated from the remaining liquid, which ultimately solidified to form the clast. While these fractionation steps could not have all occurred at the same temperature, they could have been accomplished in a single melting episode, possibly as a result of heating by radionuclides or by electromagnetic induction. Fractionated magmas can also account for other Si-rich objects in chondrites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 57-70
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Some fraction of Zn, Cu, Se, Ga and Ge in chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the lower stratosphere between 1981 May and 1984 June has a volcanic origin. I present a method to evaluate the extent of this unavoidable type of stratospheric contamination for individual particles. The mass-normalized abundances for Cu and Ge as a function of mass-normalized stratospheric residence time show their time-integrated stratospheric aerosol abundances. The Zn, Se and Ga abundances show a subdivision into two groups that span approximately two-year periods following the eruptions of the Mount St. Helens (1980 May) and El Chichon (1982 April) volcanoes. Elemental abundances in particles collected at the end of each two-year period indicate low, but not necessarily ambient, volcanic stratospheric abundances. Using this time-integrated baseline, I calculate the straospheric contaminant fractions in nine IDPs and show that Zn, SE and Ga abundances in chondritic IDPs derive in part from stratospheric aerosol contaminants. Post-entry elemental abundances (i.e., the amount that survived atmospheric entry heating of the IDP) show enrichments relative to the CI abundances but in a smaller number of particles than previously suggested.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 33-41
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  • 49
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A spherical 220-micrometer diameter, spinel-hibonite-perovskite inclusion from the Allende C3V meteorite contains a central hibonite cluster with an angular coundary. This central hibonite is enclosed within spinel that is zoned from Mg-rich at the hibonite boundary to more Fe-rich at the inclusion boundary. This spinel zone includes lath-shaped hibonites usually subradial to the central hibonites. Two textural types of perovskites are present as exsolution from the central hibonite and as equidimensional grains within both the central hibonite and spinel. These second perovskites have exsolution lamellae of Al2O3. Within the central hibonite and adjacent to some equidimensional perovskites, a fine porous phase interpreted as alteration has a composition of nearly pure Al2O3 with minor amounts of Na and Si. This is possibly either an intergrowth of corundum and nepheline or a modified Al2O3, Beta-alumina.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 30; 1; p. 9-14
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A workshop was convened at Ames Research Center on September 28 and 29, 1993, to address the unexplained electrical anomalies experienced in December 1978 by the four Pioneer Venus probes below a Venus altitude of 12.5 km. These anomalies caused the loss of valuable data in the deep atmosphere, and, if their cause were to remain unexplained, could reoccur on future Venus missions. The workshop participants reviewed the evidence and studied all identified mechanisms that could consistently account for all observed anomalies. Both hardware problems and atmospheric interactions were considered. Based on a workshop recommendation, subsequent testing identified the cause as being an insulation failure of the external harness. All anomalous events are now explained.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-3303 , A-950043 , NAS 1.55:3303 , 28-29 Sep. 1993; Moffett Field, CA; United States
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The basic objectives of this NASA Grant are to develop theoretical understandings (tested with spacecraft data) of the generation and characteristics of electron plasma waves, commonly known as Langmuir-like waves, and associated radiation near f(sub p) and 2f(sub p) in planetary foreshocks. (Here f(sub p) is plasma frequency.) Related waves and radiation in the source regions of interplanetary type III solar radio bursts provide a simpler observational and theoretical context for developing and testing such understandings. Accordingly, applications to type III bursts constitute a significant fraction of the research effort. The testing of the new Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT) for type III bursts, and its extension and testing for foreshock waves and radiation, constitutes a major longterm strategic goal of the research effort.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197376 , NAS 1.26:197376
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objective of the proposal was to model the rototranslational and rotovibrational collision induced absorption spectral bands of importance for the radiative transfer analysis of the atmosphere of Venus. Our main task has involved CO2 pairs. The approach is not straightforward: whereas computational techniques to compute CIA spectra of small linear molecules exist, and were successfully applied to molecules like H2 or N2, they fail when applied to large molecules like CO2. For small molecules one can safely assume that the interaction potential is isotropic. The same approximation does not work for CO2, and when employed, it gives an incorrect band shape and only 50 percent of the CIA intensity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197373 , NAS 1.26:197373
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  • 53
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Progress in the development of the model for the circumplanetary distribution of atomic hydrogen in the Saturn system produced by a Titan source is discussed. Because of the action of the solar radiation acceleration and the obliquity of Saturn, the hydrogen distribution is shown to undergo seasonal changes as the planet moves about the Sun. Preliminary model calculations show that for a continuous Titan source, the H distribution is highly asymmetric about the planet and has a density maximum near the dusk side of Saturn, qualitatively similar to the pattern recently deduced by Shemansky and Hall from observations acquired by the UVS instruments aboard the Voyager spacecrafts. The investigation of these Voyager data will be undertaken in the next project year.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197377 , P-498 , NAS 1.26:197377
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objectives of the research are to measure low temperature laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions relevant to the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. These reactions are, for example, C2H + H2, CH4, C2H2, and other hydrocarbons which need to be measured at low temperatures, down to approximately 150 K. The results of this work are provided to NASA specialists who study modeling of the hydrocarbon chemistry of the outer planets. The apparatus for this work consists of a pulsed laser photolysis system and a tunable F-center probe laser to monitor the disappearance of C2H. A low temperature cell with a cryogenic circulating fluid in the outer jacket provides the gas handling system for this work. These elements have been described in detail in previous reports. Several new results are completed and the publications are just being prepared. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 has been measured with an improved apparatus down to 154 K. An Arrhenius plot indicates a clear increase in the rate coefficient at the lowest temperatures, most likely because of the long-lived (C4H3) intermediate. The capability to achieve the lowest temperatures in this work was made possible by construction of a new cell and addition of a multipass arrangement for the probe laser, as well as improvements to the laser system.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199435 , NAS 1.26:199435
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 213-234
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, T1, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis of 14 additional H5 and H6 chondrite falls. Data for the 10 most volatile elements (Rb to In) treated by the multivariate techniques of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression in these and 44 other falls are compared with those of 59 H4-6 chondrites from Antarctica. Various populations are tested by the multivariate techniques, using the previously developed method of randomization-simulation to assess significance levels. An earlier conclusion, based on fewer examples, that H4-6 chondrite falls are compositionally distinguishable from the Antarctic suite is verified by the additional data. This distinctiveness is highly significant because of the presence of samples from Victoria Land in the Antarctic population, which differ compositionally from falls beyond any reasonable doubt. However, it cannot be proven unequivocally that falls and Antarctic samples from Queen Maud Land are compositionally distinguishable. Trivial causes (e.g., analyst bias, weathering) cannot explain the Victoria Land (Antarctic)/non-Antarctic compositional difference for paradigmatic H4-6 chondrites. This seems to reflect a time-dependent variation of near-Earth meteoroid source regions differing in average thermal history.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3335-3349
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report Cl-36 (301-kyr half-life) data obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry allowing nominal terrestrial ages to be determined for 39 Antarctic H4-6 chondrites for which contents of volatile trace elements are known. The compositional difference between these Antarctic meteorites and 58 non-Antarctic falls increases with terrestrial age and, using multivariate statistical techniques, becomes highly significant for Antarctic samples with ages greater than 50 kyr. The compositional difference is inconsistent with trivial causes such as weathering and seems to reflect differences in thermal histories of parent sources. Temporal source variations for the H chondrite flux on Earth thus exist not only on a short-term, 40 years, basis (Dodd et al., 1993) but also on a long-term, greater than 50 kyr, basis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3317-3333
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  • 58
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The approximately concentric arrangement of layered deposits and dune fields at the two Martian poles may reflect a nearly steady state dispersal of material from the polar deposits. Data on effective surface winds from high resolution Viking Images combined with theory of local winds suggest that the northern dunes are in part confined to a latitude band by winds generated by their own low albedo. Dispersal of the dark sand from the southern polar region is not subject to this kind of feedback because the irregular topography prevents areal accumulations sufficiently extensive to produce winds.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5397-5406
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  • 59
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Longitudinal dunes are extremely rare on Mars, but constitute a substantial fraction of terrestrial desert dunes. We report finding isolated examples of longitudinal dunes on Mars and relate their occurence to expected sand transport regimes. Terrestrial longitudinal dunes form in bimodal and multimodal transport regimes. General circulation models and streak data indicate that bimodal and multimodal transport of sand should be very rare on Mars. Thus the dearth of longitudinal dunes on Mars is consistant with their apparent formation conditions on Earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5381-5395
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Martian regolith is the most substantial volatile reservoir on the planet; estimates of its adsorbed inventory have been based on simple measurements of the adsorption of either water or CO2 in isolation. Under some conditions, H2O can poison adsorbate surfaces, such that CO2 uptake is greatly reduced. We have made the first measurements of the simultaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under conditions appropriate to the Martian regolith and have found that at H2O monolayer coverage above about 0.5, CO2 begins to be displaced into the gas phase. We have developed an empirical expression that describes our co-adsorption data and have applied it to standard models of the Martian regolith. We find that currently, H2O does not substantially displace CO2, implying that the adsorbate inventories previously derived may be accurate, not more than 3-4 kPa (30-40 mbar). No substantial increase in atmospheric pressure is predicted at higher obliquities because high-latitude ground ice buffers the partial pressure of H2O in the pores, preventing high monolayer coverages of H2O from displacing CO2. The peak atmospheric pressure at high obliquity does increase as the total inventory of exchangeable CO2 increases.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5341-5349
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The thermal emision of two palagonitic soils, common visible and near infrared spectral analogs for bright soils on Mars, was measured over the wavelength range of 5 to 25 micrometers (2000 to 400/cm) for several partical size separates. All spectra exhibit emissivity features due to vibrations associated with H2O and SiO. The maximum variability of emissivity is approximately 20% in the short wavelength region (5 to 6.5 mirometers, 2000 to 1500/cm), and is more subdued, less than 4%, at longer wavelengths. The strengths of features present in the infrared spectra of Mars cannot be solely provided by emissivity variations of palagonite; some other material or mechanism must provide additional absorptions(s).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5309-5317
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5369-5379
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The first thermal images of Phobos' shadow on the surface of Mars, in addition to simultaneous visible images, were obtained by the Phobus '88 Termoskan instrument. The best observed shadow occurence was on the flanks of Arsia Mons. For this occurence, we combined the observed decrease in visible illumination of the surface with the observed decrease in brightness temperature to calculate thermal inertias of the Martian surface. The most realistic of our three models of eclipse cooling improves upon our preliminary model by including nonisothermal initial conditions and downward atmospheric flux. Most of our derived inertias fall within the range 38 to 59 J/Sq m/S(exp 0.5)K (0.9 to 1.4 10(exp -3)Cal/Sq m/S(exp 0.5)/K), corresponding to dust-sized particles (for a homogeneous surface), consistent with previous theories of Tharsis as a currrent area of dust deposition. Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) inertias are diurnally derived and are sensitive to centimeter depths, whereas the shadow-derived inertias sample the upper tenths of a millimeter of the surface. The shadow-derived inertias are lower than those derived from Viking IRTM measurements (84 to 147), however, uncertainties in both sets of derived inertias make conclusions about layering tenuous. Thus, near-surface millimeter versus centimeter layering may exist in this region, but if it does, it is likely not very significant. Both eclipse and diurnal inertias appear to increase near the eastern end of the shadow occurence. We also analyzed a shadow occurence near the crater Herschel that showed no observed cooling. This analysis was limited by cool morning temperatures and instrument sensitivity, but yielded a lower bound of 80 on eclipse inertias in that region. Based upon our results, we strongly recommend future spacecraft thermal observations of Phobus' shadow, and suggest that they will be most useful if they improve upon Termoskan's geographic and temporal coverage and its accuracy.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5285-5296
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We examine the effects of a dusty CO2 atmosphere on the thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo of Mars and we present a new map of thermal inertias. This new map was produced using a coupled surface atmosphere (CSA) model, dust opacities from Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) data, and CO2 columns based on topography. The CSA model thermal inertias are smaller than the 2% model thermal inertias, with the difference largest at large thermal inertia. Although the difference between the thermal inertias obtained with the two models is moderate for much of the region studied, it is largest in regions of either high dust opacity or of topographic lows, including the Viking Lander 1 site and some geologically interesting regions. The CSA model thermally derived albedos do not acurately predict the IRTM measured albedos and are very similar to the thermally derived albedos obtained with models making the 2% assumption.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5277-5284
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  • 65
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A technique for estimating the ground and near-ground atmospheric temperatures within a Martian local dust storm is presented. It is applied to soundings taken by the Viking orbiter infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instrument at four times-of-day for one storm. Essentially, a comparison is made between infrared radiances emerging from the storm interior and those from the region surrounding the storm. Particle extinction properties are assumed to be independent of position in the storm region, and scattering properties must be selected arbitrarily. For the storm studied here, the ground temperature in the interior is at least 6 K cooler, whereas the near-ground atmospheric temperature may be less than or comparable to, those of the surroundings. The thermal structure of the storm interior did not change measurably between 11.5 and 16.6 hours local time. These observations favor the theories of dust storm development in which regional winds rather than local, dust driven convection initiate the mobilization of dust from the surface. It also concluded that the optical properties of dust particles in this local storm differ from those observed by Mariner 9 during the 1971-1972 global dust storm.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5265-5275
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We have reanalyzed three sets of Viking Lander 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2) images of the Martian atmosphere to better evaluate the radiative properties of the atmospheric dust particles. The properties of interest are the first two moments of the size distribution, the single-scattering albedo, the dust single-scattering phase function, and the imaginary index of refraction. These properties provide a good definition of the influence that the atmospheric dust has on heating of the atmosphere. Our analysis represents a significant improvement over past analyses (Pollack et al. 1977, 1979) by deriving more accurate brightness closer to the sun, by carrying out more precise analyses of the data to acquire the quantities of interest, and by using a better representation of scattering by nonspherical particles. The improvements allow us to better define the diffraction peak and hence the size distribution of the particles. For a lognormal particle size distribution, the first two moments of the size distribution, weighted by the geometric cross section, are found. The geometric cross-section weighted mean radius r(sub eff) is found to be 1.85 +/- 0.3 micrometers at VL2 during northern summer when dust loading was low and 1.52 +/- 0.3 micrometers at VL1 during the first dust storm. In both cases the best cross-section weighted mean variance nu(sub eff) of the size distribution is equal to 0.5 +/- 0.2 micrometers. The changes in size distribution, and thus radiative properties, do not represent a substantial change in solar energy deposition in the atmosphere over the Pollak et al. (1977, 1979) estimates.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5235-5250
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The general objective for this work was to develop a theoretically and experimentally consistent explanation for the diffuse component of radar backscatter from Mars. The strength, variability, and wavelength independence of Mars' diffuse backscatter are unique among our Moon and the terrestrial planets. This diffuse backscatter is generally attributed to wavelength-scale surface roughness and to rock clasts within the Martian regolith. Through the combination of theory and experiment, the authors attempted to bound the range of surface characteristics that could produce the observed diffuse backscatter. Through these bounds they gained a limited capability for data inversion. Within this umbrella, specific objectives were: (1) To better define the statistical roughness parameters of Mars' surface so that they are consistent with observed radar backscatter data, and with the physical and chemical characteristics of Mars' surface as inferred from Mariner 9, the Viking probes, and Earth-based spectroscopy; (2) To better understand the partitioning between surface and volume scattering in the Mars regolith; (3) To develop computational models of Mars' radio emission that incorporate frequency dependent, surface and volume scattering.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-198650 , NAS 1.26:198650
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The atmospheric flow on Io is numerically computed in a flat 2-D axisymmetric geometry for a sublimation atmosphere on the trailing hemisphere subjected to plasma bombardment, UV heating, and IR cooling. Calculations are performed for subsolar vapor pressures of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp -3) Pa (approximately 3 x 10(exp 18) SO2/sq cm) and 6.8 x 10(exp -4) Pa (approximately 4 x 10(exp 17) SO2/sq cm); the latter approximates the vapor pressure of F. P. Fanale et al. (1982). The amount of plasma energy deposited in the atmosphere is 20% of the plasma flow energy due to corotation (J. A. Linker et al., 1988). It is found that plasma heating significantly inflates the upper atmosphere, increasing both the exobase altitude and the amount of surface covered by more than an exospheric column of gas. This in turn controls the supply of the Io plasma torus (M. A. McGrath and R. E. Johnson, 1987). The horizontal flow of mass and energy is also important in determining the exobase altitude; and it is shown that IR cooling can be important, although our use of the equilibrium, cool-to-space approximation for a pure SO2 gas (E. Lellouch et al., 1992) may overestimate this effect. The calculated exobase altitudes are somewhat lower than those suggested by McGrath and Johnson (1987) for supplying the torus, indicating the details of the plasma energy deposition and sputter ejection rate near the exobase, as well as the IR emission from this region need to be examined. In addition, the molecules sublimed (or sputtered) from the surface are transported to the exobase in times short compared to the molecular photodissociation time. Therefore, the exobase is dominated by molecular species and the exobase is supplied by a small region of the surface.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 109-118
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The spectral characterization of small asteroids is important for understanding the evolution of their compositional and mineralogical properties. We report the results of a CCD spectroscopic survey of small main-belt asteroids which we call the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS). Spectra of 316 asteroids were obtained, with wavelength coverage ranging from 4000 to 10000 A (0.4 to 1 micrometers). More than half of the objects in our survey have diameters less than 20 km. Survey results include the identification of the first object resembling ordinary chondrite meteorites among the main-belt asteroids (Binzel, R. P., et al, 1993) and observations of more than 20 asteroids showing basaltic achondrite spectral absorption features that strongly link Vesta as the parent body for the basaltic achondrite meteorites (Binzel, R. P., and S. Xu 1993). A potential Mars-crossing asteroid analog to ordinary chondrite meteorites (H chondrites), 2078 Nanking, is reported here. Through a principal component analysis, we have assigned classifications to the members of our sample. The majority of the small main-belt asteroids belong to S and C classes, similar to large asteroids. Our analysis shows that two new classes are justified which we label as J and O. Small asteroids display more diversity in spectral absorption features than the larger ones, which may indicate a greater variation of compositions in the small asteroid population. We found a few candidates for olivine-rich asteroids within the S class. Although the total number of olivine-rich candidates is relatively small, we present evidence suggesting that such objects are more prevalent at smaller sizes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 115; 1; p. 1-35
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  • 70
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 113; 1; p. 156-167
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We have carried out instrumental neutron activation analysis of 11 enstatite chondrites and electron microprobe analyses of 17 enstatite chondrites, most of which were previously little described. We report here the third known EH5 chondrite (LEW 88180) and an unusual EL6 chondrite (LEW 87119), new data on four EL3 chondrites (ALH 85119, EET 90299, PCA 91020, and MAC 88136, which is paired with MAC 88180 and MAC 88184), the second EL5 chondrite (TIL 91714), and an unusual metal-rich and sulfide-poor EL3 chondrite (LEW 87223). The often discussed differences in mineral composition displayed by the EH and EL chondrites are not as marked after the inclusion of the new samples in the database, and the two classes apparently experienced a similar range of equilibrium temperatures. However, texturally the EL chondrites appear to have experienced much higher levels of metamorphic alteration than EH chondrites of similar equilibration temperatures. Most of the petrologic type criteria are not applicable to enstatite chondrites and, unlike the ordinary chondrites, texture and mineralogy reflect different aspects of the meteorite history. We therefore propose that the existing petrologic type scheme not be used for enstatite chondrites. We suggest that while 'textural type' reflects peak metamorphic temperatures, the 'mineralogical type' reflects equilibration during postmetamorphic (probably regolith) processes. Unlike the ordinary chondrites and EH chondrites, EL chondrites experienced an extensive low-temperature metamorphic episode. There are now a large number of enstatite meteorite breccias and impact melts, and apparently surface processes were important in determining the present nature of the enstatite chondrites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E5; p. 9417-9438
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We have measured significant concentrations of Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36 from decay of Cl-36, and Sm-150 produced from the capture of thermalized neutrons in the large Chico L6 chondrite. Activities of Cl-36 and Ca-41, corrected for a high-energy spallogenic component and a terrestrial age of approximately 50 ka, give average neutron-capture production rates of 208 atoms/min/g-Cl and 1525 atoms/min/kg-Ca, which correspond to thermal neutron (n) fluxes of 6.2 n/sq cm/s and 4.3 n/sq cm/s, respectively. If sustained for the approximately 65 Ma single-stage, cosmic ray exposure age of Chico, these values correspond to thermal neutron fluences of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 16) and 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm for Cl-36 and Ca-41, respectively. Stepwise temperature extraction of Ar in Chico impact melt shows Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios as large as approximately 9. The correlation of high Ar-36/Ar-38 with high Cl/Ca phases in neutron-irradiated Chico indicates that the excess Ar-36 above that expected from spallation is due to decay of neutron-produced Cl-36. Excess Ar-36 in Chico requires a thermal neutron fluence of 0.9-1.7 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Decreases in Sm-149/Sm-152 due to neutron-capture by Sm-149 correlate with increases in Sm-150/Sm-152 for three samples of Chico, and one of the Torino H-chondrite. The 0.08% decrease in Sm-149 shown by Chico corresponds to a neutron fluence of 1.23 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. This fluence derived from Sm considers capture of epithermal neutrons and effects of chemical composition on the neutron energy distribution. Excess Ar-36 identified in the Arapahoe, Bruderheim, and Torino chondrites and the Shallowater aubrite suggest exposure to neutron fluences of approximately 0.2-0.2 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Depletion of Sm-149 in Torino and the LEW86010 angrite suggest neutron fluences of 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm and 0.25 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm, respectively. Neutron fluences of approximately 10(exp 16) n/sq cm in Chico are almost as large as those previously observed for some lunar soils. Consideration of exposure ages suggests that the neutron flux in Chico may have been greater than that in many lunar soils.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E5; p. 9401-9416
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of urKREEP. Scarce age information on lunar rocks suggests that magnesian-suite magmatism was initiated at progressively more recent time from the northeast to the southwest on the lunar nearside from 4.45 to 4.25 Ga.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E5; p. 9365-9388
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Support is requested for continuation of a program of dynamic impact (harpoon) coring of planetary, comet, or asteroid surface materials. We have previously demonstrated that good quality cores are obtainable for planetary materials with compressive strengths less than 200 MPa. Since the dynamics of penetration are observable on a Discovery class spacecraft, which images the sampling operation, these data can be used with a model developed under this project, to measure in-situ strength and frictional strength of the crust of the object. During the last year we have developed a detailed analytic model of penetrator mechanics. Progress is reported for the solid penetrators experiments, the CIT penetrator model, and the impact spall sampling apparatus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199718 , NAS 1.26:199718 , NIPS-95-06072
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We prospose a new center and ring assignment for the original Chryse impact basin based upon photogeologic mapping of Noachian outcrops and re-examination of the published geology using orthographic projections. While others have centered the Chryse impact on the topographic low associated with Hesperian volcanic and fluvial deposits, we suggest that the center of the Noachian-age excavation cavity was located approximately 800 km to the north, and that the basin topography was modified significantly from the Noachian into the Hesperian. Evolution of the topographic low included structural modification by a later impact centered in Acidalia, restricted volcanic deposition and loading, localized subsidence, and restricted deposition from the circum-Chryse outlfow channels.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1269-1272
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 10(exp 5)-year timescale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3297-3316
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The transection and superposition relationships among channels, chaos, surface materials units, and other features in the circum-Chryse region of Mars were used to evaluate relative age relationships and evolution of flood events. Channels and chaos in contact (with one another) were treated as single discrete flood-carved systems. Some outflow channel systems form networks and are inferred to have been created by multiple flood events. Within some outflow channel networks, several separate individual channel systems can be traced to a specific chaos which acted as flood-source area to that specific flood channel. Individual flood-carved systems were related to widespread materials units or other surface features that served as stratigraphic horizons. Chryse outflow channels are inferred to have formed over most of the perceivable history of Mars. Outflow channels are inferred to become younger with increasing proximity to the Chryse basin. The relationship of subsequent outflow channel sources to the sources of earlier floods is inferred to disfavor episodic flooding due to the progresssive tapping of a juvenile near-surface water supply. Instead, we propose the circum-Chryse region as a candidate site of past hydrological recycling. The discharge rates necessary to carve the circum-Chryse outflow channels would have inevitably formed temporary standing bodies of H2O on the Martian surface where the flood-waters stagnated and pooled (the Chryse basin is topographically enclosed). These observations and inferences have led us to formulate and evaluate two hypotheses. Our numerical evaluations indicate that of these two hypotheses formulated, the groundwater seep cycle seems by far the more viable. Further observations from forthcoming missions may permit the determination of which mechanisms may have operated to recycle the Chryse flood-waters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5433-5447
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We calculated the vapor flux of the icy components in the surface layer of a porous, short-period, Jupiter-class comet, in order to investigate the relationship of the observed relative molecular abundances in the coma with those in the nucleus. The model assumes a body containing one major ice component (H20) and up to three minor components of higher volatility (e.g., CO, CO2, CH3OH). The body's porous structure is modeled as a bundle of tubes with a given tortuosity and initially a constant pore diameter. The mass and energy equations for the different volatiles are solved simultaneously under appropiate boundary conditions. Heat is conducted by the matrix and carried by the vapors. The one-dimensional model includes radially inward and outward flowing vapor within the body, complete depletion of less volatile ices in outer layers, and recondensation of vapor in deeper, coller layers. As a result, we obtain the temperature and abundance distribution in the nucleus and the gas flux into the interior and into the coma for each of the volatiles at various positions in the orbit. The ratio of the gas flux of minor volatiles to that of H2) in the coma varies by several orders of magnitude throughout the orbit. Thus, the relative abundances of species observed in the coma are in most cases not the same as those in the nucleus. Results also indicate that it will be impossible to determine the relative abundances of ices more volatile than water from samples taken a few meters below the surface during a comet rendezvous mission. We made calculations for a wide range of different parameters, such as porosity, pore radius, and thermal conductivity of the matrix. To introduce the model we present typical results for a dust-free comet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 114; 2; p. 348-354
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Recent calculations of the Martian obliquity suggests that it varies chaotically on timescales longer than about 10(exp 7) years and varies between about 0 and 60 deg. We examine the seasonal water behavior at obliquities between 40 and 60 deg. Up to several tens of centimeters of water may sublime from the polar caps each year, and possibly move to the equator, where it is more stable. The CO2 frost and CO2-H2O clathrate hydrate are stable in thepolar deposits below a few tens of meters depth, so that the polar cap could contain a significant CO2 reservoir. If CO2 is present, it could be left over from the early history of Mars; also, it could be released into the atmosphere during periods of high obliquity, causing occasional periods of more-clement climate.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E1; p. 1579-1584
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The high vapor pressure of volatile metal halides and chalcogenides (e.g., of Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi) at typical Venus surface temperatures, coupled with the altitude-dependent temperature gradient of approximately 8.5 K/km, is calculated to transport volatile metal vapors to the highlands of Venus, where condensation and accumulation will occur. The predicted geochemistry of volatile metals on Venus is supported by observations of CuCl in volcanic gases at Kilauea and Nyiragongo, and large enrichments of these and other volatile elements in terrestrial volcanic aerosols. A one-dimensional finite difference vapor transport model shows the diffusive migration of a thickness of 0.01 to greater than 10 microns/yr of moderately to highly volatile phases (e.g., metal halides and chalcogenides) from the hot lowlands (740 K) to the cold highlands (660 K) on Venus. The diffusive transport of volatile phases on Venus may explain the observed low emissivity of the Venusian highlands, hazes at 6-km altitude observed by two Pioneer Venus entry probes, and the Pioneer Venus entry probe anomalies at 12.5 km.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E1; p. 1553-1563
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A rift over 6000 km in total length runs along the border of Lada Terra, a highland in the southern hemisphere of Venus, and Lavinia Planitia, a basin that has been interpreted as a site of early-stage mantle downwelling. Along the length of the rift are a number of volcanic centers of widely varying morphology and volcanic output. These include coronae, radially fractured domes, and large flow fields similar in scale to terrestrial flood basalts. We develop a model for the origin of extension related to passive rifting in response to stresses created by the adjacent downwelling. Volcanism and extension at other rifts on Venus, such as Devana Chasma, have been attributed to deep-seated mantle plume activity. In contrast, we interpret the origin of extension and volcanism along the Lada rift to be linked to upwelling and decompression melting of mantle material due to rifting and, possibly, to counterflow associated with downwelling. Extension occurred generally prior to the formation of volcanic centers and the eruption of large-scale flow fields, although most of the volcanic centers have been fractured by continued extension along the rift. Current debate over the formation of terrestrial flood basalts centers on the necessity of preexisting extension and stretched and thinned lithosphere to produce enhanced decompression melting within a large plume head or mantle thermal anomaly. Our studies of large-scale flow fields associated with the Lada rift and coronae on Venus indicate that extension is a prerequisite for the formation of the majority of large-scale flow units on Venus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E1; p. 1527-1552
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  • 82
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Although the Phobos-2 spacecraft recently obtained important results relevant to some of the major remaining questions in Mars aeronomy, much remains to be done. In particular, not since the Viking Landers have we made in-situ measurements of aeronomical quantities such as atmospheric and ionospheric densities and temperatures below 400 km altitude. We have never made magnetic field measurements at these altitudes. Without such measurements we cannot unambiguously resolve arguments concerning issues such as the significance of the planetary magnetic field in the solar wind interaction, or understand the atmospheric cycle that leads to escape to space. With the trio of future orbiters including Mars Observer, Mars-94, and Planet-B we should see a veritable explosion of new knowledge, but some gaps in aeronomical science coverage will still remain. This paper briefly reviews some of the major unsolved problems in Mars aeronomy, and points out which are expected to remain outstanding after this flotilla of missions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)143-(4)157
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