ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Other Sources  (1,773)
  • Springer  (1,773)
  • MDPI Publishing
Collection
Language
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-28
    Description: Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model’s atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or ”warming hole”—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of the local SST pattern changes on regions outside the North Atlantic is small in our setup.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 401-418. ISBN 978-3-319-99416-1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Coral reefs in the Red Sea belong to the most diverse and productive reef ecosystems worldwide, although they are exposed to strong seasonal variability, high temperature, and high salinity. These factors are considered stressful for coral reef biota and challenge reef growth in other oceans, but coral reefs in the Red Sea thrive despite these challenges. In the central Red Sea high temperatures, high salinities, and low dissolved oxygen on the one hand reflect conditions that are predicted for ‘future oceans’ under global warming. On the other hand, alkalinity and other carbonate chemistry parameters are considered favourable for coral growth. In coral reefs of the central Red Sea, temperature and salinity follow a seasonal cycle, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients mostly vary spatially, and dissolved oxygen and pH fluctuate on the scale of hours to days. Within these strong environmental gradients micro- and macroscopic reef communities are dynamic and demonstrate plasticity and acclimatisation potential. Epilithic biofilm communities of bacteria and algae, crucial for the recruitment of reef-builders, undergo seasonal community shifts that are mainly driven by changes in temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. These variables are predicted to change with the progression of global environmental change and suggest an immediate effect of climate change on the microbial community composition of biofilms. Corals are so-called holobionts and associate with a variety of microbial organisms that fulfill important functions in coral health and productivity. For instance, coral-associated bacterial communities are more specific and less diverse than those of marine biofilms, and in many coral species in the central Red Sea they are dominated by bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas. Generally, coral microbiomes align with ecological differences between reef sites. They are similar at sites where these corals are abundant and successful. Coral microbiomes reveal a measurable footprint of anthropogenic influence at polluted sites. Coral-associated communities of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in central Red Sea corals are dominated by Symbiodinium from clade C. Some corals harbour the same specific symbiont with a high physiological plasticity throughout their distribution range, while others maintain a more flexible association with varying symbionts of high physiological specificity over depths, seasons, or reef locations. The coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis drives calcification of the coral skeleton, which is a key process that provides maintenance and formation of the reef framework. Calcification rates and reef growth are not higher than in other coral reef regions, despite the beneficial carbonate chemistry in the central Red Sea. This may be related to the comparatively high temperatures, as indicated by reduced summer calcification and long-term slowing of growth rates that correlate with ocean warming trends. Indeed, thermal limits of abundant coral species in the central Red Sea may have been exceeded, as evidenced by repeated mass bleaching events during previous years. Recent comprehensive baseline data from central Red Sea reefs allow for insight into coral reef functioning and for quantification of the impacts of environmental change in the region.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Dosidicus gigas (the Humboldt squid) is a widely distributed and ecologically important predator in the eastern Pacific Ocean, but its mating behaviour is poorly understood. Individuals of this species have undergone a drastic change in size at maturity in the last years. We investigated mating activity of Humboldt squid in the Gulf of California in 2013, 2014, and 2015 by quantifying spermatangia deposited in the tissue of the buccal area. In 2015, we encountered the smallest mean mantle length of mature specimens recorded to date in the Gulf of California. In all years, numerous males were encountered that had been mated by other males. Spermatangia in males were deposited on the tissue in similar numbers and in the same location as normally occurs in females (the buccal area), suggesting that male-to-male mating behaviour is similar to male-to-female. This behaviour is referred to as same-sex sexual behaviour and has been described for various taxa, including other cephalopods. Overall similarity in mating frequency between males and females and in body size of mated individuals (in 2015) suggests non-discriminative and brief encounters with body size being a cue for mating. This mating strategy may be beneficial for males, as Humboldt squid live in groups where competition for mates is likely high. The energetic costs of male-to-male mating events may be counterbalanced by the fitness profits of indiscriminate mating behaviour.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-26
    Description: An interactive (multi-access) global identification key (OncIdent) has been developed for the pelagic marine microcopepod family Oncaeidae and made accessible online. Details of the general approach and development of the key are given in Bottger-Schnack and Schnack (J Nat Hist 49:2727-2741, 2015). After beta-testing, new additions include illustrations for all species and feature attributes considered, plus a textual summary of each species' feature states in the key. Additional taxonomic notes are given where required, highlighting morphological or molecular genetic peculiarities or problems, with links to large data bases leading directly to more comprehensive information about each species. The present paper briefly reviews the taxonomic background for key construction, summarizes the opportunities and limitations of the current online version OncIdent2.0, and provides guidance for its practical use.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer Oceanography Series . Springer, Cham, pp. 185-194.
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea are unusual extreme environments and form characteristically steep gradients across the brine-seawater interfaces. Due to their unusual nature and unique combination of physical-chemical conditions these interfaces provide an interesting source of new findings in the fields of geochemistry, geology, microbiology, biotechnology, virology, and general biology. The current chapter summarizes recent and new results in the study of geochemistry and life at the interfaces of brine-filled deeps of the Red Sea.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  A Mathematical Modeling Approach from Nonlinear Dynamics to Complex Systems
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Type: inbook
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Geological Setting, Palaeoenvironment and Archaeology of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 221-232.
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges and assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust or hydrothermal fluids by rising magma can be traced by measuring chlorine (Cl) excess in erupted lavas. The Red Sea Rift provides a unique opportunity to study assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust at an ultra-slow spreading ridge (maximum 1.6 cm yr−1 full spreading rate) by Cl, due to its saline seawater (40–42‰, cf. 35‰ in open ocean water), the presence of (hot) brine pools (up to 270‰ salinity and 68 °C) and the thick evaporite sequences that flank the young rift. Absolute chlorine concentrations (up to 1300 ppm) and Cl concentrations relative to minor or trace elements of similar mantle incompatibility (e.g., K, Nb) are much higher in Red Sea basalts than in basalts from average slow spreading ridges. Mantle Cl/Nb concentrations can be used to calculate the Cl-excess, above the magmatic Cl, that is present in the samples. Homogeneous within-sample Cl concentrations, high Cl/H2O, the decoupling of Cl-excess from other trace elements and its independence of the presence of highly saline seafloor brines at the site of eruption indicate that Cl is not enriched at the seafloor. Instead we find basaltic Cl-excess to be spatially closely correlated with evidence of hydrothermal activity, suggesting that deeper assimilation of hydrothermal Cl is the dominant Cl-enrichment process. A proximity of samples to both evaporite outcrops and bathymetric signs of volcanism on the seafloor enhance Cl-excess in basalts. The basaltic Cl-excess can be used as a tracer together with new bathymetric maps as well as indications of hydrothermal venting (hot brine pools, metalliferous Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges and assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust or hydrothermal fluids by rising magma can be traced by measuring chlorine (Cl) excess in erupted lavas. The Red Sea Rift provides a unique opportunity to study assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust at an ultra-slow spreading ridge (maximum 1.6 cm yr−1 full spreading rate) by Cl, due to its saline seawater (40–42‰, cf. 35‰ in open ocean water), the presence of (hot) brine pools (up to 270‰ salinity and 68 °C) and the thick evaporite sequences that flank the young rift. Absolute chlorine concentrations (up to 1300 ppm) and Cl concentrations relative to minor or trace elements of similar mantle incompatibility (e.g., K, Nb) are much higher in Red Sea basalts than in basalts from average slow spreading ridges. Mantle Cl/Nb concentrations can be used to calculate the Cl-excess, above the magmatic Cl, that is present in the samples. Homogeneous within-sample Cl concentrations, high Cl/H2O, the decoupling of Cl-excess from other trace elements and its independence of the presence of highly saline seafloor brines at the site of eruption indicate that Cl is not enriched at the seafloor. Instead we find basaltic Cl-excess to be spatially closely correlated with evidence of hydrothermal activity, suggesting that deeper assimilation of hydrothermal Cl is the dominant Cl-enrichment process. A proximity of samples to both evaporite outcrops and bathymetric signs of volcanism on the seafloor enhance Cl-excess in basalts. The basaltic Cl-excess can be used as a tracer together with new bathymetric maps as well as indications of hydrothermal venting (hot brine pools, metalliferous sediments) to predict where hydrothermal venting or now inactive hydrothermal vent fields can be expected. Sites of particular interest for future hydrothermal research are the Mabahiss Deep, the Thetis-HadarbaHatiba Deeps and Shagara-Aswad-Erba Deeps (especially their large axial domes), and Poseidon Deep. Older hydrothermal vent fields may be present at the Nereus and Suakin Deeps. These sites significantly increase the potential of hydrothermal vent field prospection in the Red Sea.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Geological Setting, Palaeoenvironment and Archaeology of the Red Sea. , ed. by Rasul, N. M. A. and Stewart, I. C. F. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 37-52. ISBN 978-3-319-99407-9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: Continental rifting and ocean basin formation can be observed at the present day in the Red Sea, which is used as the modern analogue for the formation of mid-ocean ridges. Competing theories for how spreading begins—either by quasi-instantaneous formation of a whole spreading segment or by initiation of spreading at multiple discrete “nodes” separated by thinned continental lithosphere—have been put forward based, until recently, on the observations that many seafloor features and geophysical anomalies (gravity, magnetics) along the axis of the Red Sea appeared anomalous compared to ancient and modern examples of ocean basins in other parts of the world. The latest research shows, however, that most of the differences between the Red Sea Rift (RSR) and other (ultra)slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges can be related to its relatively young age and the presence and movement of giant submarine salt flows that blanket large portions of the rift valley. In addition, the geophysical data that was previously used to support the presence of continental crust between the axial basins with outcropping oceanic crust (formerly named “spreading nodes”) can be equally well explained by processes related to the sedimentary blanketing and hydrothermal alteration. The observed spreading nodes are not separated from one another by tectonic boundaries but rather represent “windows” onto a continuous spreading axis which is locally inundated and masked by massive slumping of sediments or evaporites from the rift flanks. Volcanic and tectonic morphologies are comparable to those observed along slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges elsewhere and regional systematics of volcanic occurrences are related to variations in volcanic activity and mantle heat flow. Melt-salt interaction due to salt flows, that locally cover the active spreading segments, and the absence of large detachment faults as a result of the nearby Afar plume are unique features of the RSR. The differences and anomalies seen in the Red Sea still may be applicable to all young oceanic rifts, associated with plumes and/or evaporites, which makes the Red Sea a unique but highly relevant type example for the initiation of slow rifting and seafloor spreading and one of the most interesting targets for future ocean research.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Springer Oceanography Book series . Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 550 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-99417-8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This book includes invited contributions presenting the latest research on the oceanography and environment of the Red Sea. In addition to covering topics relevant to research in the region and providing insights into marine science for non-experts, it is also of interest to those involved in the management of coastal zones and encourages further research on the Red Sea
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-02-11
    Description: The present study details the effects of basin-scale hydrographic characteristics of the Red Sea on the macroecology of Chaetognatha, a major plankton component in the pelagic realm. The hydrographic attributes and circulation of the Red Sea as a result of its limited connection with the northern Indian Ocean make it a unique ecohydrographic region in the world ocean. Here, we aimed to identify the prime determinants governing the community structure and vertical distribution of the Cheatognatha in this ecologically significant world ocean basin. The intrusion of Gulf of Aden Water influenced the Chaetognatha community composition in the south, whereas the overturning circulation altered their vertical distribution in the north. The existence of hypoxic waters (〈 100 µmol kg−1) at mid-depth also influenced their vertical distribution. The detailed evaluation of the responses of the different life stages of Chaetognatha revealed an increased susceptibility of adult individuals to hypoxic waters compared to immature stages. Higher oxygen demands of the adults for the egg and sperm production might have prevented them from inhabiting the oxygen-deficient mid-depth zones. The carbon and nitrogen content of the Copepoda and Chaetognatha communities and the quantification of the predation impact of Chaetognatha on Copepoda based on the feeding rate helped in corroborating the significant trophic link between these two prey–predator taxa. The observed influences of physical and chemical attributes on the distribution of Chaetognatha can be used as a model example for the role of the hydrography on the zooplankton community of the Red Sea.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Climate model components involve both high-dimensional input and output fields. It is desirable to efficiently generate spatio-temporal outputs of these models for applications in integrated assessment modelling or to assess the statistical relationship between such sets of inputs and outputs, for example, uncertainty analysis. However, the need for efficiency often compromises the fidelity of output through the use of low complexity models. Here, we develop a technique which combines statistical emulation with a dimensionality reduction technique to emulate a wide range of outputs from an atmospheric general circulation model, PLASIM, as functions of the boundary forcing prescribed by the ocean component of a lower complexity climate model, GENIE-1. Although accurate and detailed spatial information on atmospheric variables such as precipitation and wind speed is well beyond the capability of GENIE-1’s energy-moisture balance model of the atmosphere, this study demonstrates that the output of this model is useful in predicting PLASIM’s spatio-temporal fields through multi-level emulation. Meaningful information from the fast model, GENIE-1 was extracted by utilising the correlation between variables of the same type in the two models and between variables of different types in PLASIM. We present here the construction and validation of several PLASIM variable emulators and discuss their potential use in developing a hybrid model with statistical components.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-03-04
    Description: Climate engineering (CE) deployment would alter prevailing relationships between Earth system variables, making indicators and metrics used so far in the climate change assessment context less appropriate to assess CE measures. Achieving a comprehensive CE assessment requires a systematic and transparent reevaluation of the indicator selection process from Earth system variables. Here, we provide a first step towards such a systematic assessment of changes in correlations between Earth system variables following simulated deployment of different CE methods. We therefore analyze changes in the correlation structure of a broad set of Earth system variables for two conventional climate change scenarios without CE and with three idealized CE model experiments: (i) solar radiation management, (ii) large-scale afforestation, and (iii) ocean alkalinity enhancement. First, we investigate how the three CE scenarios alter prevailing correlations between Earth system variables when compared to an intermediate-high and a business-as-usual future climate change scenario. Second, we contrast the indicators identified for the non-CE climate change scenarios and the indicators identified when all five scenarios are considered. Finally, we use the identified indicator sets for an evaluation of the five climate change scenarios. We find that the additional indicators provide valuable information for the assessment of the CE measures, and their application hence allows for a more comprehensive and a comparative assessment of the mitigation and CE deployment scenarios.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-05-16
    Description: Climate engineering (CE) deployment would alter prevailing relationships between Earth system variables, making indicators and metrics used so far in the climate change assessment context less appropriate to assess CE measures. Achieving a comprehensive CE assessment requires a systematic and transparent reevaluation of the indicator selection process from Earth system variables. Here, we provide a first step towards such a systematic assessment of changes in correlations between Earth system variables following simulated deployment of different CE methods. We therefore analyze changes in the correlation structure of a broad set of Earth system variables for two conventional climate change scenarios without CE and with three idealized CE model experiments: (i) solar radiation management, (ii) large-scale afforestation, and (iii) ocean alkalinity enhancement. First, we investigate how the three CE scenarios alter prevailing correlations between Earth system variables when compared to an intermediate-high and a business-as-usual future climate change scenario. Second, we contrast the indicators identified for the non-CE climate change scenarios and the indicators identified when all five scenarios are considered. Finally, we use the identified indicator sets for an evaluation of the five climate change scenarios. We find that the additional indicators provide valuable information for the assessment of the CE measures, and their application hence allows for a more comprehensive and a comparative assessment of the mitigation and CE deployment scenarios.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-06-06
    Description: Differences in habitat and diet between species are often associated with morphological differences. Habitat and trophic adaptation have therefore been proposed as important drivers of speciation and adaptive radiation. Importantly, habitat and diet shifts likely impose changes in exposure to different parasites and infection risk. As strong selective agents influencing survival and mate choice, parasites might play an important role in host diversification. We explore this possibility for the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika (LT) cichlids. We first compare metazoan macroparasites infection levels between cichlid tribes. We then describe the cichlids’ genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which plays a key role in vertebrate immunity. Finally, we evaluate to what extent trophic ecology and morphology explain variation in infection levels and MHC, accounting for phylogenetic relationships. We show that different cichlid tribes in LT feature partially non-overlapping parasite communities and partially non-overlapping MHC diversity. While morphology explained 15% of the variation in mean parasite abundance, trophic ecology accounted for 16% and 22% of the MHC variation at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level, respectively. Parasitism and immunogenetic adaptation may thus add additional dimensions to the LT cichlid radiation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: The spatial pattern of the first mode of interannual variability associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), obtained from a multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Functions (MV-EOF) analysis, corresponds to the Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern and is referred to as the PJ-mode. The present study investigates the interannual variation of the PJ-mode from the perspective of the intraseasonal timescale. In particular, the impact of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) on the interannual variation of the PJ-mode is investigated. The results show that the MJO has a significant influence on the interannual variation of the PJ-mode mainly in the lower troposphere (850 hPa) and that the former accounts for approximately 11% of the amplitude of the latter. The major part of the contribution comes from a change in frequency of the different phases of the MJO, especially that of MJO phase 6. This suggests that intraseasonal variation of the convection anomalies over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans plays an important role in the interannual variation of the PJ-mode. In addition, MJO phase 7 also contributes to the interannual variability of the PJ-mode, in this case induced by both the change in frequency and the change in circulation anomalies associated with MJO phase 7.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: Solar signals in the atmosphere and the ocean, especially in tropopause temperatures and lower stratospheric water vapour are investigated using recent observational and reanalyses data sets for the period from 1958 through 2013. Previous observational and modeling studies demonstrated solar influences in the lower stratosphere resembling a positive Northern Annular Mode due to the top-down mechanism involving enhanced solar UV radiation in the stratosphere during solar maxima and dynamical amplification mechanisms in the atmosphere. We found that these stratospheric changes might propagate down to the troposphere and become zonally asymmetric with characteristic pressure and wind pattern over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Such changes in tropospheric circulation are related to anomalous positive SST anomalies in the central Pacific which resemble an El Niño Modoki event. We show for the first time with ocean reanalysis data that these SST anomalies are amplified by a positive feedback through oceanic subsurface currents and heat transport in the equatorial Pacific. Anomalous warm SSTs in the equatorial central Pacific change the zonal SST gradient and lead to anomalous westerly winds and currents in the western Pacific and easterly winds and currents in the eastern Pacific. This indicates a convergence and less upwelling and therefore enhances the positive SST anomalies in the equatorial central Pacific. Such a positive feedback results in a peak of El Niño Modoki events about 2 years after the solar maximum. These solar-induced signals in the ocean in turn modify the circulation and convection in the troposphere, resulting in lagged solar signals of anomalous high tropopause heights and negative anomalies in tropopause temperatures as well as in lower stratospheric water vapour over the equatorial Pacific which are in agreement with a time evolving solar-induced El Niño Modoki-like SST pattern. We demonstrate a solar modulation of intrinsic decadal climate variability over the Pacific which is amplified by positive feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Natural Gas Engines: For Transportation and Power Generation | Energy, Environment, and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: Lean-burn natural gas engines can be used to reduce exhaust emissions significantly. However, as the mixture is leaned out, the occurrence of extinction and incomplete combustion increases, resulting in poor performance and stability, as well as elevated levels of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The partially stratified charge (PSC) method can be used to mitigate these issues, while extending the lean misfire limit (LML) beyond its equivalent, homogeneous level. In this chapter, the PSC ignition and combustion processes are examined following a comprehensive experimental and numerical approach. Experiments are conducted in an idealized PSC configuration, using a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), to identify the principle enabling mechanisms of the PSC methodology. Engine tests conducted in a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) demonstrate the feasibility of various PSC implementations in improving performance and emission characteristics in real-world settings. Complementary numerical analyses for the CVCC are obtained through large eddy simulations (LES), while Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted for SCRE with reduced chemical kinetics. The corresponding simulated results provide additional insights in characterizing the effect of fuel stratification on flame kernel maturation and flame propagation, the interplay between chemistry and turbulence at different overall air?fuel ratios, as well as formation of major pollutant species.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: Diseases increasingly threaten aquaculture of kelps and other seaweeds. At the same time, protection concepts that are based upon application of biocides are usually not applicable, as such compounds would be rapidly diluted in the sea, causing ecological damage. An alternative concept could be the application of immune stimulants to prevent and control diseases in farmed seaweeds. We here present a pilot study that investigated the effects of oligoalginate elicitation on juvenile and adult sporophytes of Saccharina japonica cultivated in China and on adult sporophytes of Saccharina latissima cultivated in Germany. In two consecutive years, treatment with oligoalginate clearly reduced the detachment of S. japonica juveniles from their substrate curtains during the nursery stage in greenhouse ponds. Oligoalginate elicitation also decreased the density of endobionts and the number of bacterial cells on sporophytes of S. latissima that were cultivated on sea-based rafts. However, the treatment increased the susceptibility of kelp adults to settlement of epibionts (barnacles in Germany and filamentous algal epiphytes in China). In addition, oligoalginate elicitation accelerated the aging of S. japonica adults. Based upon these findings, oligoalginate elicitation could be a feasible way to provide “environmentally friendly” protection of kelp juveniles in nurseries. The same treatment causes not only beneficial, but also unwanted effects in adult kelp sporophytes. Therefore, it is not recommended as a treatment after the juvenile stage is completed. Future tests with other elicitors and other cultivated seaweed species may allow for the development of more feasible applications of targeted defense elicitation in seaweed aquaculture.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: Methane gas hydrates have increasingly become a topic of interest because of their potential as a future energy resource. There are significant economical and environmental risks associated with extraction from hydrate reservoirs, so a variety of multiphysics models have been developed to analyze prospective risks and benefits. These models generally have a large number of empirical parameters which are not known a priori. Traditional optimization-based parameter estimation frameworks may be ill-posed or computationally prohibitive. Bayesian inference methods have increasingly been found effective for estimating parameters in complex geophysical systems. These methods often are not viable in cases of computationally expensive models and high-dimensional parameter spaces. Recently, methods have been developed to effectively reduce the dimension of Bayesian inverse problems by identifying low-dimensional structures that are most informed by data. Active subspaces is one of the most generally applicable methods of performing this dimension reduction. In this paper, Bayesian inference of the parameters of a state-of-the-art mathematical model for methane hydrates based on experimental data from a triaxial compression test with gas hydrate-bearing sand is performed in an efficient way by utilizing active subspaces. Active subspaces are used to identify low-dimensional structure in the parameter space which is exploited by generating a cheap regression-based surrogate model and implementing a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Posterior densities having means that match the experimental data are approximated in a computationally efficient way.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-06-21
    Description: Reproductive systems of rare adult specimens of the deep-sea squid genera Chiroteuthis, Mastigoteuthis, Liocranchia, and Bathoteuthis were collected in 2006 and 2015 in the different research surveys in the Atlantic Ocean between 46 degrees 40'S and 17 degrees 11'N. Whole squids were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde solution, subsequently transferred into 70% ethanol and studied in laboratory condition providing initial observations on spawning pattern in these animals. The potential fecundity of Ch. cf. joubini was similar to 45,000-50,000, the maximum egg size was 1.6-1.7 mm, while those of M. agassizii were similar to 8000-16,000 and 1.7-1.9 mm respectively. A maturing female of B. skolops had similar to 4800 eggs of which some similar to 1200 were atretic. The ovary of a spent L. reinhardti contained similar to 116,500 post-ovulatory follicles and no residual egg. Mature females of Chiroteuthis and Mastigoteuthis had spematangia implanted externally in the mantle, whereas Liocranchia had a specialised spermatangia receptacle on the inside of the mantle. Reproductive adaptations of these genera are discussed in relation to spawning habits of other deep-sea squids. Synchronous ovulation was found to be a prevailing type of the gonad development with all eggs being spawned as a single batch, with ot without brooding. In some species, this single batch is not released at once but in several consequent portions exhibiting 'extended synchronous' spawning.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Climate Dynamics, 53 (1-2). pp. 1111-1124.
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: There is a controversy about the origin of the recent decadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) slowing observed at 26.5°N and concurrent sea surface temperature cooling in the central and eastern mid-latitude North Atlantic. We investigate decadal AMOC slowing events simulated in a multi-millennial preindustrial control integration of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), providing an estimate of internal AMOC variability. Preindustrial control integrations of 15 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 also are investigated, as well as historical simulations with them providing estimates of AMOC variability during 1856–2005. It is shown that the recent decadal AMOC decline is still within the range of the models’ internal AMOC variability and thus could be of natural origin. In this case, the decline would represent an extreme realization of internal variability provided the climate models yield realistic levels of AMOC variability. The model results suggest that internal decadal AMOC variability is large, requiring multi-decadal observational records to detect an anthropogenic AMOC signal with high confidence. When analyzing the strongest decadal AMOC slowing events in the KCM, which have amplitudes similar to or larger than the recently observed decadal AMOC decline, the following composite picture emerges: a very strong decadal AMOC decline is preceded by a decadal rise in atmospheric surface pressure over large parts of the mid-latitude North Atlantic. The change in low-level atmospheric circulation drives reduced oceanic heat loss over and diminished upper-ocean salt content in the Labrador Sea. In response, oceanic deep convection and subsequently the AMOC and northward oceanic heat transport weaken, and anomalously cold sea surface temperatures develop in the central and eastern mid-latitude North Atlantic
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Biodiversity is generally believed to be a main determinant of ecosystem functioning. This principle also applies to the microbiome and could consequently contribute to host health. According to ecological theory, communities are shaped by top predators whose direct and indirect interactions with community members cause stability and diversity. Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are a neglected group of predatory bacteria that feed on Gram-negative bacteria and can thereby influence microbiome composition. We asked whether BALOs can predict biodiversity levels in microbiomes from distinct host groups and environments. We demonstrate that genetic signatures of BALOs are commonly found within the 16S rRNA reads from diverse host taxa. In many cases, their presence, abundance, and especially richness are positively correlated with overall microbiome diversity. Our findings suggest that BALOs can act as drivers of microbial alpha-diversity and should therefore be considered candidates for the restoration of microbiomes and the prevention of dysbiosis.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: High-resolution bathymetry collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the flanks of three ridges of the accretionary prism offshore southwestern (SW) Taiwan revealed more than 650 elongated depressions in water depths ranging from 1155 to 1420 m. The depressions are between 12 and 129 m long, 5 to 70 m wide, and up 9 m deep at their center and shallowing downslope to about 1-m depth. Due to their shape in downslope cross section, they are termed comet-shaped depressions (CSD). The CSD occur in patches of more than 100 with densities of 53 to 98 CSD/km2. In addition, seven topographic mounds were mapped and interpreted as pingos, which remotely operate vehicle (ROV) observations and sampling show to be covered with authigenic carbonate. These features overlie areas where multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles show bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) and dipping strata extending from below the BSR to near the seafloor. We consider comet-shaped depression, a new type of pockmark, forms on a sloping seafloor where fluids expulsion occurred. We also suggest that the two types of distinctive geomorphic features are attributed to fluid venting which occurs at different rates, with the mounds developing slowly over time, but the CSD forming in discrete events perhaps associated with large earthquakes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: Gelatinous zooplankton (GZ) such as medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, pyrosomes and salps are important components of oceanic pelagic communities and small calycophoran siphonophores (CS) are typically abundant at shallow depths. The Sargasso Sea spawning area of the Atlantic catadromous freshwater eels has a regular pattern of shallow autumn to spring temperature fronts. There is limited information about the southern Sargasso Sea GZ fauna, and it is not known which species are distributed across these frontal zones. Plankton samples from a survey of larval European eel (Anguilla anguilla) abundance in March and April 2017 using an Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (0–300 m, 35 stations, three transects) were used to examine the distribution and abundance of net-captured CS and other GZ species in relation to oceanographic characteristics. More than 2200 specimens of 15 taxa were sub-sampled, with five CS (Abylopsis tetragona, A. eschscholtzii, Chelophyes appendiculata, Eudoxoides spiralis and E. mitra) dominating catches at every station. GZ were most abundant around the 22 and 24 °C isotherms, and higher abundances of CS in the north were correlated with lower water temperature. The widespread presence of CS across the European eel spawning area is consistent with a recent study detecting their DNA sequences in the gut contents of young eel larvae collected in the Sargasso Sea, suggesting CS material was either eaten directly or as part of ingested marine snow particles. The present study shows that both types of organisms occupy the southern Sargasso Sea during the European eel spawning season.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 11 (4). pp. 1359-1371.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-08
    Description: Using a portable gas analyzer system, the geogenic gas regime below and around an ancient gate to hell at Hierapolis/Phrygia was characterized. The site was first described by Strabo and Plinius as a gate to the underworld. During centuries, it attracted even ancient tourists. In a grotto below the temple of Pluto, CO2 was found to be at deadly concentrations of up to 91%. Astonishingly, these vapors are still emitted in concentrations that nowadays kill insects, birds, and mammals. The concentrations of CO2 escaping from the mouth of the grotto to the outside atmosphere are still in the range of 4–53% CO2 depending on the height above ground level. They reach concentrations during the night that would easily kill even a human being within a minute. These emissions are thought to reflect the Hadean breath and/or the breath of the hellhound Kerberos guarding the entrance to hell. The origin of the geogenic CO2 is the still active seismic structure that crosses the old town of ancient Hierapolis as part of the Babadag fracture zone. Our measurements confirm the presence of geogenic CO2 in concentrations that explain ancient stories of killed bulls, rams, and songbirds during religious ceremonies. They also strongly corroborate that at least in the case of Hierapolis, ancient writers like Strabo or Plinius described a mystic phenomenon very exactly without much exaggeration. Two thousand years ago, only supernatural forces could explain these phenomena from Hadean depths whereas nowadays, modern techniques hint to the well-known phenomenon of geogenic CO2 degassing having mantle components with relatively higher helium and radon concentrations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Mineralium Deposita, 54 (6). pp. 789-820.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Hydrothermal fluids on the modern seafloor are important carriers of base and precious metals in a wide range of volcanic and tectonic settings. The concentrations and distribution, especially of gold and silver, in associated seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits are strongly influenced by variable source rocks, fluid chemistry, and precipitation mechanisms. Compositional data of 130 SMS deposits around the world show a large range of gold and silver grades, in part reflecting strong buffering of the hydrothermal fluids by their host rocks. Geochemical reaction-path modeling shows that in most cases the investigated hydrothermal fluids are undersaturated with gold and silver, and solubilities can be orders of magnitude higher than the Au and Ag concentrations measured in the corresponding fluids. Precipitation of gold during conductive cooling of mid-ocean ridge black smoker (MOR) fluids occurs at low temperatures but can be very rapid, with 〉 90% of the gold deposited in the first 25 °C of cooling below ~ 150 °C. The result is a Zn–Au polymetallic assemblage with Au and Ag deposited at the same time together with Pb and sulfosalts. In ultramafic-dominated (UM) systems, the strongly reduced hydrothermal fluids promote the deposition of gold at higher temperatures and explain the correlation between gold and copper in these deposits. In this case, the lower stability of the AuHS° complex at low ƒO2 (buffered by fayalite, magnetite, and quartz) results in gold deposition at 〉 250 °C with early bornite and chalcopyrite and before sphalerite and silver, producing a high-temperature Cu–Au assemblage. In sediment-hosted (SED) systems, the much higher pH stabilizes Au(HS)2− and keeps gold in solution to very low temperatures, after the precipitation of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena, resulting in Au-poor polymetallic sulfides and very late-stage deposition of gold, commonly with amorphous silica. In arc-related (ARC) systems, gold deposition occurs at somewhat higher temperatures than in the MOR case, in part because the fluids start with higher gold concentrations. This can be explained by probable direct magmatic contributions, and the high ƒO2 of the fluids, which promotes the solubility of gold at the source. During cooling, gold precipitates at about 160 °C with sphalerite, tennantite, silver, and galena, resulting in an Au-rich polymetallic sulfide assemblage. The mixing of hydrothermal fluids with seawater generally causes oxidation and eventually a decrease in the pH at a mixing ratio of 1:1, causing an initial increase in the solubility of gold and silver. This can delay gold deposition from aqueous species to very low temperatures. These complex systematics make prediction of Au and Ag grades difficult. However, important new data are coming to light on the actual concentrations of the precious metals in hydrothermal fluids. In particular, the input of magmatic volatiles and leaching of pre-existing gold can lead to significant increases in the Au and Ag concentrations of the venting fluids and earlier deposition. In several cases, it appears that at least part of the gold load is present as nanoparticles in suspension, allowing bulk gold concentrations that may be far in excess of liquid saturation. Boiling at the seafloor is now widely observed, even at great water depths close to the critical point of seawater. Model calculations of phase separation during boiling show the competing effects on gold solubility of H2, H2S, and CO2 partitioning into the vapor, which can result in highly variable gold-to-base metal ratios in the deposits. Flashing of the vent fluids into steam at high temperatures is also commonly observed and can lead to spectacular Au grades, with a strong Cu–Au association in the deepest and hottest vents.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-07-15
    Description: Dramatic changes from a cold and dry last glacial to a warm and wet Holocene period intensified the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), resulting in vigorous hydrology and increased terrestrial erosion. Here we present seawater neodymium (Nd) data (expressed in εNd) from Andaman Sea sediments to assess past changes in the ISM and the related impact of Irrawaddy–Salween and Sittoung (ISS) river discharge into the Andaman Sea in the northeastern Indian Ocean. Four major isotopic changes were identified: (1) a gradual increase in εNd toward a more radiogenic signature during the Last Glacial Maximum (22–18 ka), suggesting a gradual decrease in the ISS discharge; (2) a relatively stable radiogenic seawater εNd between 17.2 and 8.8 ka, perhaps related to a stable reduced outflow; (3) a rapid transition to less radiogenic εNd signature after 8.8 ka, reflecting a very wet early–mid-Holocene with the highest discharge; and (4) a decrease in εNd signal stability in the mid–late Holocene. Taking into account the contribution of the ISS rivers to the Andaman Sea εNd signature that changes proportionally with the strengthening (less radiogenic εNd) or weakening (more radiogenic εNd) of the ISM, we propose a binary model mixing between the Salween and Irrawaddy rivers to explain the εNd variability in Andaman Sea sediments. We hypothesize that the Irrawaddy river mainly contributed detrital sediment to the northeastern Andaman Sea for the past 24 ka. Our εNd data shed new light on the regional changes in Indo-Asian monsoon systems when compared with the existing Indian and Chinese paleo-proxy records.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: As coastal areas become increasingly vulnerable to climate change, the study of nearshore sediment textures along the littoral cell of the Medjerda delta in the Gulf of Tunis, southern Mediterranean coast can provide valuable information (i) on the origin (continental or marine) of the sediment, (ii) its transport direction, and (iii) constitutes an important tool in the assessment of coastal sensitivity. A total of 120 sediments samples underwent grain size analysis and statistic parameters have been calculated. These allowed the identification of five different Sedimentary Types (ST). Accordingly, using grain size indexes (i.e. Mz, SKI and Ku), Sediment Trend Analysis (STA) modeling tools were applied to define the seasonal sediment transport pathways throughout the nearshore of the Medjerda sedimentary cell. Results show that grain size distribution (GSD) and STA model pathways are determined by cross-shore geomorphology, location of the sediment-cell, seasonal incident wave and local terrestrial supply. The appearance in an atypical seabed location of the finer (Mo = 0.1 mm) and the coarser STs (Mo = 0.8 mm) can be indicative of human influence since the coarser particles are usually retained by dam structures. Moreover, the bimodality and the increased distribution of mud are also related to the seasonal incident wave winnowing of the historic deltaic plain submerged by the relative rise in sea level. The evolution of the sediment pattern towards a greater proportion of very fine grains indicates a deficit of sediment supply, particularly of the coarser grains, and demonstrates the coastal vulnerability of the Gulf of Tunis due to anthropic effects.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-08-02
    Description: The genus Tabrizicola with its type species and strain Tabrizicola aquatica RCRI19T was previously described as a purely chemotrophic genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria. With the present study, we expand the description of the metabolic capabilities of this genus and the T. aquatica type strain to include chlorophyll-dependent phototrophy. Our results confirmed that T. aquatica, does not grow under anaerobic photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic conditions. However, the presence of the photosynthesis-related genes pufL and pufM could be demonstrated in the genomes of several Tabrizicola strains. Additionally, photosynthetic pigments (bacteriochlorophyll a) were formed under aerobic, heterotrophic and low light conditions in T. aquatica strain RCRI19T. Furthermore, all the genes necessary for a fully operational photosynthetic apparatus and bacteriochlorophyll a are present in the T. aquatica type strain genome. Therefore, we suggest categorising T. aquatica RCRI19T, isolated from freshwater environment of Qurugöl Lake, as an aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacterium.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Deep Oil Spills: Facts, Fate, and Effects. , ed. by Murawski, S. A., Ainsworth, C. H., Gilbert, S., Hollander, D. J., Paris, C. B., Schlüter, M. and Wetzel, D. L. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 139-154. ISBN 978-3-030-11604-0
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: Deepwater spills pose a unique challenge for reliable predictions of oil transport and fate, since live oil spewing under very high hydrostatic pressure has characteristics remarkably distinct from oil spilling in shallow water. It is thus important to describe in detail the complex thermodynamic processes occurring in the near-field, meters above the wellhead, and the hydrodynamic processes in the far-field, up to kilometers away. However, these processes are typically modeled separately since they occur at different scales. Here we directly couple two oil prediction applications developed during the Deepwater Horizon blowout operating at different scales: the near-field Texas A&M Oilspill Calculator (TAMOC) and the far-field oil application of the Connectivity Modeling System (oil-CMS). To achieve this coupling, new oil-CMS modules were developed to read TAMOC output, which consists of the description of distinct oil droplet “types,” each of specific size and pseudo-component mixture that enters at a given mass flow rate, time, and position into the far field. These variables are transformed for use in the individual-based framework of CMS, where each droplet type fits into a droplet size distribution (DSD). Here we used 19 pseudo-components representing a large range of hydrocarbon compounds and their respective thermodynamic properties. Simulation results show that the dispersion pathway of the different droplet types varies significantly. Indeed, some droplet types remain suspended in the subsea over months, while others accumulate in the surface layers. In addition, the decay rate of oil pseudo-components significantly alters the dispersion, denoting the importance of more biodegradation and dissolution studies of chemically and naturally dispersed live oil at high pressure. This new modeling tool shows the potential for improved accuracy in predictions of oil partition in the water column and of advancing impact assessment and response during a deepwater spill.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Deep Oil Spills: Facts, Fate, and Effects. , ed. by Murawski, S. A., Ainsworth, C. H., Gilbert, S., Hollander, D. J., Paris, C. B., Schlüter, M. and Wetzel, D. L. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 25-42. ISBN 978-3-030-11604-0
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Description: Petroleum is one of the most complex naturally occurring organic mixtures. The physical and chemical properties of petroleum in a reservoir depend on its molecular composition and the reservoir conditions (temperature, pressure). The composition of petroleum varies greatly, ranging from the simplest gas (methane), condensates, conventional crude oil to heavy oil and oil sands bitumen with complex molecules having molecular weights in excess of 1000 daltons (Da). The distribution of petroleum constituents in a reservoir largely depends on source facies (original organic material buried), age (evolution of organisms), depositional environment (dysoxic versus anoxic), maturity of the source rock (kerogen) at time of expulsion, primary/secondary migration, and in-reservoir alteration such as biodegradation, gas washing, water washing, segregation, and/or mixing from different oil charges. These geochemical aspects define the physical characteristics of a petroleum in the reservoir, including its density and viscosity. When the petroleum is released from the reservoir through an oil exploration accident like in the case of the Deepwater Horizon event, several processes are affecting the physical and chemical properties of the petroleum from the well head into the deep sea. A better understanding of these properties is crucial for the development of near-field oil spill models, oil droplet and gas bubble calculations, and partitioning behavior of oil components in the water. Section 3.1 introduces general aspects of the origin of petroleum, the impact of geochemical processes on the composition of a petroleum, and some molecular compositional and physicochemical background information of the Macondo well oil. Section 3.2 gives an overview over experimental determination of all relevant physicochemical properties of petroleum, especially of petroleum under reservoir conditions. Based on the phase equilibrium modeling using equations of state (EOS), a number of these properties can be predicted which is presented in Sect. 3.3 along with a comparison to experimental data obtained with methods described in Sect. 3.2.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Marine Biodiversity, 49 (1). pp. 131-146.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: Biodiversity is critical for maintaining and stabilizing ecosystem processes. There is a need for high-resolution biodiversity maps that cover large sea areas in order to address ecological questions related to biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships and to provide data for marine environmental protection and management decisions. However, traditional sampling-point-wise field work is not suitable for covering extensive areas in high detail. Spatial predictive modeling using biodiversity data from sampling points and georeferenced environmental data layers covering the whole study area is a potential way to create biodiversity maps for large spatial extents. Random forest (RF), generalized additive models (GAM), and boosted regression trees (BRT) were used in this study to produce benthic (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes) biodiversity maps in the northern Baltic Sea. Environmental raster layers (wave exposure, salinity, temperature, etc.) were used as independent variables in the models to predict the spatial distribution of species richness. A validation dataset containing data that was not included in model calibration was used to compare the prediction accuracy of the models. Each model was also evaluated visually to check for possible modeling artifacts that are not revealed by mathematical validation. All three models proved to have high predictive ability. RF and BRT predictions had higher correlations with validation data and lower mean absolute error than those of GAM. Both mathematically and visually, the predictions by RF and BRT were very similar. Depth and seabed sediments were the most influential abiotic variables in predicting the spatial patterns of biodiversity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-08-20
    Description: The ecological approach to comparative cognition emphasizes that the ecological and social environment are important predictors of cognitive performance. We used this approach to test whether differences in habitat use and social behavior in the facultative Caribbean cleaning goby Elacatinus prochilos predict differences in learning performance in two discriminatory two-choice tasks. This species has two behavioral ecotypes: one that frequently engages in cleaning interactions and inhabits corals in male–female pairs (cleaning gobies) and another that rarely engages in cleaning interactions and inhabits barrel sponges in large groups (sponge-dwellers). We predicted that cleaning gobies would outperform sponge-dwellers in a pattern-cued task, which consisted of identifying the pattern on a plate that consistently provided food, while sponge-dwellers would outperform cleaning gobies in a spatial task, which consisted of identifying the location of the plate. Contrary to our predictions, there was no difference in performance between the two ecotypes. Most of the gobies performed poorly in the pattern-cued task and well in the spatial task. A possible explanation for these results is that the association of a pattern with positive and negative reinforcement may not be a pre-requisite for engaging in cleaning interactions, while spatial skills might be equally required in both ecotypes. Alternatively, the two ecotypes can flexibly adjust to new feeding conditions, which would explain their similar performance in the spatial task. Further research should investigate which aspects of E. prochilos’ social and ecological environment might impose challenges that require spatial cognition and whether individuals can flexibly adjust to new habitats and feeding conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: A broad variety of materials of biological origin have been successfully used in recent decades for the removal of pollutants from waters. These biosorbents include natural polymers that play a key role for adsorption. It is therefore critical to understand the physicochemical properties of the chemical groups of these biopolymers. The acid–base properties of biomass are affected by pH, ionic strength and medium composition. Nevertheless, these parameters are not always considered during biosorption studies. According to the literature, less than 3% of biosorption reports include studies on proton binding. Moreover, in 60% of these papers, there is key experimental information missing such as the calibration of the electrodes employed for potentiometric titrations. We consider therefore that there is an important need for reviewing the role of proton binding in biosorption studies. This review outlines the major advances on data interpretation and modelling of proton binding on biosorbents. In addition, we discuss issues concerning the acid–base properties of biosorbents.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group | Springer
    In:  Nature Communications, 10 (Article number: 4025 ).
    Publication Date: 2019-09-17
    Description: Export of warm and salty waters from the Caribbean to the North Atlantic is an essential component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, there was also an active AMOC during the Miocene, despite evidence for an open Central American Seaway (CAS) that would have allowed low-salinity Pacific waters to enter the Caribbean. To address this apparent contradiction and to constrain the timing of CAS closure we present the first continuous Nd isotope record of intermediate waters in the Florida Strait over the past 12.5 million years. Our results indicate that there was no direct intermediate water mass export from the Caribbean to the Florida Strait between 11.5 and 9.5 Ma, at the same time as a strengthened AMOC. After 9 Ma a strong AMOC was maintained due to a major step in CAS closure and the consequent cessation of low-salinity Pacific waters entering the Caribbean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: A strong warm event occurred in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Ocean off Angola and Namibia in January and February 2016 with sea surface temperature anomalies reaching 3 °C. In contrast to classical Benguela Niño events, the analysis of various direct observations indicates that the warming was not predominantly forced by an equatorial Kelvin wave exciting a coastally trapped wave but instead resulted from a combination of local processes that are related to (1) a weakening of the alongshore, i.e. mainly southerly, winds and (2) enhanced freshwater input through local precipitation and river discharge. Consistent with the weakened winds, we find a reduction in latent heat loss from the ocean and a poleward surface current anomaly. The surface freshening, which is detected in satellite observations of sea surface salinity, caused a very shallow mixed layer and enhanced upper ocean stratification. This is supported by the analysis of the velocity structure of the Angola Current at 11°S, which shows that at the time of the event subsurface velocities were directed northward while surface velocities were directed southward. The shallow layer of warm and fresh surface water was thus advected poleward by the surface current. In addition, a reduction of the local upwelling and the formation of a barrier layer that inhibits the entrainment of cool subsurface waters into the surface mixed layer might have contributed to the warm surface anomaly. The sudden termination of the warm event was accompanied by a re-intensification of southerly winds in March
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Common problems in state-of-the-art climate models are a cold sea surface temperature (SST) bias in the equatorial Pacific and the underestimation of the two most important atmospheric feedbacks operating in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): the positive, i.e. amplifying wind-SST feedback and the negative, i.e. damping heat flux-SST feedback. To a large extent, the underestimation of those feedbacks can be explained by the cold equatorial SST bias, which shifts the rising branch of the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) too far to the west by up to 30°, resulting in an erroneous convective response during ENSO events. Based on simulations from the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) and the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we investigate how well ENSO dynamics are simulated in case of underestimated ENSO atmospheric feedbacks (EAF), with a special focus on ocean–atmosphere coupling over the equatorial Pacific. While models featuring realistic atmospheric feedbacks simulate ENSO dynamics close to observations, models with underestimated EAF exhibit fundamental biases in ENSO dynamics. In models with too weak feedbacks, ENSO is not predominantly wind-driven as observed; instead ENSO is driven significantly by a positive shortwave radiation feedback. Thus, although these models simulate ENSO, which in terms of simple indices is consistent with observations, it originates from very different dynamics. A too weak oceanic forcing on the SST via the positive thermocline, the Ekman and the zonal advection feedback is compensated by weaker atmospheric heat flux damping. The latter is mainly caused by a biased shortwave-SST feedback that erroneously is positive in most climate models. In the most biased models, the shortwave-SST feedback contributes to the SST anomaly growth to a similar degree as the ocean circulation. Our results suggest that a broad continuum of ENSO dynamics can exist in climate models and explain why climate models with less than a half of the observed EAF strength can still depict realistic ENSO amplitude.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: A long-standing difficulty of climate models is to capture the annual cycle (AC) of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) sea surface temperature (SST). In this study, we first examine the EEP SST AC in a set of integrations of the coupled Kiel Climate Model, in which only atmosphere model resolution differs. When employing coarse horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution, significant biases in the EEP SST AC are observed. These are reflected in an erroneous timing of the cold tongue’s onset and termination as well as in an underestimation of the boreal spring warming amplitude. A large portion of these biases are linked to a wrong simulation of zonal surface winds, which can be traced back to precipitation biases on both sides of the equator and an erroneous low-level atmospheric circulation over land. Part of the SST biases also is related to shortwave radiation biases related to cloud cover biases. Both wind and cloud cover biases are inherent to the atmospheric component, as shown by companion uncoupled atmosphere model integrations forced by observed SSTs. Enhancing atmosphere model resolution, horizontal and vertical, markedly reduces zonal wind and cloud cover biases in coupled as well as uncoupled mode and generally improves simulation of the EEP SST AC. Enhanced atmospheric resolution reduces convection biases and improves simulation of surface winds over land. Analysis of a subset of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) reveals that in these models, very similar mechanisms are at work in driving EEP SST AC biases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Climate Dynamics, 52 (5-6). pp. 3223-3239.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Earth will exhibit continued global surface warming in response to a sustained increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Massive meltwater input from the Antarctic ice sheet into the Southern Ocean could be one consequence of this warming. Here we investigate the impacts which this meltwater input may have on Earth’s surface climate and ocean circulation in a warming world. To this end a set of ensemble experiments has been conducted with a global climate model forced by increasing atmospheric CO2-concentration and an idealized Antarctic meltwater input to the Southern Ocean with varying amplitude and spatial pattern. As long as the atmospheric CO2-concentration stays moderate, i.e. below approximately twice the preindustrial concentration, and if a strong meltwater forcing of either 0.05 or 0.1 Sv is applied, enhanced Antarctic sea–ice cover and surface air temperature cooling over most parts of the Southern Ocean is observed. When the atmospheric CO2-concentration becomes larger than twice the preindustrial concentration, the meltwater only plays a minor role. The Antarctic meltwater drives significant slowing of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Again, the meltwater influence only is detectable as long as the CO2-forcing is moderate. Much larger MOC changes develop in response to highly elevated atmospheric CO2-levels independent of whether or not a meltwater forcing is applied. The response of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is nonlinear. Substantial and persistent ACC slowing is simulated when solely the meltwater forcing of 0.1 Sv is applied, which is due to the halt of Weddell Sea deep convection and subsequent collapse of the Southern Ocean MOC. When the increasing atmospheric CO2-concentration additionally drives the model the ACC partly recovers in the long run. The partial recovery is due to strengthening westerly wind stress over the Southern Ocean, which intensifies the Ekman Cell. This study suggests that Southern Hemisphere climate projections for the twenty-first century could benefit from incorporating interactive Antarctic ice sheet.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  International Journal of Earth Sciences, 108 . pp. 587-620.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The nature of the warm climates of the Cretaceous has been enigmatic since the first numerical climate models were run in the late 1970s. Quantitative simulations of the paleoclimate have consistently failed to agree with information from plant and animal fossils and climate sensitive sediments. The ‘cold continental interior paradox’ (first described by DeConto et al. in Barrera E, Johnson C (eds) Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean/climate system, vol 332. Geological Society of America Special Paper, Boulder, pp 391–406, 1999), has been an enigma, with extensive continental interiors, especially in northeast Asia, modeled as below freezing in spite of plant and other evidence to the contrary. We reconsider the paleoelevations of specific areas, particularly along the northeastern Siberian continental margin, where paleofloras indeed indicate higher temperatures than suggested by current climate models. Evidence for significant masses of ice on land during even the otherwise warmest times of the Cretaceous is solved by reinterpretation of the δ18O record of fossil plankton. The signal interpreted as an increase in ice volume on land is the same as the signal for an increase in the volume of groundwater reservoirs on land. The problem of a warm Arctic, where fossil floras indicate that they never experienced freezing conditions in winter, could not be solved by numerical simulations using higher CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas concentrations. We propose a solution by assuming that paleoelevations were less than today and that there were much more extensive wetlands (lakes, meandering rivers, swamps, bogs) on the continents than previously assumed. Using ~ 8 × CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas concentrations and assuming 50–75% water surfaces providing water vapor as a supplementary greenhouse gas on the continents reduces the meridional temperature gradients. Under these conditions the equatorial to polar region temperature gradients produce conditions compatible with fossil and sedimentological evidence.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Fluctuations in abundance of dominant species can cause competitive release of resources with consequences on community structure and functioning. In the present study, changes in the intertidal macroinfauna community of an exposed sandy beach were evaluated during two contrasting periods characterized by low and high densities of the yellow clam Amarilladesma mactroides. The increase in clam abundance and biomass was associated with a significant decrease in abundance of the rest of the community. In particular, a decline was observed for the pea crab Austinixa patagoniensis, a commensal species that lives in the burrows of the shrimp Sergio mirim. Our study demonstrates that fluctuations in clam abundance lead to long-term changes in community structure, suggesting the presence of competitive interactions. The environmental stability over the two periods strengthens the hypothesis that the competition between species is crucial for shaping the ecological community. Stable isotope analysis allows discarding trophic competition as mechanism of exclusion. Image maps reveal complementary distribution of species, showing the relevance of the spatial competition, which is mediated by changes in abundance of a third species. Indeed, high densities of A. mactroides reduce the available area for the establishment of the S. mirim burrows, limiting the foraging behavior of its commensal, the pea crab. Such an interaction drives density-dependent exclusion of the pea crab from the intertidal zone following the establishment of the yellow clam population. This study illustrates that spatial competition triggered by the increase of a bed-forming species can have community-wide consequences in exposed sandy beaches
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Remote Sensing of the Asian Seas. , ed. by Barale, V. and Gade, M. Springer, Cham, pp. 123-138. ISBN 978-3-319-94065-6
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Pattern Recognition - GCPR 2018. , ed. by Brox, T., Bruhn, A. and Fritz, M. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 11269 . Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 391-404. ISBN 978-3-030-12939-2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The size of current plankton image datasets renders manual classification virtually infeasible. The training of models for machine classification is complicated by the fact that a large number of classes consist of only a few examples. We employ the recently introduced weight imprinting technique in order to use the available training data to train accurate classifiers in absence of enough examples for some classes. The model architecture used in this work succeeds in the identification of plankton using machine learning with its unique challenges, i.e. a limited number of training examples and a severely skewed class size distribution. Weight imprinting enables a neural network to recognize small classes immediately without re-training. This permits the mining of examples for novel classes.
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-10-09
    Description: This manuscript reports the first sightings and collection of the swimming crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818) on the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal. After the recent record in the Canary Islands, this represents a further step northward on this species’ expansion in distribution in the eastern Atlantic. The crab was first spotted during underwater visual census surveys done by scuba diving in July 2018 and was repeatedly observed during the following months, in different locations on the south coast of Madeira. Analysis of temperature data from several geographic locations where C. ruber is present was performed to assess how thermal regimes and ongoing changes may influence this recent distribution shift. Current temperature trends in Madeira suggest that the arrival and establishment of C. ruber to Madeira might have been facilitated this thermophilic species, adding evidence for the ongoing tropicalization of this area. Finally, the current spread of C. ruber in both Canaries and Madeira island systems highlights the need for a long-term monitoring program targeting this and other non-indigenous species (NIS).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Bulletin of Volcanology, 81 (Article number 60).
    Publication Date: 2019-10-10
    Description: The NW-SE striking volcanic front in Nicaragua is dissected into a western and an eastern segment separated by 20 km of N-S offset. The Chiltepe volcanic complex lies at the eastern end of the western segment and at the northern tip of the Nejapa-Miraflores tectonic and volcanic lineament that traces the arc offset. The Chiltepe peninsula attained its present shape and composition during highly explosive and effusive volcanic activity through the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, which formed the Chiltepe Formation (CF) and culminated in the 1.9 ka plinian eruption of the Chiltepe tephra. The previous evolution of this volcanic system is recorded in the volcaniclastic Mateare Formation (MF) exposed west (downwind) of the peninsula and separated from the CF by a large regional erosional unconformity. We divide the MF into the lower MF-1 member (22 volcaniclastic units) and the upper MF-2 member (17 volcaniclastic units), which are separated by a major erosional unconformity. The MF-1 was formed by variably evolved (basalt to dacite) magmas from a mantle source that was moderately metasomatized by fluids derived from subducted sediments. These high-Al moderately hydrous magmas fractionated in a tholeiitic fashion, with early plagioclase but delayed magnetite fractionation (initial Fe-Ti enrichments). Apart from the variable degree of differentiation, magmatic conditions during MF-1 remained fairly constant. While MF-1 contains several erosional unconformities suggesting tectonic activity, MF-2 is conformably stratified and the tholeiitic magmas persisted during this time. However, during MF-2, Al-poor tholeiitic compositions gradually replaced the Al-rich of MF-1 without significant changes in metasomatism or degree of melting at their mantle sources. At the same time, a different mantle source was tapped that was richer in the sediment components, and which produced more hydrous magmas that differentiated in a calc-alkaline fashion with early fractionation of both plagioclase and magnetite. Hence, two mantle source compositions were active during MF-2. The erosional interval between MF and CF, associated with strike-slip motion at the Mateare Fault, correlates with initiation of Nejapa-Miraflores volcanism. We postulate that extension along the Najapa-Miraflores fault system facilitated rapid ascent of mafic magmas from a mantle source laterally away from the arc axis that was less metasomatized than sources directly below the arc. On the Chiltepe peninsula, the Nejapa-Miraflores and Chiltepe magma systems interacted to form tholeiitic, less hydrous types of magmas (andesite to dacite) that erupted intermittently with the dominant calc-alkaline hydrous dacites. While associations of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at other subduction zones have often been attributed to variable intracrustal processes, we here argue for changes in the mantle source, particularly hydration by slab-derived fluids, as the main control on subsequent differentiation behavior. We further attribute the long-term changes in mantle source conditions through MF and CF, possibly over about 1 My, to result from temporal heterogeneity caused by mantle wedge solid flow and possibly variable fluid flow from the slab.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: AI Technology for Underwater Robots. , ed. by Kirchner, F., Straube, S., Kühn, D. and Hoyer, N. Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering , 96 . Springer, Cham, pp. 125-135. ISBN 978-3-030-30682-3
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: This paper addresses visual navigation of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) with and without a given map, where the latter is called Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). We summarize the challenges and opportunities in underwater environments that make visual navigation different from land navigation and also briefly survey the current state-of-the-art in this area. Then as a position paper we argue why many of these challenges could be met by a proper modeling of uncertainties in the SLAM representation. This would in particular allow the SLAM algorithm to thoroughly handle the ambiguity between “I see the same feature again.”, “I see a different but similar looking feature.” and “The environment has changed and the feature moved.”.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-11-11
    Description: Precipitation in California is modulated by variability in the tropical Pacific associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): more rainfall is expected during El Nino episodes, and reduced rainfall during La Nina. It has been suggested that besides the shape and location of the sea surface temperature ( SST) anomaly this remote connection depends on the strength and location of the atmospheric convection response in the tropical Pacific. Here we show in a perturbed physics ensemble of the Kiel Climate Model and CMIP5 models that due to a cold equatorial SST bias many climate models are in a La Nina-like mean state, resulting in a too westward position of the rising branch of the Pacific Walker Circulation. This in turn results in a convective response along the equator during ENSO events that is too far west in comparison to observations. This effect of the equatorial cold SST bias is not restricted to the tropics, moreover it leads to a too westward SLP response in the North Pacific and too westward precipitation response that does not reach California. Further we show that climate models with a reduced equatorial cold SST bias have a more realistic representation of the spatial asymmetry of the teleconnections between El Nino and La Nina.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Rhodopila globiformis: is the most acidophilic anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium and was isolated from a warm acidic sulfur spring in Yellowstone Park. Its genome is larger than genomes of other phototrophic purple bacteria, containing 7248 Mb with a G + C content of 67.1% and 6749 protein coding and 53 RNA genes. The genome revealed some previously unknown properties such as the presence of two sets of structural genes pufLMC for the photosynthetic reaction center genes and two types of nitrogenases (Mo-Fe and V-Fe nitrogenase), capabilities of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation and denitrification using nitrite. Rhodopila globiformis assimilates sulfate and utilizes the C1 carbon substrates CO and methanol and a number of organic compounds, in particular, sugars and aromatic compounds. It is among the few purple bacteria containing a large number of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases. It has extended capacities to resist stress by heavy metals, demonstrates different resistance mechanisms to antibiotics, and employs several toxin/antitoxin systems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Volcanoes of the Azores. , ed. by Kueppers, U. and Beier, C. Volcanoes of the World . Springer, Berlin, pp. 251-280.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: The Azores archipelago is geochemically distinct amongst the oceanic intraplate volcanoes in that it has trace element and radiogenic Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope signatures that cover much of the global variation observed in Ocean Island Basalts. Thus, it is the prime example of an intraplate melting anomaly preserving the compositional heterogeneity of the Earth’s mantle. Here, we review the trace element and radiogenic isotope geochemistry of the Azores islands and few submarine samples analysed and published over the past decades and summarise these findings and conclusions. The volcanoes of all islands erupted lavas of the alkaline series and their compositions broadly range from basalts to trachytes (see also Chapter “ Petrology of the Azores Islands” by Larrea et al.). Temperatures and pressures of melting imply that melting in the Azores occurs as a result of both slightly increased temperatures in the mantle (~35 °C) and addition of volatile elements into the mantle source. Basalts from the island of São Miguel show a stronger enrichment in highly incompatible elements like K and the Light Rare Earth Elements than the other islands further to the west. The older and easternmost island Santa Maria has lavas that are more silica-undersaturated than the rocks occurring on the younger islands. Each of the eastern islands shows a different and distinct radiogenic isotope composition and much of this variability can be explained by variably enriched recycled components of different age in their source regions. Amongst the global array, the lavas from eastern São Miguel are uniquely enriched in that they display radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios best explained by a distinct source in the mantle. The implication of the preservation of such unique, enriched sources in the mantle may indicate that stirring processes in the Azores mantle are not efficiently homogenising heterogeneities over the timescales of recycling of 0.1–1 Ga and possibly even up to 2.5 Ga. One possible explanation is the low buoyancy flux of the Azores mantle when compared to other intraplate settings. The preservation of these source signatures in the lavas on the easternmost Azores islands are the result of smaller degrees of partial melting due to a thicker lithosphere. This likely prevents a homogenisation during magma ascent compared to the western islands, preferentially sampling deep, low degree partial melts from the more fertile mantle sources. The geochemical signatures of the two islands west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Corvo and Flores) imply a source enrichment and degrees of partial melting similar to those east of the ridge. Melting underneath the western islands is the result of a source that must be related to the Azores melting anomaly but has been modified by shallow level processes such as assimilation of oceanic crustal material.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Barrier Dynamics and Response to Changing Climate. , ed. by Moore, L. and Murray, A. Springer, Cham, pp. 175-207.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: The height, volume, and alongshore extent of the foredune are primary controls on the response of barrier islands to the elevated storm surge that accompanies hurricanes and extra-tropical storms. In this respect, the ability of the foredune to recover following a storm determines whether a barrier island can maintain elevation as sea level rises and the island migrates landward through the redistribution of sediment to the back of the island through washover and breaching. This chapter provides a review of a body of recent fieldwork on the role of the foredune in controlling island transgression. It is argued that the role of the foredune to control washover and island transgression is analogous to that of a variable resistor in an electrical circuit, with the strength of the resistor dependent on the ability of the dune to recover in height and extent following each storm. Recovery of the foredune requires that sediment removed to the nearshore during a storm be returned to the beachface through the landward migration and welding of the innermost bars where it is eventually transported to the backshore and trapped by vegetation. Field observations from Padre Island in Texas, Santa Rosa Island in Florida, and Assateague Island in Virginia suggest that the recovery of dune height can be modeled using a sigmoidal growth curve, and that recovery can take up to a decade. The slow rate of dune recovery suggests that the resiliency of barrier islands to sea level rise is dependent on whether there is a change in the frequency and magnitude of storm events or an interruption to the exchange of sediment among the nearshore, beach, and dune. Ultimately, the height and volume of the foredune can be controlled by the framework geology (to varying degrees), which determines beach and nearshore state through the availability and texture of sediment and structural controls. In this respect, the response of barrier islands to sea level rise can be expected to vary regionally and alongshore as a reflection of diverse framework geology. The local response to sea level rise depends on the ability of the dune to recover following storms. Assuming no new sediment from alongshore or offshore sources, an increase in the frequency of washover will limit the ability of the dune to recover, and recent field evidence suggests that a change in dune height and volume is self-reinforcing, which suggests a lack of island resiliency. Further testing is required to determine how the field observations and modeling described in this chapter from a select group of barrier islands around the United States are applicable to other islands and consistent throughout the evolution of a barrier island.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Marine top predators forage in environments that show potentially extreme temporal and spatial variation in prey availability, with reproductive success being crucially linked to food supply. Multiple factors of interannual and sexual variation, as well as variation across breeding stages, can shape patterns of spatial use in foraging seabirds, yet studies that address all of these variables simultaneously are rare. We present spatial assessment of foraging patterns by µGPS tracking of a sexually size monomorphic, long-lived species, the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator). The study spanned the incubation and chick-rearing stages in three consecutive breeding seasons. Our findings revealed high interannual variability in foraging distances and trip durations, but no consistent differences between birds across different breeding stages or the sexes. The exception was that core foraging areas were different for female and male Australasian gannets, although trip durations or distances were similar for both sexes. Our results also indicate bimodality in foraging distance and trip duration in this species, while highlighting interannual variability in the extent of bimodality. These findings contribute to a scarcely documented type of foraging behaviour in the seabird family of the Sulidae. Overall, these spatial use patterns provide a baseline for understanding the evolution of sex-specific foraging differences in biparental seabirds, and the extent to which these differences might help in securing breeding success across years of variable food availability.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: We present the development and validation of a numerical modeling suite for bubble and droplet dynamics of multiphase plumes in the environment. This modeling suite includes real-fluid equations of state, Lagrangian particle tracking, and two different integral plume models: an Eulerian model for a double-plume integral model in quiescent stratification and a Lagrangian integral model for multiphase plumes in stratified crossflows. Here, we report a particle tracking algorithm for dispersed-phase particles within the Lagrangian integral plume model and a comprehensive validation of the Lagrangian plume model for single- and multiphase buoyant jets. The model utilizes literature values for all entrainment and spreading coefficients and has one remaining calibration parameter (Formula presented.), which reduces the buoyant force of dispersed phase particles as they approach the edge of a Lagrangian plume element, eventually separating from the plume as it bends over in a crossflow. We report the calibrated form (Formula presented.), where b is the plume half-width, and r is the distance of a particle from the plume centerline. We apply the validated modeling suite to simulate two test cases of a subsea oil well blowout in a stratification-dominated crossflow. These tests confirm that errors from overlapping plume elements in the Lagrangian integral model during intrusion formation for a weak crossflow are negligible for predicting intrusion depth and the fate of oil droplets in the plume. The Lagrangian integral model has the added advantages of being able to account for entrainment from an arbitrary crossflow, predict the intrusion of small gas bubbles and oil droplets when appropriate, and track the pathways of individual bubbles and droplets after they separate from the main plume or intrusion layer.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Sea-ice ecosystems are among the most extensive of Earth’s habitats; yet its autotrophic and heterotrophic activities remain poorly constrained. We employed the in situ aquatic eddy-covariance (AEC) O2 flux method and laboratory incubation techniques (H14CO3−, [3H] thymidine and [3H] leucine) to assess productivity in Arctic sea-ice using different methods, in conditions ranging from land-fast ice during winter, to pack ice within the central Arctic Ocean during summer. Laboratory tracer measurements resolved rates of bacterial C demand of 0.003–0.166 mmol C m−2 day−1 and primary productivity rates of 0.008–0.125 mmol C m−2 day−1 for the different ice floes. Pack ice in the central Arctic Ocean was overall net autotrophic (0.002–0.063 mmol C m−2 day−1), whereas winter land-fast ice was net heterotrophic (− 0.155 mmol C m−2 day−1). AEC measurements resolved an uptake of O2 by the bottom-ice environment, from ~ − 2 mmol O2 m−2 day−1 under winter land-fast ice to~ − 6 mmol O2 m−2 day−1 under summer pack ice. Flux of O2-deplete meltwater and changes in water flow velocity masked potential biological-mediated activity. AEC estimates of primary productivity were only possible at one study location. Here, productivity rates of 1.3 ± 0.9 mmol O2 m−2 day−1, much larger than concurrent laboratory tracer estimates (0.03 mmol C m−2 day−1), indicate that ice algal production and its importance within the marine Arctic could be underestimated using traditional approaches. Given careful flux interpretation and with further development, the AEC technique represents a promising new tool for assessing oxygen dynamics and sea-ice productivity in ice-covered regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  International Journal of Earth Sciences, 107 (8). pp. 2931-2932.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Stocking can be an effective management and conservation tool, but it also carries the danger of eroding natural population structure, introducing non-native strains and reducing genetic diversity. Sea trout, the anadromous form of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), is a highly targeted species that is often managed by stocking. Here, we assess the present-day population genetic structure of sea trout in a backdrop of 125 years of stocking in Northern Germany. The study area is characterized by short distances between the Baltic and North Sea river watersheds, historic use of fish from both watersheds for stocking, and the creation of a potential migration corridor between the Baltic and North Sea with the opening of the Kiel Canal 120 years ago. A survey of 24 river systems with 180 SNPs indicates that moderate but highly significant population genetic structure has persisted both within and between the Baltic and North Sea. This genetic structure is characterized by (i) heterogeneous patterns of admixture between the Baltic and North Sea that do not correlate with distance from the Kiel Canal and are therefore likely due to historic stocking practises, (ii) genetic isolation by distance in the Baltic Sea at a spatial scale of 〈 200 km that is consistent with the homing behaviour of sea trout, and (iii) at least one genetically distinct Baltic Sea river system. In light of these results, we recommend keeping fish of North Sea and Baltic Sea origin separate for stocking, and restricting Baltic Sea translocations to neighbouring river systems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  International Journal of Earth Sciences, 107 (7). pp. 2639-2644.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Eschers, an old Swiss family which for many generations were members of the Council of Zurich, were dedicated to technical and economic development. Among them were numbered merchants, important librarians, historians, engineers and geoscientists. Hans Conrad Escher (1767–1823) was a merchant, naturalist, engineer, Member of Parliament, statesman and a genius illustrator of landscapes, who created the first geologically relevant and encompassing view of the Swiss Alps, including the first 360° panorama drawings. Showing enormous prescience, he designed and initiated the canalization of the Linth river in Glarus and led this enormous work of geological engineering and river regulation from start to finish.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: image
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Computational Science – ICCS 2018. , ed. by Shi, Y. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 10861 . Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 56-68. ISBN 978-3-319-93701-4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) can be used to improve climate simulations since these exhibit features on multiple scales which would be too expensive to resolve using non-adaptive meshes. In particular, long-term climate simulations only allow for low resolution simulations using current computational resources. We apply AMR to single components of the existing earth system model (ESM) instead of constructing a complex ESM based on AMR. In order to compatibly incorporate AMR into an existing model, we explore the applicability of a tree-based data structure. Using a numerical scheme for tracer transport in ECHAM6, we test the performance of AMR with our data structure utilizing an idealized test case. The numerical results show that the augmented data structure is compatible with the data structure of the original model and also demonstrate improvements of the efficiency compared to non-adaptive meshes.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: YOUMARES 8 – Oceans Across Boundaries: Learning from each other. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 7-23. ISBN 978-3-319-93284-2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is dominated by the seasonal cycle. A defining feature is the migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone into the northern hemisphere and the formation of a so-called cold tongue in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in late boreal spring. Between April and August, cooling leads to a drop in SSTs of approximately 5°. The pronounced seasonal cycle in the equatorial Atlantic affects surrounding continents, and even minor deviations from it can have striking consequences for local agricultures. Here, we report how state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) still struggle to simulate the observed seasonal cycle in the equatorial Atlantic, focusing on the formation of the cold tongue. We review the basic processes that establish the observed seasonal cycle in the tropical Atlantic, highlight common biases and their potential origins, and discuss how they relate to the dynamics of the real world. We also briefly discuss the implications of the equatorial Atlantic warm bias for CGCM-based reliable, socio-economically relevant seasonal predictions in the region.
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Decreasing biodiversity is projected as one of the most consistent effects of warming on marine microbial communities. It is predicted that low biodiversity will consequently influence the community sensitivity to additional environmental alterations. Mesocosms were used to study the response of natural Mediterranean phytoplankton communities (control and heat shock + 6 °C) to salinity variations (− 5psu, control, + 5psu). We examined the effect on species composition, species richness as well as phytoplankton biomass and resource use efficiency. Heat shock was coupled with decreased species richness (30 species in control community while 26 in heat shock) and slightly reduced phytoplankton biomass. Changes in salinity altered the phytoplankton species composition (dinoflagellates were absent in decreased salinity treatments) and significantly reduced the phytoplankton species richness. The phytoplankton biomass and the resource use efficiency also decreased with exception of the increased salinity treatment in the non-heated community. In general, decreased salinity had stronger negative effects compared to increased salinity as displayed by the lowest species richness and lowest phytoplankton biomass in those treatments. Most notably, we identified a synergistic negative effect of heat shock with increased/decreased salinity which can be attributed to the lower species richness and, thus, decreased stability in the heated community.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Tephra layers within marine sediments provide information on past explosive eruptions, which is especially important in the case of remote island arcs where data on proximal pyroclastic deposits can be scarce. Three Alaska-Aleutian tephras (labeled Br2, SR2, and SR4) were found in the late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the Bering Sea (north Pacific). We fingerprint glass from these tephras with the help of single-shard electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS analyses and provide microprobe data on minerals from two of these tephras. The large compositional variability of the Alaska-Aleutian volcanoes permits the use of ratios of highly incompatible trace elements (Ba/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La, La/Nb) for identification of distal tephra sources by comparison of these ratios in tephra glass and proximal bulk rock analyses. This method, along with mapped tephra dispersal, has allowed us to link tephras under study to Aniakchak, Semisopochnoi, and Okmok volcanoes, respectively. Our results indicate that tephra Br2 was derived from the ~ 3.6 ka Aniakchak II caldera-forming eruption (Alaska, USA). This is the first ever finding of the Aniakchak II tephra in Bering Sea sediments, which permits enlargement of its tephra volume and eruption magnitude to ~ 100 km3 and 6.8, respectively. Tephra SR2, dated at ~ 12.2 ka, is likely associated with a post-glacial caldera on the Semisopochnoi Island, Aleutians (USA). Tephra SR4 (dated at ~ 64.5 ka), likely was derived from an earlier undocumented eruption from Okmok volcano (Aleutians). All three regionally spread tephra layers are valuable isochrones, which can be used for correlating and dating of Bering Sea sediments.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Incekaya hyaloclastite cone (eastern Anatolia, Turkey), the focal point along a major eruptive fissure, was the main source of an unusually large explosive basaltic eruption. The ca. 80 ka-old eruption began onshore with scoria cones from a 5 km N-S fracture propagating toward Lake Van (surface area of 3755 km2). At the intersection with the fault-bounded lake basin, a ca. 400-m-high subaerial hyaloclastite edifice formed, which can be crudely subdivided into a main lower massive bulk of hydrothermally altered lithic-rich hyaloclastites (CL) topped unconformably by a 〉 30-m-thick, well-bedded fallout tephra (CU). The CU tephras are correlated with (1) widespread onshore hyaloclastite fallout deposits mostly west-southwest of the cone and (2) a ca. 2-m-thick, ca 80-ka-old bedded hyaloclastite (V-60), part of a 220 m ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core, drilled in Lake Van, 27 km N of Incekaya. The hyaloclastite unit was seismically identified as being the most widespread and well-defined reflector throughout much of western Lake Van. A minimum volume of 〉 9 km3 fallout hyaloclastite tephra is estimated when the area of the seismic reflector is extrapolated to the coast and 2 km inland. Seismic reflectors also suggest at least two (hyaloclastite?) intralake cones rising up to 388 m above the lake sediment surface 1.5 km NW off Incekaya cone and were possibly erupted along the same fracture. The total volume of hyaloclastites includes (a) subaerial Incekaya cone, (b) the inferred subaqueous continuation of the cone(s), (c) the bedded intralake and onshore deposits, and, tentatively, (d) a widespread (seismically defined) mass flow deposits directly beneath Incekaya reflector of roughly 20 km3 and may represent the deposits of explosively erupted basaltic magma. Sideromelane shards, the main clast type, are dominantly angular, and most show ≪ 50 vol.% vesicles. Less common tachylite clasts are poorly vesicular (〈 50 vol.%). Structural transitions and interlayering between tachylite and sideromelane are ubiquitous. Fluidal and pumiceous lapilli are present in the basal massive facies. Bulk rock and glass compositions indicate constant composition of the slightly evolved Al-rich basalt magma. Olivine (Fo78–82) and plagioclase (An70–80) microphenocrysts, many skeletal with growth features, and microlites make up 〈 1 vol.% and suggest rapid magma ascent. The high explosive energy of the eruption is interpreted to be due to (1) high magma discharge rates and shearing in the eruptive jet and (2) magma-water interaction conditions. Approximate temporal coincidences with the Incekaya eruption include the following: (a) an abrupt cessation in the supply of evolved tephra from the adjacent Süphan Volcano to the lake sediments, which ended abruptly for ca. 60 ky, (b) an extreme fall in lake level by ca. 150 m, and (c) a drastic increase in pore water salinity (Na+ and Cl− (g/L)) and pH.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: other
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Hydrocarbons, Oils and Lipids: Diversity, Origin, Chemistry and Fate. , ed. by Wilkes, H. Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology . Springer, Cham, pp. 1-21.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. , ed. by Solomon, M. and Markus, T. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 3-35. ISBN 978-3-319-60156-4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-10
    Description: The fundamental basis to understand the distribution and variability of abiotic variables within the oceans such as e.g. temperature and salinity are the underlying physical dynamics. These dynamics depend on the setting of the ocean basins and external forcing mechanisms. In this chapter water mass characteristics and their formation processes are described as well as fundamental principles, which set the oceans into motion. These fundamentals are the premise to understand possible future climate changes, the distribution and evolution of marine ecosystems and related economic interests and conflicts
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Parasitic and commensal species can impact the structure and function of ecological communities and are typically highly specialized to overcome host defences. Here, we report multiple instances of a normally free-living species, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758, inhabiting the branchial chamber of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from widely separated geographical locations. A total of 127 C. maenas were examined from four locations in the English Channel, one location in the Irish Sea and two locations at the entrance of the Baltic Sea. The branchial chambers of three crabs (one from the English Channel and two from Gullmar Fjord, Sweden) were infested with mussels resembling the genus Mytilus. Sequencing at the Me15/16 locus on the polyphenolic adhesive protein gene confirmed the identity as M. edulis. Bivalve infestation always occurred in larger red male individuals. Up to 16 mussels, ranging from 2 to 11 mm in shell length, were found in each individual, either wedged between gill lamellae or attached to the branchial chamber inner wall. This is one of the first reports of a bivalve inhabiting crustacean gills and is an intriguing case of a normally free-living prey species infesting its predator
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Recruitment patterns of sessile species often do not reflect the composition of the local propagule pool. This is, among other processes, attributed to the stimulation or inhibition of settlement by resident species. In an experimental study, we evaluated the effects of different densities of the ascidian Diplosoma listerianum on the settlement of the hydrozoan Obelia sp. For this, we monitored the cover of the dominant fouler Obelia sp. on vertically orientated PVC tiles, which were either bare or pre-seeded with two different densities (sparse or dense) of Diplosoma colonies, over the course of 8 weeks. The settlement tiles were deployed at two study sites in La Herradura Bay, Chile. The presence of D. listerianum enhanced the settlement or the growth or both of the colonial hydrozoan, but this effect disappeared within 4–8 weeks. Furthermore, we tested whether the initial enhancement of Obelia sp. by Diplosoma colonies goes back to the fact that larvae, which reject the ascidian tunic as a settlement substratum after a first contact, colonize nearby surfaces because of their limited mobility. However, we found no support for this assumption. We rather suggest that D. listerianum facilitated colonization indirectly by the accumulation of organic material in its vicinity and/or by its pumping activity. Initial resident-mediated enhancement of the hydrozoan was overridden by processes such as competition between later colonizers within the course of weeks and we could not detect any lasting effects of D. listerianum on the structure of the developing communities.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The AlpArray programme is a multinational, European consortium to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps–Apennines–Carpathians–Dinarides orogenic system. The AlpArray Seismic Network has been deployed with contributions from 36 institutions from 11 countries to map physical properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere in 3D and thus to obtain new, high-resolution geophysical images of structures from the surface down to the base of the mantle transition zone. With over 600 broadband stations operated for 2 years, this seismic experiment is one of the largest simultaneously operated seismological networks in the academic domain, employing hexagonal coverage with station spacing at less than 52 km. This dense and regularly spaced experiment is made possible by the coordinated coeval deployment of temporary stations from numerous national pools, including ocean-bottom seismometers, which were funded by different national agencies. They combine with permanent networks, which also required the cooperation of many different operators. Together these stations ultimately fill coverage gaps. Following a short overview of previous large-scale seismological experiments in the Alpine region, we here present the goals, construction, deployment, characteristics and data management of the AlpArray Seismic Network, which will provide data that is expected to be unprecedented in quality to image the complex Alpine mountains at depth.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: video
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Format: other
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The geological, hydrological and microbiological features of the Salar de Atacama, the most extensive evaporitic sedimentary basin in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, have been extensively studied. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the composition and roles of microbial communities in hypersaline lakes which are a unique feature in the Salar. In the present study biochemical, chemical and molecular biological tools were used to determine the composition and roles of microbial communities in water, microbial mats and sediments along a marked salinity gradient in Laguna Puilar which is located in the “Los Flamencos” National Reserve. The bacterial communities at the sampling sites were dominated by members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses revealed marked variability in the composition of microbial mats at different sampling sites both horizontally (at different sites) and vertically (in the different layers). The Laguna Puilar was shown to be a microbially dominated ecosystem in which more than 60% of the fatty acids at particular sites are of bacterial origin. Our pioneering studies also suggest that the energy budgets of avian consumers (three flamingo species) and dominant invertebrates (amphipods and gastropods) use minerals as a source of energy and nutrients. Overall, the results of this study support the view that the Salar de Atacama is a heterogeneous and fragile ecosystem where small changes in environmental conditions may alter the balance of microbial communities with possible consequences at different trophic levels.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: For assessing tsunami hazard in northernmost Cascadia, there is an urgent need to define tsunami sources due to megathrust rupture. Even though the knowledge of Cascadia fault structure and rupture behaviour is limited at present, geologically and mechanically plausible scenarios can still be designed. In this work, we use three-dimensional dislocation modelling to construct three types of rupture scenarios and illustrate their effects on tsunami generation and propagation. The first type, buried rupture, is a classical model based on the assumption of coseismic strengthening of the shallowest part of the fault. In the second type, splay-faulting rupture, fault slip is diverted to a main splay fault, enhancing seafloor uplift. Although the presence or absence of such a main splay fault is not yet confirmed by structural observations, this scenario cannot be excluded from hazard assessment. In the third type, trench-breaching rupture, slip extends to the deformation front and breaks the seafloor by activating a frontal thrust. The model frontal thrust, based on information extracted from multichannel seismic data, is hypothetically continuous along strike. Our low-resolution tsunami simulation indicates that, compared to the buried rupture, coastal wave surface elevation generated by the splay-faulting rupture is generally 50–100% higher, but that by trench-breaching rupture is slightly lower, especially if slip of the frontal thrust is large (e.g. 100% of peak slip). Wave elevation in the trench-breaching scenario depends on a trade-off between enhanced short-wavelength seafloor uplift over the frontal thrust and reduced uplift over a broader area farther landward.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  , ed. by von Storch, H., Meinke, I. and Claußen, M. Springer, Berlin, XVIII, 302 pp. ISBN 978-3-662-55379-4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Bereits zum zweiten Mal wird im Rahmen des KlimaCampus Hamburg der aktuelle Forschungsstand zum Klimawandel in der Hamburger Metropolregion und Norddeutschland systematisch dokumentiert. Erfahren Sie auf Basis der Fachliteratur, in welchem Maße Konsens hinsichtlich des Klimawandels in Norddeutschland besteht. Inwieweit sind Entwicklungen bereits messbar, welche Auswirkungen zeigen sich bereits heute und wie kann sich die Region vor negativen Folgen des Klimawandels schützen? Die über 70 Autoren haben die Forschungsergebnisse zu diesen Fragen systematisch zusammengetragen. Die Übereinstimmung bzw. Widersprüchlichkeit des derzeitigen Wissens wurde dabei herausgearbeitet, Erkenntnisgewinne gegenüber dem ersten Hamburger Klimabericht lokalisiert und weiterhin bestehender Forschungsbedarf aufgezeigt. Alle Beiträge wurden einem wissenschaftlichen Begutachtungsprozess unterzogen, der von einem Lenkungsausschuss überwacht wurde. Die Dokumentation belegt umfassend eine bereits stattfindende Erwärmung in der Metropolregion Hamburg und in Norddeutschland sowie einen Meeresspiegelanstieg an Nord- und Ostsee. Mit der Erwärmung zeichnen sich deutliche Änderungen im Ökosystem ab. Diese bereits eingetretenen Entwicklungen können sich künftig weiter verstärken. Erfahren Sie, welche Auswirkungen dies für Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft hat.
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...