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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-09-22
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    In:  [Talk] In: PIRATA-PREFACE-CLIVAR Tropical Atlantic Variability Conference, 24.-28.08.2015, Cape Town, South Africa .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 3
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    In:  [Talk] In: Recent Advances in Cephalopod Science, Cephalopod International Council Conference 2015, 10.-14.11.2015, Hakodate, Japan .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: Recent Advances in Cephalopod Science, Cephalopod International Council Conference 2015, 10.-14.11.2015, Hakodate, Japan .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 5
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Bremen, Ringvorlesung im Überseemuseum, 18.01.2016, Bremen, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 6
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: Deutsches Meeresmuseum, 17.03.2016, Stralsund, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 7
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    In:  [Talk] In: Medieninformation der Nationalparkverwaltung, Multimar Wattforum, 23.03.2016, Tönning, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 8
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: “The Big Questions” Lecture Series, Future Ocean, Helmholtz-Zentrum Für Ozeanforschung Kiel, 31.05.2016, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 9
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    In:  [Public Lecture] In: Ozean-Tag, Audimax, Universität Kiel, 08.06.2016, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 10
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    ICES
    In:  In: Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe: II. Species Accounts. , ed. by Jereb, P., Allcock, L. A., Lefkaditou, E., Piatkowski, U., Hastie, L. C. and Pierce, G. J. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 325 . ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 194-205. ISBN 978-87-7482-155-7
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
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    In:  [Public Lecture] In: Ausgewählte Kapitel der Toxikologie und Umweltmedizin, Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Kiel, 08.06.2016, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 12
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    In:  [Public Lecture] In: Kieler Woche Vorträge 2016, 23.06.2016, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 13
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    In:  [Public Lecture] In: Kinder- und Schüleruni 2016, 30.11.2016, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 15
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    In:  [Talk] In: The Zoo and Wildlife Conference 2017, 24.-27.05.2017, Berlin, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
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  • 16
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    AtlantOS
    In:  AtlantOS Deliverable, D8.1 . AtlantOS, 12 pp.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-11
    Description: Any increase in flood frequency or severity due to sea level rise or changes in storminess would adversely impact society. It is crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges to have confidence in the datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. We will refine and improve methods to the estimation of extreme sea levels around Europe and more widely. We will do so by developing a comprehensive world picture of storm surge distribution (including extremes) for both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. We will apply statistical methods to both tide gauge data and multi-decadal runs of numerical models. We will advance the development of a consistent global storm surge climatology, building on the work of the IOC/WMO JCOMM Expert Team for Waves and Coastal Hazards [D8.1] [NOC]
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 17
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 213 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 18
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    AtlantOS
    In:  AtlantOS Deliverable, D10.2 . AtlantOS, 5 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-09-20
    Description: Design, initial content loading and launch of AtlantOS project website www.atlantos-h2020.eu
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 19
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    AtlantOS
    In:  AtlantOS Deliverable, D6.1 . AtlantOS, 24 pp.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-11
    Description: Report including a ten year roadmap for strategic development of sensor and instrument technology for Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems and therefore global ocean observation
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 20
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 135 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
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  • 21
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    AtlantOS
    In:  AtlantOS Deliverable, D10.4 . AtlantOS, 34 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-09-20
    Description: Report of AtlantOS-OECD Scoping Workshop on the Economic Potential of Data from Ocean Observatories
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 23
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 55 pp
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 24
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    AtlantOS
    In:  AtlantOS Deliverable, D4.1 . AtlantOS, 505 pp.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-11
    Description: This task will develop a comprehensive South Atlantic sea level observing site catalogue (including sensors, benchmarks, maps and images) [D4.1] [NERC-NOC] building on the IOC GLOSS Station Handbook and European Sea Level Service Observing Site specification
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 25
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    ICES
    In:  , ed. by Jereb, P., Allcock, L. A., Lefkaditou, E., Piatkowski, U., Hastie, L. C. and Pierce, G. J. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 325 . ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 13-28, 360 pp. ISBN 978-87-7482-155-7
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
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  • 26
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    Taylor & Francis
    In:  Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 3 (2). pp. 117-122.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: One kinds of glycolipid (SBI) have been isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turn.) Ag. The structures of SBI have been determined as the sodium salt of 1-0-acyl-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol (acyl: tetradecanoyl, pentadecanoyl, 11-hexadecenoyl, hexadecanoyl, 10,13-octadecadienoyl, 9-octade cenoyl, 15-metylheptadecanoyl and 11-eicosenoyl 17:1.5:19:153:1:19:1:2) on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Four constituents of the SBI were new compounds [the sodium salt of 1-0-(11″-hexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, the sodium salt of 1-0-(10″,13″-octadecadienoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, and the sodium salt of 1-0-(15″-metylhexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, and the sodium salt of 1-0-(11″-eicosenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol]. All compounds were isolated from marine brown alga for the first time.
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  • 27
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    In:  , 2 pp.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: FS METEOR Expedition M141 „Azores Tephras“ Wochenbericht 4, 24. September - 1. Oktober 2017
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: The behavioural and physical mechanisms involved in the tactics used by predators to catch their prey have been explored for a wide variety of vertebrate taxa but most studies have considered the viewpoints of predator and prey independently. We tackled this issue using an ecologically relevant predator–prey model: wolf spiders (Pardosa spp.) and wood crickets, Nemobius sylvestris. Crickets are particularly challenging prey to catch because their air-sensing systems enable them to detect small air movements caused by approaching predators. Using a high-speed video camera, we found that freely behaving spiders adopted either a fast or a slow velocity tactic to approach crickets. We then developed a device using a piston to simulate, as faithfully as possible, the spider's attack. The air flow generated by the piston was quantified by particle image velocimetry and then used to test the escape success of crickets at different attack velocities. Cricket escape success was lower for low and high piston velocities, matching the two tactics adopted by the spiders. Based on our results, we propose that the escape probability of prey after a given predator signal can be explained by the distance between the prey and the predator, the velocity of the predator and the strength of the signal. Both methodological and conceptual approaches presented in this study could provide useful methods to understand the biological and physical basis of predatory tactics in other animals.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.
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  • 30
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    ICES
    In:  In: Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe: II. Species Accounts. , ed. by Jereb, P., Allcock, L. A., Lefkaditou, E., Piatkowski, U., Hastie, L. C. and Pierce, G. J. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 325 . ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 219-228. ISBN 978-87-7482-155-7
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Evaluating the effects of diagenesis on the isotopic compositions of Sr, O, and C in marine carbonates is critical to their use as proxies in reconstructing information on the salinity, temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon of ancient oceans. We have analyzed a series of samples of mollusk shells from the Baculites compressus zone (late Campanian) of the Pierre Shale of South Dakota. Samples included outer shell material and septa of cephalopods collected inside and outside concretions. Preservation was evaluated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), trace element analysis and X-ray diffraction. All of the material consists of aragonite based on X-ray diffraction. An SEM preservation index (PI) was established based on comparison of the microstructure of the fossil material with that of modern Nautilus. Excellent preservation (PI = 5) was characterized by well-defined nacreous plates with discrete, angular boundaries. In contrast, samples showing fused nacreous plates with indistinct boundaries were rated poor (PI = 1). 87Sr/86Sr ratios vary with preservation and average 0.707648 ± .000021 (n = 10) for excellent preservation (PI ≈ 5), 0.707615 ± .000028 (n = 5) for good preservation (PI ≈ 3), 0.707404 ± .000074 (n=7) for fair preservation (PI ≈ 2), and 0.707261 ± .000053 (n=8) for poor preservation (PI ≈ 1). These data suggest that as the quality of the preservation declines, the mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio decreases and the standard error of the mean increases. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses of the same specimens also show decreases with preservation, and δ18O, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr are well correlated, suggesting that these tracers are all altered as the PI decreases. The Sr/Ca ratio increases as preservation decreases, indicating that Sr is added to the shell material during diagenesis. In contrast, Mg/Ca shows no trend with preservation. If the increasing Sr concentration (and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr) of the shell material with decreasing preservation represents the addition of Sr to the shell during diagenesis, we calculate that the added Sr had 87Sr/86Sr ranging from 0.707582 to 0.707032. Potential sources of the added Sr include older marine carbonates and weathering of volcanic ash layers present in the shale. The mechanisms of alteration likely include epitaxial growth of strontianite on the original shell aragonite and isotopic exchange of C and O between alteration fluids and shell carbonate. We conclude that SEM preservation criteria are effective in screening shell material that records original isotopic values and that variations in Sr, O and C isotope composition in well-preserved material can be used to assess paleoenvironmental parameters, such as salinity and temperature. Our results also indicate that assessing preservation is a critical prerequisite to the determination of numerical ages of shell material using strontium isotope stratigraphy.
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  • 32
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    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 101 (7). pp. 519-520.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
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  • 33
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    American Chemistry Society
    In:  Environmental Science & Technology, 43 (19). pp. 7245-7251.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Diel cycles of dissolved cationic metal concentrations commonly occur in freshwater streams in apparent response to coincident cycles in water quality parameters (pH, O2, temperature). Hourly sampling of the Cd-contaminated Riou Mort (France) revealed large diel cycles in “total” dissolved Cd (232−357 nM; 〈0.45 μm) and “truly” dissolved Cd (56−297 nM; 〈0.02 μm) which were strongly correlated with changes in water pH. Using measured fluxes, a dissolved O2 model was constructed that indicated that benthic metabolic activities, respiration and photosynthesis, were responsible for the diel O2 (and thus, CO2 and pH) variation in the stream. However, microsensor measurements also showed that the pH changes occurred at the biofilm interface earlier than in the bulk water column. This difference in timing was reflected in the Cd dynamics, where pH-controlled sorption effects caused Cd partitioning from the truly dissolved pool onto the biofilm in the morning, and from the truly dissolved pool onto large colloids (0.02−0.45 μm) later in the day. Because this process causes large changes in the bioavailable Cd fraction, it has significant implications for Cd toxicity in freshwater streams. This study demonstrates the profound control of benthic microbiological processes on the cycling of heavy metals in aquatic systems.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean supplies Sr with less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr than seawater, and thus constitutes an important term in the Sr isotope budget of the modern ocean. However, few data exist for Sr in coastal groundwater or in the geochemically dynamic subterranean estuary (STE). We examined Sr concentrations and isotope ratios from nine globally-distributed coastal sites and characterized the behavior of Sr in the STE. Dissolved Sr generally mixed conservatively in the STE, although large differences were observed in the meteoric groundwater end-member Sr concentrations among sites (0.1–24 μM Sr). Strontium isotope exchange was observed in the STE at five of the sites studied, and invariably favored the meteoric groundwater end-member signature. Most of the observed isotope exchange occurred in the salinity range 5–15, and reached up to 40% exchange at salinity 10. Differences in fresh groundwater Sr concentrations and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707–0.710) reflected aquifer lithology. The SGD end-member 87Sr/86Sr must be lower than modern seawater (i.e., less than 0.70916) in part because groundwater Sr concentrations are orders of magnitude higher in less-radiogenic carbonate and volcanic island aquifers. A simple lithological model and groundwater Sr data compiled from the literature were used to estimate a global average groundwater end-member of 2.9 μM Sr with 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089. This represents a meteoric-SGD-driven Sr input to the ocean of 0.7–2.8 × 1010 mol Sr y−1. Meteoric SGD therefore accounts for 2–8% of the oceanic Sr isotope budget, comparable to other known source terms, but is insufficient to balance the remainder of the budget. Using reported estimates for brackish SGD, the estimated volume discharge at salinity 10 (7–11 × 1015 L y−1) was used to evaluate the impact of isotope exchange in the STE on the brackish SGD Sr flux. A moderate estimate of 25% isotope exchange in the STE gives an SGD Sr end-member 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7091. The brackish SGD Sr flux thus accounts for 11–23% of the marine Sr isotope budget, but does not appear sufficient to balance the ∼40% remaining after other known sources are included. Substantial uncertainties remain for estimating the SGD source of Sr to the global ocean, especially in the determination of the volume flux of meteoric SGD, and in the paucity of measurements of groundwater Sr isotope composition in major SGD regions such as Papua New Guinea, the South America west coast, and West Africa. Consequently, our global estimate should be viewed with some caution. Nevertheless, we show that the combined sources of meteoric SGD and brackish SGD coupled with isotope exchange in the STE may constitute a substantial component (∼13–30%) of the modern oceanic 87Sr/86Sr budget, likely exceeding less radiogenic Sr inputs by sedimentary diagenesis and hydrothermal circulation through the mid-ocean ridge system. Temporal variation in SGD Sr fluxes and isotope composition may have contributed to fluctuations in the oceanic 87Sr/86Sr ratio over geologic time.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Geochemical cycles occurring at the interface between terrestrial and marine groundwaters, in the so-called subterranean estuary (STE), are not well understood for most elements. This is particularly true of the transition metals, many of which have particular ecological relevance as micronutrients or toxicants. To gain a first approximation of trace metal geochemistry in the mixing zone, we examined the distribution of nine dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Mo, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al) through a shallow STE in Great South Bay, New York, USA. We also performed a simple kinetic and chemical separation of labile and organic-complexed metal species in the STE. Dissolved Mn showed marked subsurface enrichment (up to 755 µM at 15 cm depth) that was suggestive of diagenetic remobilization. Dissolved Fe, however, was higher by more than three orders-of-magnitude in fresh groundwater (90 µM) as compared to marine groundwater (0.02 µM), and pH-mediated removal was evident as slightly acidic fresh groundwater (pH 6.8) mixed with marine groundwater (pH ∼ 8.0). Dissolved Mo, Co, and Ni were primarily cycled with Mn, and highly elevated concentrations relative to bay surface waters (up to 300, 75, and 44 nM, respectively) were observed in the STE. High levels of dissolved Pb (up to 4250 pM) observed in the fresh groundwater were nearly quantitatively removed within the salinity mixing zone, in conjunction with marked reduction of dissolved Al. Dissolved Cu exhibited non-conservative removal throughout the STE, and was correlated with the redox potential of the porewaters. Substantial percentages (〉 15%) of organic-metal species were only observed for Cu and Ni, suggesting that these complexes were not generally very important for metal cycling in the STE. Kinetically labile species were observed for all metals examined except Cu and Pb, and represented an approximately constant proportion (between 10% and 70%) of the total dissolved pool for each metal, indicating equilibrium between labile and non-labile species throughout the mixing zone. The non-conservative behavior observed for all metals examined in this study suggests that reactions occurring in the STE are vastly important to the source/sink function of permeable sediments, and studies seeking to quantify SGD-derived trace metal fluxes must take into account biogeochemical processes occurring in the subterranean estuary.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Although it has been more than 30 years since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, comprehending the interconnections between hydrothermal venting and microbial life remains a challenge. Here we investigate abiotic-biotic linkages in low-temperature hydrothermal biotopes at Desperate and Lilliput on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both sites are basalt-hosted and fluids exhibit the expected chemical signatures. However, contrasting crustal permeabilities have been proposed, supporting pervasive mixing at Desperate but restricting circulation at Lilliput. In Desperate fluids, sulfide and O2 were readily available but H2 hardly detectable. Under incubation conditions (oxic unamended, sulfide-spiked, oxic and anoxic H2 -spiked at 18°C), only sulfide oxidation by Thiomicrospira fuelled biomass synthesis. Microbial phylogenies from Desperate incubation experiments resembled those of the natural samples suggesting that the incubation conditions mimicked the environment. In Lilliput fluids, O2 was limited, whereas sulfide and H2 were enriched. Autotrophy appeared to be stimulated by residual sulfide and by amended H2 . Yet, based on bacterial phylogenies only conditions in anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput incubations appeared similar to parts of the Lilliput habitat. In anoxic H2 -spiked Lilliput enrichments Campylobacteraceae likely supported biomass production through H2 oxidation. We argue that the diverging circulation patterns arising from different subseafloor permeabilities act as major driving forces shaping these biotope structures.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Mixing processes of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater and fluid-rock reactions contribute to the chemical signatures of diffuse venting and likely determine the geochemical constraints on microbial life. We examined the influence of fluid chemistry on microbial diversity and activity by sampling diffuse fluids emanating through mussel beds at two contrasting hydrothermal vents. The H(2) concentration was very low at the basalt-hosted Clueless site, and mixing models suggest O(2) availability throughout much of the habitat. In contrast, effluents from the ultramafic-hosted Quest site were considerably enriched in H(2) , while O(2) is likely limited to the mussel layer. Only two different hydrogenase genes were identified in clone libraries from the H(2) -poor Clueless fluids, but these fluids exhibited the highest H(2) uptake rates in H(2) -spiked incubations (oxic conditions, at 18 °C). In contrast, a phylogenetically diverse H(2) -oxidizing potential was associated with distinct thermal conditions in the H(2) -rich Quest fluids, but under oxic conditions, H(2) uptake rates were extremely low. Significant stimulation of CO(2) fixation rates by H(2) addition was solely illustrated in Quest incubations (P-value 〈0.02), but only in conjunction with anoxic conditions (at 18 °C). We conclude that the factors contributing toward differences in the diversity and activity of H(2) oxidizers at these sites include H(2) and O(2) availability.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge represents a major but poorly constrained component of coastal marine chemical budgets. In the current study, the geochemical behavior of 224Ra, inorganic nitrogen species, and Fe in shallow coastal groundwater was characterized to improve estimates of chemical flux via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at a site in the York River estuary, VA (USA). Directly measured SGD rates varied between 3.9 ± 1.2 cm day−1 offshore, and 8.9 ± 2.6 cm day−1 close to shore. A clear inverse relationship was observed between SGD and tidal height, reflecting the hydraulic gradient between groundwater and surface water. Discharge rates varied spatially in conjunction with the subterranean estuary location, and there was a strong inverse correlation between seepage rates and seepage salinity. Dissolved 224Ra activity in the mixing zone reached levels up to 6 dpm L−1 and co-varied with salinity in the groundwater but not in the surface water or seepage water. Instead, a consistent sigmoidal trend of Ra with pH was observed, which matched previous laboratory experiment results. Dissolved NH4 + reached concentrations up to 120 μM in the groundwater and appeared to mix conservatively with respect to salinity in the subterranean estuary. In contrast, NOx (NO2 − + NO3 −) was low in both fresh groundwater and surface water and showed non-conservative enrichment (up to 23 μM) within the subterranean estuary. Dissolved Fe also showed non-conservative excess in the subterranean estuary, reaching concentrations up to 50 μM. SGD-derived chemical fluxes were estimated using several different commonly used approaches: average groundwater concentrations, pore water constituent-salinity trends coupled with directly collected seepage salinity, constituent concentrations in directly collected seepage, and concentrations in shallowest groundwater samples. Different flux estimates were compared with a “variable endmember” approach based on the observed geochemical distribution and inferred behavior.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The determination of sediment accumulation rates in environments with temporal variations in texture is challenging using traditional radioisotope methods, largely due to low activities associated with coarse sediments. This study used Englebright Lake, an impoundment in northern California, as a model system to examine the application of plutonium isotopes in lacustrine environments where the interlayering of coarse and fine sediments complicates the geochronology. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify plutonium isotopes and low limits of detection allowed for the measurement of plutonium in sand, clay, and silt fractions. Although measurable levels of plutonium were found in sand fractions, over 75 % of the total plutonium activity was found in fine-grain-size fractions (〈63 μm). Correlations between cesium-137 and plutonium activities in fine-grained sediments (r = 0.81–0.98, p 〈 0.005) suggest that plutonium isotopes may be substituted for cesium isotopes in coarse-grained sediments where cesium is typically below detectable levels. Sediment accumulation rates calculated from grain-size normalized plutonium activity profiles ranged from 6 to 145 cm year−1 in Englebright Lake and identified a sediment depocenter at the delta front upstream of Englebright Dam. Progradation of the delta front reflected changes in sediment supply from the watershed in response to flood events, whereas average annual accumulation responded to human impacts. This study extends the application of plutonium isotopes for sediment geochronology to aquatic environments dominated by coarse sediments and provides new information that contributes to a better understanding of the processes influencing sediment deposition in Englebright Lake.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an important component of chemical fluxes in the coastal ocean. The composition of SGD is influenced by biogeochemical reactions that take place within the subterranean estuary (STE), the subsurface mixing zone of fresh and saline groundwaters. The STE is characterized by redox gradients that affect the speciation and mobility of redox-sensitive elements (RSEs). We examined the distributions and behavior of the RSEs Mo, U, V, and Cr within the larger redox framework of a shallow STE and evaluated the source-sink function of the STE for these elements. We found that the advection of water through the STE and the apparent respiration of organic matter drives the formation of a “classic” redox sequence typically observed in diffusion-dominated fine-grained sediments. High concentrations of dissolved organic matter (up to 2.9 mM) lead to extensive sulfide production (up to 1.8 mM) within 3 m of the surface. Both Mo and U are quantitatively removed as oxic surface waters mix into ferruginous and sulfidic zones. Molybdenum removal appears to occur where sulfide concentrations exceed ~ 11 μM, a previously reported threshold for quantitative formation of highly particle-reactive thiomolybdate species. Uranium removal apparently occurs via reduction and formation of insoluble phases or sorption to sediments. It is not clear how readily sequestered metals may be returned to solution, but SGD may be an important sink in the marine budget for both Mo and U. In contrast, both V and Cr show non-conservative addition across the salinity mixing gradient. Increases in pH appear to promote dissolution of V from minerals within the shallow aquifer, and mobilization may also be associated with dissolved organic matter. Chromium enrichment is associated with higher dissolved organic matter and is likely due to the formation of soluble Cr-organic complexes. Fluxes of these elements were constrained using SGD volume fluxes, determined using radium isotopes as well as direct discharge measurements by Lee-type seepage meters, and concentrations in directly-sampled seepage (Mo: − 0.21 to − 7.7 μmol m− 2 day− 1; U: − 0.02 to − 0.6 μmol m− 2 day− 1; V: 0.05 to 2.0 μmol m− 2 day− 1; Cr: 0.12 to 4.4 μmol m− 2 day− 1).
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2017-10-10
    Description: 25 September – 11 October 2017 (Bremerhaven – Bremerhaven)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 43
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    Cambridge Univ. Press
    In:  Geological Magazine, 130 (1). pp. 69-83.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: During the Eifelian and early Givetian, isolated mud mounds were established in a shallow basin, predominantly characterized by calcareous mudstone deposition, in the eastern Anti-Atlas of Morocco. The shapes, lithologies and faunas of these mounds stand in marked contrast with those of nearby contemporaneous, more widespread stromatoporoid/coral biostromes and small carbonate platforms adjacent to shallow shelves. With one exception, the mounds are totally exhumed, perfectly exposing their original morphologies. The smaller mounds are asymmetrical, with steeper northeastern and eastern (35–75°) than southwestern and western flanks (30–50°). The largest mound is almost circular and symmetrical, with scattered stromatoporoids, tabulate and rugose corals that do not form a rigid framework. Frame-builders are much rarer or absent in the smaller mounds. The nature and geographical distribution of the mounds reflects a bathymetric gradient, indicating that they formed on low-angle ramps which sloped gently into a shallow basin. A large reef mound was constructed at moderate depth, while small mud mounds accumulated in deeper water. Decrease of frame-builders and increase in pelagic organisms in the latter document the transition to a pelagic platform with reduced sedimentation at a short distance from the deepest mound.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Brackish coastal groundwater is enriched in Ra, which is transported to surface waters via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The Ra activity of the SGD end-member is influenced by a variety of environmental factors including salinity, pH, and isotope half-life. In the York River estuary (YRE), 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra were measured in surface water and shallow groundwater across a range of salinities and additional Ra sources quantified (desorption and diffusion from sediments, input from tidal marshes). The Ra budget of the estuary indicated a major source of Ra that could only be satisfied by SGD. The apparent Ra flux was combined with groundwater Ra end-member activity to estimate SGD volume fluxes of 5–178 L m− 2 d− 1. Each isotope exhibited a different seasonal pattern, with significantly higher 224Ra flux during summer than winter, lower 226Ra SGD flux during summer than winter, and no seasonal differences in 223Ra SGD flux. However, the SGD 224Ra end-member activity varied with seasonal pore water salinity fluctuations, indicating end-member control on seasonal 224Ra flux. Each Ra isotope suggested a different SGD volume flux, indicating that different nuclide regeneration rates may respond to and reflect different flow mechanisms in the subterranean estuary. This work indicates that volume fluxes estimated using geochemical tracers are sensitive to SGD end-member variations and end-member variability must be well-characterized for reliable SGD flux estimates.
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  • 45
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    Elsevier
    In:  Marine Chemistry, 156 . pp. 38-48.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Solid-solution partitioning of Ra determines the dissolved Ra composition of porewater in marine sands. Therefore, sorption controls also influence the endmember concentration of Ra in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Ra is widely used as a tracer of SGD, and constraining sorption controls in permeable sands is necessary to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in Ra groundwater activities. This work presents Ra distribution coefficients measured in seawater (salinity 35) for some common solid sorbents as well as different solution compositions relevant to permeable marine sands and the subterranean estuary. There was a strong correlation of Ra distribution coefficient (Kd = solid-phase Ra/solution Ra) with surface area for size-fractionated sediments (log Kd (L/g) = 0.77 [log S.A. (m2/g)] + 0.73; r2 = 0.76). Ra sorption showed no direct relationship with solid-phase Fe or Mn content of the sands, although removal of visible surficial oxide coatings with dilute acid reduced Kd by a factor of 2 to 3. Synthetic Fe-oxides showed nearly two orders of magnitude difference in Ra sorption. Ferrihydrite had the highest Ra sorption coefficient at 1535 ± 410 L kg− 1, followed by lepidocrocite (174 ± 21 L kg− 1), hematite (75 ± 17 L kg− 1), and goethite (20 ± 8 L kg− 1). A marked increase in Ra adsorption was observed with increasing pH, with the sorption edge of natural sands falling within the pH range of 5–8. The extent of Ra sorption at a given pH varied among different substrates. No effect of dissolved Fe was observed on Ra partitioning. A large increase in Ra Kd was evident with increasing Ba concentration when seawater contained sulfate, opposite the effect that would be expected for sorption competition. No effect of Ba concentration was observed when sulfate was excluded from the ASW, indicating that barite precipitation caused the Kd increase. There was no clear effect of temperature on Ra sorption between 2 and 60 °C. Results of this study show that minor solid-phase components increase the Ra sorption capacity of bulk sands and buffer the dissolved Ra concentration (i.e., the SGD endmember). Solution controls on Ra sorption have the potential to greatly alter the Ra composition of discharging groundwater. Given that high-salinity, high-pH conditions probably prevail in porewater below the sediment–water interface, the actual SGD Ra endmember may be less variable than suggested by compilations that include groundwater from deep and fresh groundwater. Highlights ► Variable Ra partitioning to size-fractionated and diverse sediments was primarily controlled by specific surface area. ► Ra displayed pH-dependent sorption to sands, with a sorption edge between pH 5 and 8. ► No effect on Ra partitioning was observed for temperature or competition by dissolved Fe and Ba.
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  • 46
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    Elsevier
    In:  Ecological Engineering, 52 . pp. 290-297.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Oil derived from photosynthetic microalgae is a potential major source of renewable energy, but while industrial-scale efforts to grow algal biomass are underway, it remains an expensive process. The cost of biomass production may be offset by using the algae to simultaneously remediate chemical contaminants from wastewater or natural surface waters. This work examines trace metal accumulation and cycling in algae grown for biofuel use, and evaluates the potential of this approach for remediation purposes. In the system studied, a natural, mixed-species algal community was allowed to develop on a shallow floway fed with water from the York River estuary (VA, USA). Accumulation of metals ranged widely in the algal biomass (Fe 〉 Mn 〉 〉Pb 〉 Cu 〉 V 〉 Cd) and represented removal from the dissolved phase of between 1 and 87% (for Cd and Pb, respectively). These metals were selected for analysis because of their differing geochemical behavior, as well as their importance as micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, V) and toxicants (Pb, Cu, Cd). Most of the algal metal inventory was partitioned in the intracellular fraction (∼30% for Mn, 50–90% for other metals; operationally defined using a chemical wash technique), indicating accumulation due to biochemical demand, not adsorption to cell surfaces. Although algal community composition was similar on the upstream and downstream ends of the floway, the metal inventory was two-fold higher on the downstream end. Differences in metal accumulation may have been related to algal physiology or to pronounced cycles of water pH and dissolved oxygen driven by algal photosynthesis and respiration. Differences in metal removal efficiency and biomass inventory indicate that algal floway systems may be manipulated to optimize remediation of metal-contaminated water.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: Trace metals in the ocean act as both essential micro-nutrients and as toxins. There are relatively few multi-element studies of dissolved trace metals in the ocean, and none from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. This semi-enclosed basin surrounded by desert is a natural laboratory for studying the impact of atmospheric dry deposition of trace metals on the ocean surface. We have combined measurement of dissolved metals in seawater with measurements of the flux of metals associated with dry deposition. The total dissolved trace metal concentrations in Gulf of Aqaba water are generally higher (Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Pb) or similar (Ni, Al, Cd, Mo) to those measured in the open North Atlantic Ocean. The concentrations of elements that are highly enriched in aerosols relative to Al (e.g. Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) are not necessarily proportionally enriched in surface seawater when compared to Al, indicative of the high reactivity of these elements in seawater. Iron concentrations in the Gulf of Aqaba are high relative to Al, despite the fact that the aerosols are not more enriched in Fe relative to Al. There may be additional sources of dissolved iron to the Gulf of Aqaba, not associated with Al. Alternatively, intense photochemically-driven redox cycling may act to enhance Fe dissolution from aerosols, or may otherwise increase the lifetime of Fe in the water column, relative to Al. Copper concentrations in the Gulf of Aqaba are close to the value found to be a threshold for Cu toxicity in this region. A surface maximum in Cd:P is found in the Gulf of Aqaba, in contrast to the more typical surface minimum in this ratio observed in other locations. The surface maximum appears to be driven by atypically low uptake of Cd relative to P. A low Cd:P uptake ratio for this region is consistent with known environmental determinants of low Cd:P uptake, such as high concentrations of dissolved Zn and Fe, and a predominance of small phytoplankton including cyanobacteria. Highlights ► We measured dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Gulf of Aqaba four times. ► Iron concentrations are high relative to Al concentrations. ► Cu concentrations are close to the threshold for Cu toxicity in this region. ► A surface maximum in Cd:P is driven by unusually low uptake of Cd relative to PO4. ► This is consistent with the dominance of small phytoplankton and high Fe levels.
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  • 48
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    ICES
    In:  In: Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe: II. Species Accounts. , ed. by Jereb, P., Allcock, L. A., Lefkaditou, E., Piatkowski, U., Hastie, L. C. and Pierce, G. J. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 325 . ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 229-238. ISBN 978-87-7482-155-7
    Publication Date: 2017-09-22
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: This study aimed to differentiate local and migratory spawning groups of the shortfin squid Illex argentinus caught in Brazilian waters using geometric and traditional morphometric methods and size-selective processes. The back-calculated length distributions reconstructed from daily growth increments deposited in the gladius allowed the identification of size-selective processes that may be related to different life history strategies. Landmark analysis on body shape (geometric morphometric) revealed that spawning groups presented significant ontogenetic variations in terms of body outline. In addition, traditional morphometric methods, based on multivariate analysis, associated juveniles of the expected migratory group (large size) and differentiated them from the local group individuals (small size). The changes in form, probably linked to the environmental gradients experienced by individuals throughout ontogeny, were interpreted as adaptations to improve swimming capacity. Migrant individuals have being differentiated from the smaller sizes group by body characteristics (broad fins, elongated and thicker mantle), which may increase the ability to perform long migrations.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: Escalation theory proposes enemy-related selection as the most relevant factor of natural selection among individual organisms. When hazardous to predators, prey might be considered enemies that influence predator evolution. Opisthobranch molluscs that prey on chemically defended prey are an interesting study case on this subject. Predation on chemically defended species paved the way for opisthobranchs to enter in an arms race, developing means to detoxify and/or excrete harmful compounds, which led to the sequestration of those compounds and their self-defensive use, an escalation of defenses. Here we aim to understand whether the opisthobranch predator is better protected than its chemically defended prey, using as predator–prey model, a nudibranch (Hypselodoriscantabrica) and the sponge it preys upon (Dysidea fragilis), and from which it obtains deterrent chemical compounds. Specimens of both species were collected on the Portuguese coast, and their crude extracts were analyzed and used in palatability tests. Nudibranchs revealed a higher natural concentration of crude extract, probably due to a progressive accumulation of the compounds. Both predator and prey extracts revealed similar mixtures of deterrent metabolites (furanosesquiterpenes). Palatability tests revealed a more effective deterrence in the nudibranch extracts because significant rejection rates were observed at lower concentrations than those necessary for the sponge extracts to have the same effect. We concluded that the predator is chemically better protected than its prey, which suggests that its acquisition of chemical defenses reveals a defensive escalation.
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  • 51
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    Springer
    In:  In: The Prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin, pp. 439-512. ISBN 978-3-642-30196-4
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: The family Rhodobacteraceae can be considered a paradigm of modern taxonomy of prokaryotes. Taking into account the number of species and genera that conforms the family, together with the knowledge about their abundance and vast global distribution, it surprises that most of them have been described relatively recent to our days. Two notable exceptions are Rhodonostoc capsulatum (Molisch, Die purpurbakterien nach neuen untersuchungen, vols i–vii. G. Fischer, Jena, pp 1–95, 1907) and Micrococcus denitrificans Beijerinck and Minkman (Zentbl Bakteriol, Parasitenkd, Infektionskr Hyg. Abt II 25:30–63, 1910), early basonyms of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Paracoccus denitrificans, respectively. The fact that so many descriptions within this family are recent means that some studies have been concomitant and pose a challenge not only for pure taxonomic studies but also for interpreting other studies in which a rapidly evolving nomenclature had to be used anyway. The metabolic and ecological diversity of the group adds further complexity. In spite of all these difficulties, the picture is far from being a chaos and it can be considered an exciting and important bacterial group to study. Rhodobacteraceae are, fundamentally, aquatic bacteria that frequently thrive in marine environments. They comprise mainly aerobic photo- and chemoheterotrophs but also purple non-sulfur bacteria which perform photosynthesis in anaerobic environments. They are deeply involved in sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling and symbiosis with aquatic micro- and macroorganisms. One hundred genera are currently recognized as members of the family although the Stappia group, Ahrensia, Agaricicola, and Rhodothalassium do not belong, phylogenetically, to the family. The 90 other genera are distributed in 5 phylogenetic groups (the Rhodobacter, the Paracoccus, the Rhodovulum, the Amaricoccus, and the Roseobacter clades) that might be considered a family on its own.
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  • 52
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 103 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 53
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    DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie
    In:  METEOR-Berichte, M96 . DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie, Bremen, Germany, 59 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-25
    Description: April 28 – May 22, 2013 Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe) – Mindelo (Cape Verde)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2017-12-14
    Description: For many species, there is broad-scale dispersal of juvenile stages and/or long-distance migration of individuals and hence the processes that drive these various wide-ranging movements have important life-history consequences. Sea turtles are one of these paradigmatic long-distance travellers, with hatchlings thought to be dispersed by ocean currents and adults often shuttling between distant breeding and foraging grounds. Here, we use multi-disciplinary oceanographic, atmospheric and genetic mixed stock analyses to show that juvenile turtles are encountered ‘downstream’ at sites predicted by currents. However, in some cases, unusual occurrences of juveniles are more readily explained by storm events and we show that juvenile turtles may be displaced thousands of kilometres from their expected dispersal based on prevailing ocean currents. As such, storms may be a route by which unexpected areas are encountered by juveniles which may in turn shape adult migrations. Increased stormy weather predicted under climate change scenarios suggests an increasing role of storms in dispersal of sea turtles and other marine groups with life-stages near the ocean surface.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.
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  • 57
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    ICES
    In:  In: Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe: II. Species Accounts. , ed. by Jereb, P., Allcock, L. A., Lefkaditou, E., Piatkowski, U., Hastie, L. C. and Pierce, G. J. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 325 . ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 155-166. ISBN 978-87-7482-155-7
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: When volcanic mountains slide into the sea, they trigger tsunamis. How big are these waves, and how far away can they do damage? Ritter Island provides some answers.
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  • 59
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    DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie
    In:  METEOR-Berichte, M119 . DFG-Senatskommission für Ozeanographie, Bremen, Germany, 45 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-25
    Description: September 8 – October 12, 2015, Mindelo (Cape Verde) – Recife (Brazil)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 60
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    In:  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78 (4). pp. 1348-1355.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: Additional data from sonobuoys and the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) justify separating sound‐velocity‐depth functions and velocity gradients (in the first layer of soft marine sediments) into some geographic areas and sediment types. Based on sonobuoy and core measurements (where V is sound velocity in km/s, and h is depth in sediments in km), the following data are obtained: continental shelf basins off Sumatra and Java—V=1.484+0.710h−0.085h2; U. S. Atlantic continental rise—V=1.513+0.828h−0.138h2; deep‐sea terrigenous sediments—V=1.519+1.227h−0.473h2; and siliceous sediments of the Bering Sea— V=1.509+0.869h−0.267h2. Selected DSDP data (through leg 74) in similar areas yield: continental terrace silt–clays—V=1.505+0.712h; deep‐sea terrigenous sediments—V=1.510+1.019h; and deep‐sea siliceous sediments—V=1.533+0.761h. Computed velocity gradients from sonobuoy measurements are generally supported by the DSDP gradients. Only DSDP data give the following: hemipelagic sediments—V=1.501+1.151h; deep‐sea calcareous sediments—V=1.541+0.928h; and deep‐sea pelagic clay—V=1.526+1.046h. Where fast sediment accumulation occurs, there has not been enough time to reduce sediment pore spaces under overburden pressure; areas of slow accumulation may have relatively high sediment structural strength. Both cases have lower velocity gradients because higher porosities and consequent lower velocities persist to deeper depths.
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  • 61
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    In:  , 2 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-10-27
    Description: 12 Oktober - 27 Oktober 2017 (Bremerhaven - Kiel)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: We measured the respiratory isotope effect ϵresp for seven representative unicellular marine organisms. The bacterium Pseudomonas halodurans, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the phytoflagellates Cryptomonas baltica and Dunaliella tertiolecta, the heterotrophic flagellates Paraphysomonas imperforata and Bodo sp., and the ciliate Uronema sp. exhibit ϵresp values in the range 14-26‰. We also measured ϵresp for three metazoans. The ϵresp for the copepod Acartia tonsa ranged from 17 to 25‰, while two larger organisms, the mollusk Mercenaria mercenaria and the salmon Salmo salmar, respire with a smaller ϵresp of 5-10‰. The average respiratory isotope effect of the dominant marine respirers (the bacteria, microalgae and zooplankton) is about 20 ± 3‰. An ϵresp of this magnitude supports the hypothesis that the photosynthesis-respiration cycle is responsible for the 23.5‰ enrichment in the δ18O ratio of atmospheric O2 relative to seawater (the Dole effect). The large value and high variability in the average ϵresp limits the usefulness of a proposed method using the δ18O of naturally fractionated dissolved O2 in seawater as a tracer of primary production in the oligotrophic ocean.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: A new 30-arc second resolution global topography/bathymetry grid (SRTM30_PLUS) has been developed from a wide variety of data sources. Land and ice topography comes from the SRTM30 and ICESat topography, respectively. Ocean bathymetry is based on a new satellite-gravity model where the gravity-to-topography ratio is calibrated using 298 million edited soundings. The main contribution of this study is the compilation and editing of the raw soundings, which come from NOAA, individual scientists, SIO, NGA, JAMSTEC, IFREMER, GEBCO, and NAVOCEANO. The gridded bathymetry is available for ftp download in the same format as the 33 tiles of SRTM30 topography. There are 33 matching tiles of source identification number to convey the provenance of every grid cell. The raw sounding data, converted to a simple common format, are also available for ftp download.
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  • 64
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    AGU
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 95 (C12). pp. 22243-22252.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: The isotopic composition of dissolved O2 in seawater, expressed as the δ18O of O2, is unique among the bioactive tracers of the aphotic zone in that it is not linearly related to oxygen utilization via the stoichiometry of organic matter decomposition. In fact, δ18O of O2 depends on the history of water mixing and O2 consumption in the sample studied (Craig and Kroopnick, 1970; Kroopnick and Craig, 1976). For this reason, the variation of δ18O of O2 with O2 concentration depends on regional circulation patterns and oxygen utilization rates. The δ18O of O2 can be used to chartacterize these processes by decoupling their effects. As an example of this assertion, we interpret the covariation between the concentration of O2 and its isotopic composition in the Pacific Ocean as reported by Kroopnick (1987), using four simple representations of seawater mixing and respiration. Kroopnick's data are in general accord with an elementary model of isopycnal mixing represented by diffusive exchange and oxygen utilization in the ocean's interior, coupled with atmospheric equilibrium at the point where the isopycnals outcrop at the sea surface. This specific result illustrates the general point that δ18O of O2 in seawater can serve as an important constraint on more extensive and sophisticated physical models used to estimate rates of oxygen utilization in the deep sea.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: We review the current understanding of the Dole effect (the observed difference between the δ18O of atmospheric O2 and that of seawater) and its causes, extend the record of variations in the Dole effect back to 130 kyr before present using data on the δ18O of O2 obtained from studying the Vostok ice core (Sowers et al., 1993), and discuss the significance of temporal variations. The Dole effect reflects oxygen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis, respiration, and hydrologic processes (evaporation, precipitation, and evapotranspiration). Our best prediction of the present-day Dole effect, +20.8‰, is considerably lower than the observed value, +23.5‰, and we discuss possible causes of this discrepancy. During the past 130 kyr, the Dole effect has been 0.05‰ lower than the present value, on average. The standard deviation of the Dole effect from the mean has been only ±0.2‰, and the Dole effect is nearly unchanged between glacial maxima and interglacial periods. The small variability in the Dole effect suggests that relative rates of primary production in the land and marine realms have been relatively constant. Most periodic variability in the Dole effect is in the precession band, suggesting that changes in this global biogeochemical term reflects variations in low-latitude land hydrology and productivity or possibly variability in low-latitude oceanic productivity.
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  • 66
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    In:  (Diploma thesis), Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, 108 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 68
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    Institut und Museum für Geologie und Paläontologie der Universität Tübingen
    In:  Tübinger Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen A, 5 . Institut und Museum für Geologie und Paläontologie der Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, V, 135 pp.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Description: Der Einfluß lateralen Stresses auf die mechanische Diagenese von marinen Sedimenten kann mithilfe sedimentphysikalischer Daten quantifiziert werden. Beispielhaft wurde dies anhand von Daten aus dem Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) und Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) für den Akkretionskeil des Barbados Ridge Complex durchgeführt. Die Untersuchung erfolgte in drei Schritten. (1) In einer statistischen Untersuchung der umfangreichen sedimentologischen und sedimentphysikalischen Datenbank des DSDP wurden tief enabhängige Funktionen der mechanischen Diagenese für eine Reihe von lithologischen Standardtypen definiert. Diese, als Referenzgröße zur Quantifizierung der tektonischen KonsoHdation in einem rezenten Akkretionskeil benötigten Funktionen, wurden in erster Linie für pelitische und psammitische Sedimente mit geringen Karbonatgehalten entwickelt. Zwei verschiedene Verfahren zur Auswahl von entsprechenden Datensätzen werden beschrieben und die Ergebnisse der statistischen Untersuchung mit den in der Literatur beschriebenen Funktionen verglichen. (2) Die entwickelten Typfunktionen wurden bei der Durchführung eines palinspastischen Rekonstruktionsverfahrens benutzt, mit dem die Entwicklung sedimentphysikalischer Parameter während der initialen Deformationsphase in rezenten Akkretionssystemen modelliert werden konnte. Diese Untersuchung basierte im wesentlichen auf sedimentphysikalischen Daten der DSDP- und ODP-Legs 78A und J 10 (Barbados Ridge Komplex, Kleine Antillen). Durch palinspastische Entzerrung der imbrikierten Schuppung und stratigraphische Rekonstruktion akkretierter "thrust slices" im untersuchten Bereich, entsprechender Relozierung der zugehörigen sedimentphysikalischen Daten und dekompaktive Anpassung an die rekonstruierte Position konnte ein synthetisches prä-akkretionäres Profil der ursprünglichen Porosität rechnerisch modelliert werden. (3) Der Vergleich dieses synthetischen Porositäts-Tiefen-Profils mit charakteristischen Referenzprofilen aus undeformierten Sequenzen unmittelbar vor der Deformationsf ront zeigt eine systematische, lithologisch bestimmte Divergenz. Durch Überarbeitung des Rekonstruktionsverfahrens mithilfe von Stress-PorositätsBeziehungen konnte der relative und absolute Einfluß der lateralen Stresskomponente auf die Konsolidation hemipelagischer Sedimente in diesem Teil des konvergenten Plattenrandes quantifiziert werden.
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2017-10-30
    Description: Digitised outlines of a serially sectioned K-feldspar grain from a Cordilleran granitoid have been analysed for their fractal dimension. Although the grain boundary outlines are not truly fractal in the sense of Mandlebrot (1982), they do show a self-similarity over a statistically definable range, and can thus be assigned a dimensional value between 1 and 2. Each grain section has fractal dimension (D) 〉 1, ranging from 1.21-1.30. Scatter within the data sets have been used to define separate (pseudo)fractal elements that further characterise each grain outline. The development of fractal geometries within a particular granitoid can be broadly related to crystallisation within Ab-An-Or-Qz space. For example, Cordilleran T-type granitoids that crystallise from An-rich liquids may be expected to show both Euclidean and fractal geometries, while minimum melts and 'S'-type granites that crystallise in broadly eutectic proportions will have textures dominated by (pseudo)fractal grain outlines. The non-integer values that describe grain shape may also be useful in estimating the total grain (porosity) volume within the rock.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: Two discontinuous tephra layers were discovered at Burney Spring Mountain, northern California. Stratigraphic relationships suggest that they are two distinct primary fall tephras. The geochemistries of these tephras from electron probe microanalysis were compared with those of known layers found in the area to test for potential correlations, using clustering analysis on geochemistry. In most cases, geochemical data from a tephra layer can be assigned to a single cluster, but in some cases the analyses are spread over several clusters. This spreading is a direct result of mixing and reworking of several tephra layers. The mixing, in turn, appears to be related to the influence of wind in a marshy environment.
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  • 72
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    Bornträger
    In:  METEOR Forschungsergebnisse: Reihe C, Geologie und Geophysik, 7 . pp. 15-102.
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: Die atlantischen ibero-marokkanischen Kontinentalhänge sind durch junge Tone bedeckt. Vor Portugal (Kap Sines) sind sie grau und sandarm, vor Marokko (Kap Mazagan) rötlichbraun bis rötlichgrau und sandreicher (Abb. 6). Die Mehrzahl der 19 untersuchten Sedimentkerne von im Wesentlichen 2 Profilen (Abb. 3) sind mit Hilfe der planktonischen Foraminiferen zu korrelieren (vgl. Abb. 27, 28). Hierfür eignen sich besonders die qualitative und die quantitative Verteilung der einzelnen Arten sowie Änderungen der Windungsrichtungen von drei G/oborotalia-Ar.ten: G. crauaformi. r, G. hirmla und G. lrt1ncat11/inoidu. Im Holozän weisen Sedimente aus Wassertiefen um 2000 m vor Portugal die höchsten (bis 〉 20 cm/ 1000 Jahre), vor Marokko die niedrigsten Sedimentationsraten (um 3 cm/1000 Jahre) auf. Die Datierung beruht auf der Auswertung der planktonischen Foraminiferenfaunen sowie auf 31 Bestimmungen mit 14C und wird durch lithostratigraphische Untersuchungen gestützt. Ein methodisches Beispiel der Kern-Auswertung wird auf den Tab. 3-5 und den Abb. 23, 24 gebracht. Holozäne Faunen unterscheiden sich von den pleistozänen durch eine andere artliche Zusammensetzung sowie niedrigere Dominanzen und höhere Diversitäten. Ihre Foraminiferenzahlen schwanken auch weniger. Während im Pleistozän und im Holozän vor Marokko die Temperaturen des Oberflächenwassers sich nach den Faunen mit der Küstenentfernung nicht geändert haben, steigen sie vor Portugal im Holozän seewärts an (Abb. 31). Der Anteil wärmeliebender Al:ten ist vor Marokko jedoch durchweg höher. Das Plankton/Benthos-Verhältnis der Foraminiferenfaunen nimmt mit der Tiefe zu und erreicht schon in rund 1000 m Wassertiefe maximale Werte. Die Produktionsrate für planktonische Foraminiferen ist am Kontinentalrand höher als im offenen Ozean (Abb. 48). Umgekehrt werden ihre Gehäuse auch schon in Sedimenten aus Wassertiefen 1000 m merklich angelöst. Noch stärkere Anlösung t ritt in der Tiefsee auf (Abb. 43). Vor Portugal ist sie dort im ausgehenden Pleistozän jedoch wesentlich geringer als im Holozän, weil offensichtlich der Zutritt polaren Tiefenwassers eingeschränkt gewesen ist. Ein zusammenfassender Vergleich beider Kontinentalränder findet sich in Tab. 10.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2017-11-03
    Description: A 900-m-thick section of tuffaceous sedimentary rock, vitric fallout tuff, and ash-flow tuff is well exposed along Trapper Creek in south-central Idaho. This section provides nearly continuous exposure through the fill of the Goose Creek basin, a major north-trending Miocene extensional basin located along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain volcanic province (SRPVP). Some 51 separate units of vitric fallout tuff are recognized in the Trapper Creek section. Petrographic and chemical characteristics of these vitric tuffs indicate that most are from SRPVP sources. New 40Ar/39Ar laser-fusion dating, along with prior isotopic age determinations, show that the Trapper Creek tuffs span the period ca. 13.9 – 8.6 Ma. Chemical correlation indicates that fallout tuffs in the central part of the Trapper Creek section (12.5 – 10.0 Ma) are from sources in the Bruneau-Jarbidge volcanic field of the SRPVP centered ≈100 km west of Trapper Creek. Underlying fallout tuffs may have had sources in the Owyhee-Humboldt field of the SRPVP centered ≈200 km west of Trapper Creek, while overlying fallout tuffs, interlayered with several ash-flow tuffs, had a relatively proximal source, possibly in the proposed Twin Falls volcanic field centered ≈60 km north of Trapper Creek. The Trapper Creek tuffs provide insight into the characteristics of explosive silicic volcanism within the SRPVP during middle – late Miocene time. From ca. 13.9 to ca. 9.5 Ma, major eruptions (those depositing ≥1.5 m of fallout tuff) were frequent (about one event per 200 k.y.); their products display a trend toward the eruption of progressively less evolved, higher temperature silicic magma after 12.5 Ma. This trend to higher temperature eruptions, termed the Cougar Point “flare-up,” culminated in the eruption of high-temperature (≈1000°C), plagioclase-rich magma during the period 10.5 – 9.5 Ma. In contrast to these eruptions, later (〈7.0 Ma) major silicic eruptions within the SRPVP were characterized by the lower temperature (≈850°C) of the erupted magma and by the longer intervals (about one event per ≈500 – 600 k.y.) between eruptions. Variations in the character of SRPVP explosive silicic eruptions may reflect changes in the structure, composition, or state of stress in the crust beneath the eastward propagating SRPVP, or, perhaps, changes in the Yellowstone hot-spot plume that may drive the SRPVP volcanism.
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  • 74
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    American Chemical Society (ACS)
    In:  Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56 (44). pp. 12755-12762.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The discharges from industrial processes constitute the main source of copper contamination in aqueous ecosystems. In this study we investigated the capacity of different types of biochar (derived from chicken manure, eucalyptus, corncob, olive mill and pine sawdust) to remove copper from aqueous solution in a continuous-flow system. The flow rate of the system strongly influenced the amount of copper retained. The adsorption to the corncob biochar varied from 5.51 to 3.48 mg Cu g-1 as the flux decreased from 13 to 2.5 mL min-1. The physicochemical characteristics of biochar determine the copper retention capacity and the underlying immobilization mechanisms. Biochars with high inorganic contents retain the largest amounts of copper and may be suitable for using in water treatment systems to remove heavy metals. The copper retention capacity of the biochars ranged between ~1.3 and 26 mg g-1 and varied in the following order: chicken manure 〉 olive mill 〉〉 corncob 〉 eucalyptus 〉 sawdust pine.
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  • 75
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 186 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 76
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 111 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Summer East Atlantic (SEA) mode is the second dominant mode of summer low-frequency variability in the Euro-Atlantic region. Using reanalysis data, we show that SEA-related circulation anomalies significantly influence temperatures and precipitation over Europe. We present evidence that part of the interannual SEA variability is forced by diabatic heating anomalies of opposing signs in the tropical Pacific and Caribbean that induce an extratropical Rossby wave train. This precipitation dipole is related to SST anomalies characteristic of the developing ENSO phases. Seasonal hindcast experiments forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SST) exhibit skill at capturing the interannual SEA variability corroborating the proposed mechanism and highlighting the possibility for improved prediction of boreal summer variability. Our results indicate that tropical forcing of the SEA likely played a role in the dynamics of the 2015 European heat wave.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: The sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern tropical Atlantic exhibits pronounced variability on interannual time scales being associated with wind and rainfall anomalies within the tropical Atlantic region. It has been proposed that the interannual variability of SST is partly driven by the variability of the deep equatorial zonal circulation, the so-called equatorial deep jets (EDJs). The EDJs may be described as a superposition of quasi-resonant equatorial basin modes and the direction of vertical phase propagation implies that their energy is propagating towards the surface. Furthermore, recent findings revealed that the EDJs in turn are maintained by intra-seasonal waves that are generated by the barotropic and baroclinic instability of the near-surface circulation. This talk will present the relevant mechanisms that are involved in the conversion of energy from one type of variability to another, i.e. from chaotic intra-seasonal surface variability via deep interannual zonal variability to interannual surface climate variability, with a special focus on the maintenance of the EDJs by intra-seasonal waves. Since EDJs, a key component of the mechanism discussed above, are not well represented in state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models, preliminary findings on the sensitivity of the EDJs to model parameters and configuration are presented.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 79
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    In:  [Poster] In: PIRATA 22 - PREFACE - TAV Meeting, 05.-10.11.2017, Fortaleza, Brasil .
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 80
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    In:  [Talk] In: IAPSO-IAMAS-IAGA Joint Assembly 2017, 27.08.-01.09.2017, Cape Town, South Africa .
    Publication Date: 2017-11-22
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  • 81