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  • Articles  (50)
  • Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía  (50)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The national statistical institutes face permanently the need to reform and update the statistical criteria and instruments for labor market analysis, as well as to adapt international recommendations for measurement. These processes pose important challenges regarding the comparability of information, necessary to analyze the labor market dynamics. This study presents a consistent methodological approach for the splicing of labor market aggregates based on microeconomic information from household surveys. We analyze the case of the national unemployment rate for Ecuador; assess the potential alternatives for simulation and define a consistent selection criterion for the prognosis and splicing of the series.
    Keywords: C25 ; J21 ; J24 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Unemployment ; splicing of labor indicators ; labor market ; labor surveys
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the innovation promotion programs carried by the National Research and Innovation Agency (ANII). A combination of non-experimental methods was used to quantify the effects of public support to innovation in three dimensions of the firms' behavior: innova - tion investment, innovation results and economic performance. The results show evidence of crowding-in of public support to innovation. Also, beneficiaries of the programs show larger probability of successfully introducing new products and processes. We do not find impact in the economic performance indicators of the firms.
    Keywords: D22 ; O38 ; C21 ; H43 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Impact evaluation ; innovation ; ANII ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: In this paper, we discuss the management of monetary policy of the Latin American central banks that have fully established inflation targeting. An optimal monetary rule is estimated for these economies using the Generalized Method of Moments. This analysis allows us to conclude that these central banks have taken into account the economic growth, in addition to price stability. However, only Chile has taken into account the evolution of the exchange rate. Furthermore, Chile, Brazil and Peru have followed an asymmetric behavior, while Colombia and Mexico have adopted a linear monetary policy rule.
    Keywords: E52 ; E43 ; E51 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; Central Bank ; inflation ; monetary rules ; asymmetries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: We analyze the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations, as well as episodes of financial instability and inflation, on inequality indicators in Chile for the period 1960-2014. The relationship between episodes of crisis and fluctuations on levels of inequality are estimated from an event study, finding that they are related to fluctuations in inequality. In addition, we perform econometric estimates where inequality indicators relate to different macroeconomic variables and educational performance. The main conclusions are that banking and inflation crises, as well as periods of severe cyclical contractions, tend to increase the levels of inequality in Chile.
    Keywords: E30 ; I30 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; Economic crisis ; inequality ; income distribution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper looks for empirical evidence to show if a very interventionist government stimulates or not private investment in Latin America. Using the same model as Caballero-Urdiales y López-Gallardo (2012), we extend their analysis from five Latin-American countries to all Latin America. The results from our estimated elasticities show evidence in support of three hypothesis: (1) that tax burden (taxes on income and consumption) has significant effects on privateinvestment; (2) that public investment has a crowding out effect with private investment; (3) and that in order to stimulate private investment, the government should have very little intervention.
    Keywords: F21 ; H24 ; H25 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Private investment ; gross domestic produc ; public investment ; income tax ; value added tax
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper develops a methodology using business intelligence (data warehouse) and OLAP tools (Online Analytical Processing) to match individuals from a household survey data to a census one. In order to geo-reference the household data, the method takes advantage of the geographical information of the census. Using the 2003 Household Survey and the 2002 Chilean Census of Population and Housing, the average household income is projected to intra-municipality levels and the results are compared to Elbers et al. (2003) methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology allows for taking into account and display the impact of intra-municipality heterogeneity and the spatial interaction among the spatial units.
    Keywords: C5, C63, C81 ; ddc:330 ; Spatial Matching ; Small Areas Estimation ; Household Surveys ; Household Income ; Business Intelligence
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: Taking as a reference a simple oligopoly model with differentiated products, in which there are three firms, the purpose of this paper is to complement the existing literature on mergers by proving that the traditional merger paradox can be avoided by assuming that, after the merger, the merging firms increase the existing bilateral product differentiation. In this context, it is proved that a merger could be welfare enhancing by increasing both consumers surplus and merging and non merging firms profits.
    Keywords: L00 ; L13 ; L20 ; ddc:330 ; Horizontal mergers ; product differentiation ; welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In the present article we develop a discrete-time methodology to compare frontend load and balance fees in the accumulation phase of a defined-contribution pension fund under the system of individual accounts. Additionally, using various methods, we study the effect of considering risk and density of contributions in the performance and suitability of the aforementioned types of fees. Finally, we perform a practical application of the methodology to the Peruvian Private Pension System.
    Keywords: G23 ; ddc:330 ; pension funds ; individual account ; front-end load fee ; balance fee
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper analyses the Spanish residential demand of a bundle of goods conforming the basic services of the households (i.e. electricity, natural gas and drinking water) in 2012. The analysis is made using a QUAIDS model modified in order to consider the censoring in the consumption of natural gas following the approach of Tauchmann (2010), one of the latest advances in this field. The results show that the demand for electricity and drinking water is less sensitive to the variations in prices and household's income than that of natural gas.
    Keywords: C3 ; Q2 ; Q3 ; Q4 ; ddc:330 ; electricity ; natural gas ; drinking water ; censored QUAIDS model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: This paper offers a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of eight popular forecasting methods: univariate, linear, discriminate and logit regression; recursive partitioning, rough sets, artificial neural networks, and DEA. Our goals are: clarify the complexity-effectiveness balance of each methodology; identify a reduced set of independent variables that are significant predictors whatever the methodology is; and discuss and relate these findings to the financial theory, to help consolidate the foundations of a theory of financial failure. Our results indicate that, whatever the methodology is, reliable predictions can be made using four variables; these ratios convey information about profitability, financial structure, rotation, and operating cash flows.
    Keywords: G33 ; C19 ; M4 ; ddc:330 ; Financial failure forecast ; multivariate methods ; artificial intelligence ; machine learning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This research analyzes the potential effects that a redistributive fishing quota policy could have on the profits and employment of the artisanal fisher organizations. We use a multi-objective programming model and apply it to the common sardine and anchovies fisheries in the Biobío Region for year 2011. The results indicate the presence of trade-offs between the equity -profits and equity- employment objectives. Moreover, the results suggest the existence of widespread inefficiencies in the effort allocation within the organizations, independently of the weight given to the different objectives.
    Keywords: Q22 ; Q28 ; C61 ; ddc:330 ; collective rights ; trade-off ; multi-objective ; distribution ; artisanal fisheries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The role of the agricultural sector during the ISI period and the debate about the agricultural wage and the living conditions of the farm workers have a long historiography. But until today there is little information about workers' income in the long run. In this paper we want to reflect about the wage level reached during this period and for that we will present a new wage series for 1934-1973. We seek to analyze their behavior considering the sector labour productivity, its relation with industrial wages and the institutional frame in this period.
    Keywords: N36 ; N46 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural real wages ; agricultural workers ; ISI ; institutions ; payment in kind
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper offers an exhaustive analysis of the effectiveness of several models and methodologies that are commonly used to forecast financial failure: Linear, MDA, Logit, and artificial neural network. Our main aim is to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses, in terms of technical reliability and error cost; to do so, models are estimated and validated, and then used to perform an artificial simulation to evaluate which of them causes the lower cost of errors. Reliability is examined in four forecast horizons, to collect evidences about temporal (in) stability. We also check the relative advantages of financial ratios-based models, versus audit-based forecast models. Our results suggest that all models attain a high performance rate; however, artificial neural networks' forecasts seem to be more stable, both in temporal and cross-sectional perspectives.
    Keywords: G33 ; C45 ; C89 ; ddc:330 ; financial failure ; financial difficulties ; forecast insolvency ; audit report
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In this paper we analyze the mediating role of governance quality in the relationship between fiscal decentralization and regional disparities. Previous work has argued that fiscal decentralization has the potential to reduce income differences across regions but that this potential may not be realized because of governance problems associated with sub-national authorities. Our empirical evidence based on a sample of departments (regions) of Uruguay over the period 1990 - 2010 lends support to this idea. The empirical results show that fiscal decentralization promotes regional convergence, and this effect is boosted in high governance quality settings.
    Keywords: D73 ; H71 ; H73 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal decentralization ; regional disparities ; governance quality ; panel data ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper focuses on the effect of educational and skill mismatches of workers on overall job satisfaction, and on certain job domains such as salary, number of working hours, promotion opportunities and type of activity performed. An ordered probit model is estimated by using a data set from the Survey of Quality of Working Life (ECVT). In addition to the variables related to these mismatches, other variables related to the characteristics of both the individual and the type of work are included. The results show that overeducated individuals show higher levels of dissatisfaction than those in which the fit is adequate. However, it also shows how individuals with a lower level of education than what would be required for the post do not reflect significant dissatisfaction levels. It is also evidence observed that individuals with less than the required skills are more dissatisfied than those with a proper matching. The results support the need to study both educational and skill mismatches separately.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; satisfaction ; educational match ; skill match
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The present paper estimates the effect over participation outcomes of the new reform to the pension system made in Chile in 2008, using a difference in difference matching estimation. The main results found that the treated group shows a higher withdrawal from the labor market and that they worked an average of 8 percentage points (pp) fewer months than the control group in 2009. The treated group also contributed 18 pp fewer months than the control group, and they have, on average, 6 pp more months in inactive status. Looking at the difference in per capita income, the treated group has an average of US$34 more per month than the control group in 2009.
    Keywords: J38 ; I21 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; scholarships ; upper secondary education ; propensity score matching ; Differential impacts ; EU-SILC-06
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper evaluates the impact caused by attaching a personalized pension projection (PPP), to the annually report of pension savings. This PPP shows the revenues obtained by the workers when postponing their retirement three years after the legal age for retirement in the Chilean pension system. The method to correct the endogenous treatment which was used it was a quasi-experimental method using instruments such as geographical and demographical information and the number of post offices by Region. The results show that the PPP's reception once has not significant effect on the retirement decision. However, when the treatment is intensified it begins to be taken into consideration. The PPP's reception during two consecutive years, 2005 and 2006, significantly reduced the probability of retirement decision during the year 2011. Finally, the results show that the treatment has much more effects in individuals with higher pension savings.
    Keywords: J14 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; personal pension projection ; retirement decision ; unobserved heterogenety ; treatments parameters
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The importance of Long Distance Commuting (LDC) has increased as a result of the continuous reduction of transport costs. This paper formalizes the relationship between LDC and wage through a job search model where a commuting time variable is included. The paper proposes that LDC be compensated in wage and be increasing in distance, and that the regions which receive more commuters pay a higher premium wage. The results suggest an average premium of 19% for LDC. However, the applicable rate depends on the workplace location of each commuter, and thus it might be as high as 40%.
    Keywords: J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; long distance commuting ; Coarsened Exact Matching ; spatial wage differentials
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: We study the effect of a household subsidy to induce the adoption of more efficient and less polluting wood combustion technologies. We compare, through numerical simulations, several subsidy designs with respect to the impact on aggregate emissions, costs, and cost-effectiveness indicators. Two variables that turn out to be important for the performance of a subsidy program are the remaining time that an existing equipment can be used and the access of the households to credit to fund the co-payment of the equipment. We observe that for different regulatory designs and/or different cost analysis, the performance of a subsidy program based on the cost-effectiveness analysis differs.
    Keywords: Q48 ; H23 ; Q53 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; environmental policy ; cost-effectiveness ; economic incentives ; urban pollution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Estimating the specific effects of a complete reform of the public transit system of a large city is a difficult task due to the confounding effects that will usually mask the impact of interest. In this study we estimate the impact of the complete reform of the public transport system in Santiago, Chile, named Transantiago, on a specific aspect of interest: particulate matter air pollution levels in the city. Using a regression model with daily panel data from air quality monitoring stations, we conclude that Transantiago reduced the daily average MP10 concentration levels in at least 3.9 μg/m3. This generates health benefits estimated to be close to US$ 200 million a year in our medium scenario, 12% of which correspond to lower public sector health expenditure. If the data for the first year of operation of the system (when it was not yet in steady-state) are excluded the estimated reduction in MP10 levels is even higher. Other effects of Transantiago, positive as well as negative, would need to be estimated in order to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the reform.
    Keywords: H51 ; L92 ; Q53 ; R41 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; atmospheric pollution ; public transportation ; public health ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: This paper presents a model of political competition to explore the effect that the ideological distance between two political parties has over the provision of public goods. The main result argues that the ideological distance between parties and citizens has a negative relationship with the provision of public goods. In contrast with other models, the result is explained, neither by cooperation problems nor conflict between polarized groups, but because of the political profitability of clientelistic employment.
    Keywords: D72 ; D73 ; H11 ; H41 ; ddc:330 ; polarization ; political competition ; government efficiency ; government employment ; clientelism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Taking as a reference a model in which there are a public firm, a national private firm and a foreign private one, it is analyzed both mergers sustainability and their relative effects on welfare. It is proved that the merger between the public firm and either the national or the international private firm is preferred, from a welfare point of view, to the merger between the two private firms if the degree of privatization is relatively low and the foreign ownership of the merged firm is relatively high.
    Keywords: L00 ; L13 ; L33 ; ddc:330 ; mixed oligopoly ; mergers ; Oligopol ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Fusion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: In this paper we study the presence of calendar anomalies in the main Latin- American stock markets, for the 1993 to 2007 period. The literature has shown that the detection of those effects may depend on error distribution assumptions (Baker et al., 2008), and that their existence could be due to a problem of data snooping (Sullivan et al., 2001). In response to these problems, Cho et al. (2007) introduced a robust non-parametric test, which was adopted in this paper. Results show that calendar anomalies: Monday and Weekend Effects are present in the main Latin-American stock markets, and they are statistically significant.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; G1 ; ddc:330 ; Day of the Week Effect ; stochastic dominance ; emerging markets ; Aktienmarkt ; Kalendereffekt ; Schwellenländer ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This study measures the impact of changes in the income determinants on inequality in the 1990 to 2003 period, in order to answer the question of why income distribution as a whole has not changed. The methodology utilized are micro-simulations of income distribution, which is the most appropriate technique for analyzing the relationship between changes in determinant factors and changes in income inequality. It is analyzed the role of returns, participation rates, occupational choices, schooling endowments, subsidies, pensions and household size. The inertia shown by inequality reflects the interplay of factors that cancel each other out, others that operate slowly over time, and the emergence of new developments that affect distribution. Furthermore, there are no clear indications that this situation will change over the next few years. Progress in this area will require a more active public policy than in the past.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution ; inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Using a gravity model, this article presents an analysis of aggregate trade flows aimed at identifying China's impact on Latin America's trade. The results obtained indicate that: i) China's growth in the last years implied a growing supply of exports to this market from most countries in the World, including that of Latin American countries; ii) at the aggregate level, there was no indication that Chinese exports to third markets were crowding out LAC exports to those countries; and iii) a positive relationship between imports from China and exports to third markets was only found for the Southern Cone countries.
    Keywords: F10 ; F12 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral trade ; gravity model ; poisson regression ; China ; Latin America ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Gravitationsmodell ; China ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Within the area of Behavioral game theory, we focus on a specific context, namely, on a game we called the Alternative traveler's dilemma. In this context, we observe that participants tend to choose strictly dominated strategies. In order to explain similar tendencies in other games, researchers in the area have postulated either cognitive biases or motivational factors. We postulate a psychological factor called 'goal accessibility bias' to explain the tendencies at stake. This factor involves both cognitive and motivational aspects. We survey a series of experimental results that favor such an explanation over more frugal alternatives.
    Keywords: C7 ; C91 ; ddc:330 ; game theory ; experiments ; maximization ; alternative traveler's dilemma ; goals ; Spieltheorie ; Verhaltensökonomik ; Urlaubsverhalten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the Latin American context, Chile has the highest level of per capita income and the human development index, though the distribution of income is quite unequal. Unlike Uruguay, Chile has one of the more unequal income distributions of the region. In 2003, Chile had Gini Coefficient of 8.5 points higher than Uruguay. Using micro/simulations, the analysis shows that most of the difference regarding income distribution comes from the wealthier households, particularly those that belong to the top 2%. Those households get the greatest proportion of resources coming from non-labor income. At the same time, the difference in returns to higher education explains another 20% of the income differences between Chile and Uruguay. Social conditions such as social security benefits and the participation of women in the labor market are not significant to explain the differences between these countries. Finally, this paper shows that national account adjustment to income information in Chilean households´ survey explains a third of the Gini coefficient gap between Chile and Uruguay, without the national account adjustment, the income distribution gap among both countries would diminish in three points from earlier estimation. Even though this significative reduction the reasons to explain the gap would remain identical than previous analysis.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution , inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmaß ; Regionale Einkommensverteilung ; Mikrosimulation ; Chile ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In this article we develop a microeconomic framework to study the relationships among privatization, competition for deposits and performance in banking. Particularly, we analyze banking privatization when competitive strategies of the Cournot and Stackelberg types are allowed. Our findings show that some conditions are necessary to justify it under the following criteria: (i) efficiency, (ii) market power/financial stability and (iii) consumption availability for depositors. They also show that privatizations are relatively easy to justify when leader-follower relationships are allowed in the banking system. Even government revenues, due to privatization, are higher when these relationships exist.
    Keywords: G21 ; D43 ; D92 ; ddc:330 ; banking ; privatization ; competition ; performance ; deposits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This article characterizes the properties of the compensation scheme of delegated portfolio management that would lead to the selection of high risk-high return portfolios. In particular, it provides conditions under which a non-monotone payment structure emerges as an optimal contract, which rewards extreme results and punishes moderate ones.
    Keywords: D86 ; G11 ; G20 ; G30 ; J33 ; M52 ; ddc:330 ; executive compensation ; delegated portfolio management ; nonmonotone incentive schemes ; non-monotone likelihood ratio property
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This paper analyzes entry deterrence strategies at sequential multi-unit Englishtype repeated auctions, motivated by entry deterrence observed at a series of yearly auctions of fishing rights occurring since the early 1990s in the Chilean Sea Bass industrial fishery. It analyzes parametric configurations under which incumbent firms may have followed non-cooperative entry deterrence strategies or else may have colluded for that purpose. A two-stage competition model is developed. In the first stage there occurs sequential auctioning of multiple fishing rights; in the second stage, production rights are used to compete in a homogeneous-good Cournot market. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the number of incumbents, sources of competitive advantage for them (relative to potential entrants) and the number and productive size of the multiple production rights in sale. The core of the analysis lies in answering how does the divisibility of the object(s) in sale affect the possibilities of incumbent firms for deterring the entry of new rivals.
    Keywords: D2 ; D4 ; Q2 ; ddc:330 ; collusion ; entry deterrence ; repeated auctions ; free riding.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This paper is about a model of Bertrand competition in a homogeneous-good market with free entry of identical firms and variable returns to scale. If the optimum number of active firms in the market is two or more, and the number of active firms is equal to that optimum number, then Bertrand equilibrium exists for that optimum number, and it does not exist if the number of active firms is less than the optimum. The model, however, does not rule out the existence of Bertrand equilibria with more active firms than the optimum number. Finally, when the optimum number of active firms in the market is one, Bertrand equilibrium does not exist.
    Keywords: D43 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; Bertrand equilibrium ; variable returns to scale ; free entry ; number of firms
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This paper makes a quantitative assessment of possible reforms to the Chilean tax system. The simulations are based on a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model that is calibrated with the input-output matrix 2003. For each scenario is considered a cut effective rate of value added tax and an increase in the richest quintile's effective rate of income tax by 20% or 40% respectively. The results of the model are transferred to micro data to analyze the effects disaggregated. Finally, I conclude that cutting the VAT and raising income tax only would generate bounded improvements in poverty and income distribution.
    Keywords: D63 ; E62 ; H22 ; H24 ; H30 ; ddc:330 ; tax reform ; income inequality ; CGE ; microsimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: We study the cost-effectiveness of a transferable emissions permit system (TEPS) vis a vis a system of emissions standards. Our analysis includes along with abatement costs, the costs of enforcing the system to induce compliance. Further, the analysis considers complete and incomplete information. The numerical simulations are performed for the case of fixed sources operating under the Emissions Compensation Program (ECP) in Santiago, Chile. The results suggest that a TEPS is not able to induce compliance at minimum enforcement costs, but this regulatory system allow the regulator to achieve the environmental target with minimum aggregate compliance costs.
    Keywords: L51 ; Q28 ; K42 ; K32 ; ddc:330 ; environmental policy ; cost-effectiveness ; enforcement costs incomplete information ; Umweltpolitik ; Emissionshandel ; Kosten-Wirksamkeits-Analyse ; Unvollkommene Information ; Santiago (Chile)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: Monthly wage series with quarterly periodicity between December 1994 and December 2004 for thirteen regions in Chile are presented in this paper. These series are based on the information recollected by the Superintendencia de Fondos de Pensiones (Pensions Fund Superintendence), but are corrected for truncation and censoring bias. The comparative analysis of corrected and non-corrected series indicates that the series show a statistically diferentiated behavior. The non-corrected wage series are not good predictors of the corrected series. Thus, to develop regional wage analysis, based on this information source, it is preferable to use the corrected series presented in this paper.
    Keywords: J31 ; R11 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; regional wages ; estimation ; truncation ; censored ; Regionale Lohnstruktur ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In this work we extend a De Jure measure of capital account restrictions, previously assembled by Miniane (2004) for 34 economies, to a set of 181 countries for the period 1996-2005. Additionally, having in mind the pitfalls of this indicator, we propose two new measures. The first excludes prudential regulation and the second weights the indicator by a proxy of enforcement. This group of indicators allows academics and policymakers to evaluate and analyze the restrictions to capital account transactions for a large group of economies.
    Keywords: G15 ; Q30 ; ddc:330 ; international financial integration ; capital controls ; Kapitalbilanz ; Welt ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the period 2000 - 2006, municipal or public schools reduced its enrollment in 186,000 students (13%) in Chile. Meanwhile, privately subsidized schools, receiving the same type of funding, increased their enrollment in 386,000 students (38%). In this paper we distinguish demand factors, associated with parents' decisions, and supply factors, those associated with owners' decisions, to explain the change in the education structure en Chile. We found evidence that the asymmetry in the institutional constraints explain only part of the evolution. Other factors, associated with municipal decisions, which in turn are explained by the asymmetric financing of different schools, explain the main part of the change.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; descentralization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: We analyze the effect of introducing a minimum mandatory health insurance plan in a segmented market in which high risks are affiliated to the public insurer and low risks to the private ones (market segmentation is endogenously obtained in our model). We assume both types of insurers must provide the basic plan, insurance is compulsory, and there is a minimum premium regulation. When we compare the equilibriums pre and post introduction of the basic health insurance plan, we find that an implicit subsidy mechanism operates that gives some solidarity to the system, even though no explicit risk compensation mechanism is introduced. For this implicit subsidy mechanism to operate, it is fundamental that not only the price of the basic plan is regulated but also the quality of the services included in such plan, and that the regulator is able to guarantee private insurers do offer the minimum plan to all risks.
    Keywords: I11 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; health insurance ; minimum basket of services ; managed competition
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This research aims to find the determinants of participation on social organizations in Chile through a social capital approach, as well as to evaluate the existence of a positive effect between participation and household welfare. In the case of economic and local organizations several regressions for participation and income were run. Due to the existence of endogenity of income in participation equation, it was estimated a simultaneous model for recreational organizations. The proposed model includes Two Stage Probit Least Squares estimates suitable to correct for simultaneity bias when one of the variables is continuous and the other is dichotomous. Econometric results point out that age, schooling, house ownership, place of residence and individual perception of both social intercourse and safety in their neighborhoods have a meaningful effect on participation. The study also reported on the positive effect between participation in economic organizations and household welfare.
    Keywords: D6 ; N3 ; O1 ; Z0 ; ddc:330 ; social capital ; social organizations ; welfare effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This research tries to assess the dependents and Long Term Care costs for next years in Spain. To do this, it has been taken account data from the Survey on Disabilities, Impairments and Health Status and population forecasts estimated by INE, the legal rules passed between 2006 and 2008, and some former studies about individual costs of long term care. The key point in this study is the concept of cost per point of scale. Once calculated, forecasts till 2050 have been estimated. Finally, the results have been compared with those included in the Long Term Care Act.
    Keywords: H53 ; J11 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; long term care ; cost ; forecasts
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: Chile's recent success in reducing poverty has been remarkable, with poverty rates falling by approximately two-thirds over the last 20 years. However, further gains against poverty may be inhibited by the increasing difficulty associated with targeting fewer poor people and better, more localized information may thus be required. Moreover, public policy that seeks to understand the relationship between poverty, socioeconomic status and urban or rural residence depends on survey data that may not be representative at low levels of aggregation; although censuses are representative by definition, they generally lack detailed income data. Recent mapping techniques combining census and survey data afford detailed descriptions of the spatial distribution of poverty. Indeed, such techniques enable the calculation of robust and statistically precise estimates of poverty at low levels of aggregation, allowing a more nuanced picture of poverty to emerge. In this paper we use such methodologies to produce consistent estimates of both rural and urban poverty at the county level in Chile. The results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in local poverty, suggesting that future antipoverty policies must be targeted at the local level. Moreover, the estimates we provide may be used to further analyze the causes and consequences of localized poverty.
    Keywords: I32 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; local poverty ; poverty maps ; Chile. ; Armut ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 41
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: We analyze data on happiness for Argentina and Uruguay. The focus is put on self-reported health status as a key aspect in increasing happiness levels. Then, the probabilty of being happy is estimated by probit models. Results show that the main relationship is between happiness and health status. Whether this is a causal effect or a correlation, is not clear. This issue is explo red using matching methods, finding that a good health status increases the probability of being happy between 31 and 46 percentage points in Uruguay, 15 and 27 in Argentina; and 17 and 27 for the region.
    Keywords: D60 ; I31 ; I12 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; health status ; matching method. ; Zufriedenheit ; Gesundheit ; Rio de la Plata
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In this paper we describe the pattern of creation and destruction of Chilean firms between 1999 and 2006. In addition, we construct transition matrices among different firm sizes based on tax information. It has to be noted that the available data for this study is probably the closest to what could be considered as the Chilean population of formal firms. This is one of the major strengths of this paper. By using an econometric panel data model, we found that productive sectors with the largest economies of scale show the lowest entrance rates. At the same time, the macroeconomic environment proxied by GDP growth and unemployment rates do has an impact on the exit but not on entrance figures. But, largely what has happened in lagged exit rates directly affects contemporary entrance rates. Therefore, public policies should be aware about those who want to restart new firms rather than concentrate too much on maintaining those which are notably unproductive.
    Keywords: C33 ; M13 ; M21 ; ddc:330 ; Chilean firm dynamics ; transition matrices ; entrance and exit determinants
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: We study cartel stability in a differentiated price-setting duopoly with returns to scale. We show that a cartel may be equally stable in the presence of lower differentiation, provided that the decreasing returns parameter is high. In addition we demonstrate that for a given factor of discount, there are technologies that can have decreasing returns to scale where the cartel always is stable independent of the differentiation degree.
    Keywords: C70 ; D21 ; D43 ; ddc:330 ; collusion ; product differentiation ; decreasing returns to scale ; Kartell ; Duopol ; Produktdifferenzierung ; Skalenertrag ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In this paper we analyze the links between health status (measured by selfreported illness occurrence) and individuals' socioeconomic situation. Using the annual households surveys of Uruguay for the period 1991 to 2000, we compute probit models and find that men, unmarried, young people, occupied, those who do not live alone and those with more than 5 years of education, have a smaller probability of reporting a bad health status. We also find that the probability of reporting a bad health status has a descendent trend in the period, falling from 0,33 in 1991 to 0,25 in 2000.
    Keywords: I12 ; J24 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; health capital ; health status ; human capital.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This article is the first one to use individual data to analyze the demand for AFP in Chile. This study implements panel data techniques which allow us to estimate the switch probability of an AFP customer. Results confirm the fundamental role of sales agents, which was already suggested by previous studies that have used aggregated data by AFP. Particularly, we show that although price and return elasticity of demand are low, it raises notably when associated to a sales agent visit.
    Keywords: J32 ; D12 ; H55 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; pension system ; AFP ; demand sensitivity ; switching ; individual data.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: We develop an endogenous growth model with three goods, exportable, importable and non-tradable. We study the response of the real exchange rate and of the economy growth rate to a decrease in the tariff rate. We show that trade liberalization must be followed by a depreciation of the real exchange rate. We deduce that the growth rate of the economy increases in the long run. We affirm that the Mexican economy did not follow this behavior in the period after the trade liberalization, so the result was a deficient economic growth.
    Keywords: F43 ; O24 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; export sector ; learning by doing ; real exchange rate ; growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: The aim of this paper is to complement the existing literature on horizontal mergers, by setting a Cournot mixed oligopoly model. Specifically, the merger paradox is qualified by proving that a merger could be profitable for the merging firms even if it does not include most market firms. Furthermore, it is proved that a merger can only be welfare improving if the degree of privatization of the public firm is low enough.
    Keywords: L00 ; L13 ; L33 ; ddc:330 ; mixed oligopoly ; privatization ; mergers .
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: We analyse diverse multifactor pricing models in order to determine if they allow to explain the variability of the returns on the personal Pension Plans in Spain between 1995 and 2003, as well as to find their sources of risks. We test the following models: APT, the one suggested by Chen, Roll and Ross (1986) and a model constituted mainly with factors of the fixed-income market. The results obtained indicate that the fundamental factors in the pricing of the Personal Pension Plans are associated with the fixed-income market (maturity, default risk, relevance of short term operations).
    Keywords: G12 ; G23 ; E44 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of economic integration among countries on firms investment decisions when such decisions are taken strategically. It is shown that, in this context, the traditional tariff jumping argument is not always applicable and that localisation decisions depend on the existing relationship between tariff discrimination and market size. It is argued that economic integration disincentives national firms market entry.
    Keywords: F13 ; F15 ; L1 ; F23 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: Most road accidents in Chile (causing about 1,600 deaths per year) are linked to speeding. A widely used control mechanism all over the world, the speed detectors, enabled in the middle of the 1990's was then suddenly prohibited in Chile through the enactment of a law justified on the idea that radars were only used to raise funds to local governments and in some way, a source of illegal profits. Most road accidents in Chile (causing about 1,600 deaths per year) are linked to speeding. A widely used control mechanism all over the world, the speed detectors, enabled in the middle of the 1990's was then suddenly prohibited in Chile through the enactment of a law justified on the idea that radars were only used to raise funds to local governments and in some way, a source of illegal profits.
    Keywords: D61 ; L91 ; ddc:330 ; road accidents ; value of life ; political economy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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