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  • Articles  (1,408)
  • Spanish  (1,408)
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  • 1
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El presente trabajo introduce una Tabla de Correspondencia Directa entre la Clasificación Internacional Industrial Uniforme 3.0 (CIIU 3.0) y la Clasificación de Actividades Económicas para Encuestas Sociodemográficas del Mercosur (CAES 2000). Se detallan las inconsistencias del proceso formal de correspondencia preexistente a esta tabla (esto es, utilizar las Tablas de Correspondencia de ONU y Mercosur), las decisiones adoptadas durante el proceso de su elaboración y la forma en que la nueva tabla soluciona las inconsistencias.
    Keywords: C81 ; F13 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
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    Jerusalem and Montreal: The Bichler and Nitzan Archives
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Las teorías convencionales del capitalismo están sumidas en una profunda crisis: tras siglos de debates todavía son incapaces de decirnos qué es el capital. Tanto liberales como marxistas se refieren al capital como una entidad ‘económica’ que puede ser contabilizada en unidades universales de ‘utilidad’ o de ‘trabajo abstracto’. Pero estas unidades son totalmente ficticias. Nadie ha sido capaz de observarlas ni medirlas, y esto por una buena razón: no existen. Y dado que liberalismo y marxismo dependen de estas unidades inexistentes, sus teorías están suspendidas en el aire. No pueden explicar el proceso que más importa: la acumulación de capital. Este libro ofrece una alternativa radical. De acuerdo con los autores, el capital no es una entidad económica estrechamente identificable, sino una cuantificación simbólica del poder. Tiene poco que ver con la utilidad o el trabajo abstracto, y se extiende más allá de las máquinas y las líneas de producción. El capital, afirman Bichler y Nitzan, representa el poder organizado de los grupos del capital dominante para reconfigurar –o creordenar– su sociedad. Escrito en un lenguaje simple, accesible a lectores neófitos y expertos, este libro desarrolla una economía política novedosa. Conduce al lector a través de la historia, los supuestos y las limitaciones de la economía dominante y sus teorías políticas asociadas, examina la evolución del pensamiento marxista sobre la acumulación y el Estado, y articula una innovadora teoría del ‘capital como poder’, así como una nueva historia del ‘modo de poder capitalista’.
    Description: Conventional theories of capitalism are mired in a deep crisis: after centuries of debate, they are still unable to tell us what capital is. Liberals and Marxists both think of capital as an 'economic' entity that they count in universal units of ‘utils’ or 'abstract labour', respectively. But these units are totally fictitious. Nobody has ever been able to observe or measure them, and for a good reason: they don’t exist. Since liberalism and Marxism depend on these non-existing units, their theories hang in suspension. They cannot explain the process that matters most – the accumulation of capital. This book offers a radical alternative. According to the authors, capital is not a narrow economic entity, but a symbolic quantification of power. It has little to do with utility or abstract labour, and it extends far beyond machines and production lines. Capital, the authors claim, represents the organized power of dominant capital groups to reshape – or creorder – their society. Written in simple language, accessible to lay readers and experts alike, the book develops a novel political economy. It takes the reader through the history, assumptions and limitations of mainstream economics and its associated theories of politics. It examines the evolution of Marxist thinking on accumulation and the state. And it articulates an innovative theory of 'capital as power and a new history of the 'capitalist mode of power'.
    Keywords: P16 ; ddc:330 ; capital as power ; corporation ; differential accumulation ; dominant capital ; finance ; inflation ; capitalization ; value theory ; modes of power ; mergers and acquisitions ; sabotage ; stagflation ; profit ; state ; redistribution ; power
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: El enfoque de las capacidades es un marco conceptual apropiado para identificar no la felicidad o satisfacción de las personas, sino más bien, lo que estas pueden o no ser o hacer. En consecuencia, el enfoque de las capacidades se centra en la libertad real de las personas y se aleja (sin excluir) de los medios que permiten la libertad (ingresos y recursos). Sobre la base de lo anterior, el presente documento se fija como objetivo proporcionar una aproximación al enfoque de las capacidades.
    Description: The capabilities approach is an appropriate conceptual framework to identify not the happiness or satisfaction of the people, but rather, what they may or may not be or do. Consequently, the capabilities approach focuses on the real freedom of people and moves away (without excluding) the means that allow freedom (income and resources). Based on the foregoing, this document sets as an objective to provide an approximation to the capabilities approach.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Capabilities approach ; Amartya Sen ; functionings
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This research studies the impact that marketing innovation entails for exporting behavior, supported by the panel data structure given by the Panel of Technological Innovation. To do so, Propensity Score Matching method has been combined with the method of difference in differences, which is usual for impact evaluation analysis. The results from econometric estimations show the existence of a significative, negative impact of marketing innovation on exporting performance for Spanish agro-industry sector.
    Keywords: O30 ; H43 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; marketing ; exporting behavior ; impact evaluation ; agro-industry
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: Poverty in Andalusia (sout hern region of Spain wit h a population of 8.411.205 inhabitants) affects 12,8% of its population. In this cont ext, the objective of this paper is to propose ways of reducing this situation of poverty extracted from various questionnaires to experts in the subject, following the Delphi Method. To achieve this objective, first of all, a de scription of the poverty data in Andalusia compared to Spain is provided; t he level of use of information and communication technologies in Andal usian households is deepened; the theoretical foundations of the Delphi method are devel oped to finally apply the Delphi method to the proposal of ways for the reduction of poverty in Andalusia and for the labor incorporation of Andal usian university students. The experts conclude that it would be necessary to create APPs for the information and training of potential worker s and entrepreneurs, both from the private and from the public spheres. They also highlight the need to make use of social networks with an orientation towards the employ ment relationship, encouraging the connection of companies and workers.
    Keywords: I3 ; O14 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The national statistical institutes face permanently the need to reform and update the statistical criteria and instruments for labor market analysis, as well as to adapt international recommendations for measurement. These processes pose important challenges regarding the comparability of information, necessary to analyze the labor market dynamics. This study presents a consistent methodological approach for the splicing of labor market aggregates based on microeconomic information from household surveys. We analyze the case of the national unemployment rate for Ecuador; assess the potential alternatives for simulation and define a consistent selection criterion for the prognosis and splicing of the series.
    Keywords: C25 ; J21 ; J24 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Unemployment ; splicing of labor indicators ; labor market ; labor surveys
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The article dwells upon the dynamic and stochastic mathematical models of organizational development and changes, as well as to the algorithms for their optimization. The adjustment of the intensity of the changes can be achieved through the efficient integration between the departments in accordance with their skills. The models proposed in this article can be widely applied in studying the processes of organizational development.
    Keywords: C65 ; ddc:330 ; organizational development ; organizational changes ; mathematical model ; intensity of changes ; optimization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This study aims to explore the key factors that may affect the entrepreneurial capacity of students of Higher Education Centers (CES). Once the factors were established, these were grouped into internal and external to the ESCs, then the AHP method was applied to determine the relative weights of each of the criteria to groups of experts belonging to different disciplines and Latin American countries. Through the consensus of the experts, the results indicate that internal factors that most influence the entrepreneurship of their students are "Entrepreneurial Spirit", "Work Experience" and "Performance of specific courses" and as external factors affect to a greater extent "The Networks", "Friends" and "Scope of development". The results of the study can be used as an important reference for educational establishments, to define strategies based on these factors, which help to improve ecosystems within their centers, effectively enhancing the entrepreneurial capacity of their students.
    Keywords: I23 ; M13 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurship ; Higher Education centers ; entrepreneurial capacity ; entrepreneurial ecosystem
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The process of dismantling a nuclear power plant involves a series of economic activities, linked to economic sectors other than energy, which represent an opportunity for economic development, not only for the local communities where the power plant is located, but also for the rest of the society. Currently, the Spanish nuclear power plants have an average operating life of 33 years and in a decade will end its design life, so it is of interest to know the economic impact that will have its dismantling. For this, in this paper a multisectorial model is developed with which the impact of the dismantling process is analyzed, which includes both the closure of the plants, as well as the substitution of other energy sources and the management of radioactive waste.
    Keywords: C67 ; Q43 ; Q53 ; ddc:330 ; nuclear dismantling ; economic impact ; input-output model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The informal economy is a phenomenon that affects most of the countries of the world, mainly tax collection potential, the generation of formal employment, productivity and business efficiency. In order to elaborate an inclusive method of the most significant current contributions, an econometric modeling was developed from the monetary method, applying cointegration, Granger causality and the equilibrium correction mechanism; which allowed to remove the possibility of spurious regressions and to make an application to the Ecuadorian economy.
    Keywords: E26 ; E27 ; E63 ; H32 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; informal economy ; econometrics ; monetary method ; labor market ; modeling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: Since Information and Communication Technologies adoption has grown, research on link of ICT and Economic Growth link has been rapidly developed, both in academic world and by governments and cooperation and development agencies. Research has found that there is a significant impact of the use of ICT on growth; however, it generally ignores the determinants of use. This is clearly visible in the case of studies carried out for the Mexican economy. This paper analyzes the determinants of differentiated use of ICT at subsector level in Mexico. using factor analysis, cluster analysis and econometrics, we find evidence related to the capacity (educational level and organizational maturity) that determines the use of ICT and, therefore, the strength of the impact of ICT on labor productivity in Mexico.
    Keywords: J24 ; O47 ; D24 ; ddc:330 ; subsector ; ICT ; labor productivity ; factor analysis ; cluster analysis ; cross section
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The aim of this paper is to identify the different shocks that could affect the current account in the argentine case, such as the terms of trade (the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler effect- HLM), supply shocks (productivity), demand shocks (real exchange rate and public consumption /current GDP) and the shocks on the production side of the economy. SVAR models with long-term restrictions and quar terly data covering the period 1994-2018 are used. The results of the impulse-response functions suggest the existence of the HLM effect for this country. Shocks in the terms of trade would initially affect to the current account positively, as the improvements in t he productivity and in the public saving (lower consumption).
    Keywords: C3 ; E62 ; F32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; current account ; terms of trade ; Harb erger-Laursen-Metzler (HLM) effect ; productivity ; public consumption ; SVAR models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 13
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: Discusses evaluations to assess its relevance and usefulness to the Fomento Ganadero program in Yucatán from 2001 to 2013. Used a longitudinal non-experimental design in the form of trend where recollection (literature review and key informant interviews) and analysis of information (principles on meta-evaluation of Diaz and Pacheco) was sustained in a mixed approach, qualitative and quantitative. Found that the assessments made to Fomento Ganadero in Yucatan in the period of interest, were generally of low quality and very shallow in terms of internal consistency of its coherence, rules of operation, quality, effectiveness and efficiency, impact, focus and sati sfaction of their beneficiaries, i.e. that its coherence not expressed itself in operating rules that define with precision indices of efficiency and effectiveness that sought to achieve the program, in a focus around the priority activities and target population that would benefit in the State and, in the precision of the parameters of impact and sa tisfaction which sought to achieve.
    Keywords: H53 ; I38 ; M19 ; O21 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Public administration ; Agricultural policy ; Evaluation policy ; Livestock development ; Metaevaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the innovation promotion programs carried by the National Research and Innovation Agency (ANII). A combination of non-experimental methods was used to quantify the effects of public support to innovation in three dimensions of the firms' behavior: innova - tion investment, innovation results and economic performance. The results show evidence of crowding-in of public support to innovation. Also, beneficiaries of the programs show larger probability of successfully introducing new products and processes. We do not find impact in the economic performance indicators of the firms.
    Keywords: D22 ; O38 ; C21 ; H43 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Impact evaluation ; innovation ; ANII ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This research shows the application and performance of three models for the classification of credit applicants: discriminant analysis, logistic regression and neural networks; techniques used by financial institutions for the calculation of credit scoring. The results show a better performance of the neural network model compared to logistic regression and discriminant analysis, achieving a success rate of 86.9\% in the classification. For the three models, fourteen variables were used to inform about applicant's socioeconomic characteristics and those of the credit operation. In the area of credit risk management, this result is relevant since it can be complemented by the calculation of default probability, the exposure at default and the recovery rate of the entity to establish the value of expected losses at both the individual level and the whole credit portfolio of the entity.
    Keywords: C14 ; C45 ; C51 ; D14 ; ddc:330 ; credit scoring ; credit risk ; default probability ; discriminant analysis ; logistic regression ; neural networks
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This study analyzes the impact of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on the diversification strategy and performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). From a sample of 95 companies in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, it is evidenced that diversified companies show a higher level of use of ICT and this resource positively affects financial and non-financial company performance. The analysis also show that ICT is a mediating variable between the type of diversification and performance of business in which the company has entered. For the correlational descriptive and statistical analysis of the variables, IBM SPSS software was used (version 21). Further analysis which may expand upon this study could be to apply the model to different industries with the idea of comparing the results found and to define specific strategies.
    Keywords: L25 ; C12 ; ddc:330 ; diversification ; ICT ; performance ; mediation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The urban agglomeration or metropolitan area of Seville is formed by the municipality of the same name, being the fourth most populated city in Spain; and with 45 municipalities, also forming the fourth most important economic and industrial area of the country. In recent years, due to the deep economic crisis the region has been facing, the activity has decreased considerably, which has influenced markedly on the offer price of commercial premises and warehouses. This work analyses the current supply of real estate modalities for a sample of 1916 records; and studies, using regression models, the causes that significantly influence on their assessment, proposing models of price estimation.
    Keywords: R33 ; ddc:330 ; commercial premise ; industrial warehouse ; offer price
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The exchange markets and the exchange rates of Asia and Latin America are studied econometrically. Endogenous structural change and cointegration analyzes and impulse-response functions are used. The findings indicate that: 1) the long-term timing of the exchange markets is low; 2) there is no evidence of synchronization in Asian markets; 3) a stochastic shock in a Latin American country has effects of greater magnitude and duration than a similar shock in an Asian country; and 4) there is no evidence that the Global Financial Crisis has induced structural changes in the dynamics of exchange rates. The daily spot exchange rates of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, South Korea, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand are used for the period from August 5, 2002 to January 22, 2016.
    Keywords: C32 ; C22 ; G15 ; F30 ; ddc:330 ; exchange rates ; Asia ; Latin America ; cointegration ; endogenous structural change ; impulse-response
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper documents the level and trends of monetary inequality in developing countries based on Povcalnet data up to the year 2015. On average, during the first half of the current decade, inequality declined in developing economies, although at a rate substantially lower than that experienced during the 2000s. The current average level of the Gini coefficient is above the value of the early 1980s, which shows the difficulties in moving towards societies with significantly lower levels of economic inequality.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: There is a strong gap in school enrollment rates between young girls with and without children in Uruguay. This paper aims to explain if this gap responds to a cause-effect relationship, identifying the impact of becoming a teen mother on the educational outcomes of young girls. Our identification strategy takes advantage of a reform in Uruguay allowing voluntary termination of pregnancy since December 2012. This reform made Uruguay the only Latin-American country - except from Cuba, Guyana and Mexico City - where abortion on demand is legal. However, the supply of legal abortion services faced several drawbacks in some geographical areas where a high share of gynecologists refused to induce abortions, since the law protects the right to exercise 'conscientious objection' with respect to abortion. Thus, the supply of abortion services varied substantially across departments. Differences in the timing and degree of implementation provide a source of identification for estimating the causal effect of teenage fertility on education using an Instrumental Variables approach. Local abortion rates - carried out under the new legal framework - are used to instrument teenage fertility rates. This is the first study to have official information on the number of legally terminated pregnancies in Uruguay since abortion reform in 2012. Results suggest that access to legal abortion reduced teenage fertility. We provide an exogenous instrument for teenage fertility - legal abortion rates - and this is one of the main contributions of the paper. Second-stage results indicate the causal effect of teenage fertility on educational attainment is null for the group of compliers. This suggests that poor educational performance of teenage mothers cannot be attributed to early motherhood per se, but to pre-existing disadvantages.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage fertility ; Abortion ; Education ; Instrumental Variables ; Latin America ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 22
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
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    Ciudad de México : Fundación Friedrich Ebert en México
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We use the national Input-Output Matrix 2012 of INEGI and Flegg's approach to estimate four Regional Input-Output Matrices (RIOM) applying Banco de Mexico's regionalization. The RIOM are employed to evaluate the effects on gross output, value added and employment at the regional level resulting from two shocks: (a) the construction of a hypothetical automotive plant worth 1,000 million dollars; and (b) the production of 200,000 vehicles per year in that plant. The exercise reveals that: (i) the construction and the operation of the plant at full capacity have differentiated effects across regions and sectors on the studied variables, in both absolute and relative terms; (ii) the spillover effects resulting of both shocks within each region are concentrated in a limited number of sectors; and (iii) the north central region resulted to be the one receiving the largest relative benefits from both shocks.
    Keywords: R11 ; R12 ; R15 ; ddc:330 ; Input-Output Model ; Regional Analysis ; Multiplier Effects ; Automotive Sector
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 25
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper analyzes educational inequalities in basic education considering educational backwardness as individual achievement in the learning process in Bolivia. We make special emphasis on the effect of the type of school, whether public or private, to establish the degree of a gap that differentiates education in Bolivia. Considering the 2006-2014 period, initially it is identify what factors influence a child to enroll in a particular type of education, finding that the household income is the most important factor. Second, the Equality of Opportunities scheme is adopted, identifying a set of socioeconomic characteristics of the child's house (circumstances), that together with type of education, can influence the child gets lag. Thus, characteristics such as the socioeconomic background of the family are important source of inequality of educational opportunities, which interact with the effect of the type of school, proving a relative advantage of the private school over the public, showing that educational opportunities are not the same for all children.
    Keywords: I24 ; I25 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Educational Inequalities ; Equality of Opportunities ; Public and Private School
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 26
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wissensgesellschaft ; Qualifikation ; Kreativität ; Innovation ; Neurowissenschaften
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 27
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: I15 ; I25 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Geburt ; Kinder ; Gesundheitsrisiko ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 28
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: En este documento se definirá que es un equipo virtual de trabajo y cómo se relacionan estos equipos virtuales con las organizaciones. Se brindará una clasificación y se describirán características inherentes a los equipos virtuales. Se mencionarán los factores críticos de éxito para una correcta gestión de Equipos Virtuales de Trabajo, con individuos que trabajan geográficamente dispersos. Conceptos que abarcan no sólo a proyectos de tecnología, sino en general.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Virtuelles Team ; Definition
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Este artículo pretende aportar conocimiento sobre uno de los grandes problemas que trae aparejado un liderazgo carismático: la sucesión del líder. El caso de estudio es el de Eva Perón, un tipo particular de liderazgo que compartió en forma simultánea con Juan D. Perón. El trabajo también analiza el rol político de quien fuera elegida para intentar reemplazarla, Delia Degliuomini de Parodi. / This article aims to provide knowledge about charismatic leadership and dilemmas that arise with succession to the disappearance of their leader. The case study is about Eva Peron, a particular kind of leadership because it was a double charismatic leadership and shared with President Juan D. Peron. It also discusses the political role of who was chosen to replace her, Delia Degliuomini de Parodi.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regierungschef ; Charisma ; Führungswechsel ; Zeitgeschichte ; Argentinien
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  • 30
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Tradicionalmente el PIB había sido el indicador utilizado para medir el nivel de actividad, el desarrollo global de la sociedad, el progreso y el bienestar. Pero nuevas demandas han ido surgiendo en el siglo XXI y el PIB ya no puede medirlas y tampoco orientar las políticas para su logro. Han comenzado a plantearse impensadas preguntas del tipo '¿Los gobiernos deben orientar sus políticas hacia el crecimiento o hacia la felicidad?'. Con el objetivo explícito de lograr un indicador que pudiera superar las limitaciones señaladas surgió la organización Social Progress Imperative que orientó sus primeros esfuerzos a la elaboración de un Social Progress Index que se esperaba fuera utilizado para 'informar e influir sobre las políticas e instituciones en todo el mundo'. Se ha señalado que este indicador estaría fuertemente relacionado con el problema de la felicidad. Pero también se han ido elaborando indicadores más específicos de la felicidad y se sostiene que los mismos constituyen medidas adecuadas del progreso social. Probablemente el más reconocido sea el Gross National Happiness Index publicado anualmente a partir de 2012 en el World Happiness Report. Estos indicadores son analizados en el presente trabajo para períodos recientes con particular referencia al caso argentino. ECONOMIC GROWTH, SOCIAL PROGRESS AND HAPPINESS SUMMARY Traditionally GDP had been the indicator used to measure the level of activity, the overall development of society, progress and welfare. But new demands have been emerging in the 21st century and GDP can no longer measure them nor guide policies for their achievement. Unthinkable questions such as "Should governments orient their policies toward growth or toward happiness?" have arisen. With the explicit aim of achieving an indicator that could overcome the above mentioned limitations, the Social Progress Imperative Organization, directed its first efforts towards the elaboration of a Social Progress Index that was expected to be used to "inform and influence policies and institutions all over the world". It has been pointed out that this indicator would be strongly related to the problem of happiness. But more specific indicators of happiness have also been developed and it is argued that they are also adequate measures of social progress. Probably the most recognized is the Gross National Happiness Index published annually since 2012 in the World Happiness Report. These indicators are analyzed in the present paper for recent periods with particular reference to the Argentine case.
    Description: Traditionally GDP had been the indicator used to measure the level of activity, the overall development of society, progress and welfare. But new demands have been emerging in the 21st century and GDP can no longer measure them nor guide policies for their achievement. Unthinkable questions such as "Should governments orient their policies toward growth or toward happiness?" have arisen. With the explicit aim of achieving an indicator that could overcome the above mentioned limitations, the Social Progress Imperative Organization, directed its first efforts towards the elaboration of a Social Progress Index that was expected to be used to "inform and influence policies and institutions all over the world". It has been pointed out that this indicator would be strongly related to the problem of happiness. But more specific indicators of happiness have also been developed and it is argued that they are also adequate measures of social progress. Probably the most recognized is the Gross National Happiness Index published annually since 2012 in the World Happiness Report. These indicators are analyzed in the present paper for recent periods with particular reference to the Argentine case.
    Keywords: A13 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Wirtschaftsindikator ; Sozialer Indikator ; Glücksforschung ; Argentinien
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  • 31
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo entre la metodología comúnmente utilizada por los agentes del mercado local en lo referido a la estimación de Curvas de Rendimiento Cupón Cero (también conocidas como Estructuras Temporales de Tasa de Interés o ETTI), mediante la metodología de estimación de líneas de tendencias logarítmicas respecto a las YTM (Yield to Maturity) o TIR (Tasa Interna de Retorno) de un grupo o conjunto de títulos que comparten ciertas características y el desarrollo metodológico de Curvas de Rendimiento Cupón Cero mediante la implementación de un modelo paramétrico denominado Nelson y Siegel (NS)[1]. En los siguientes capítulos se abordarán ambas metodologías presentándose las ventajas y desventajas de cada una y sus ámbitos de aplicación. Para esto se tomarán los títulos públicos ajustados por CER a modo de ejemplo práctico dado que éstos presentan una estructura de cash flows compleja. El resultado del presente trabajo empírico arroja evidencias ampliamente favorables hacia la implementación del modelo paramétrico de NS. Esta conclusión se fundamenta tanto en las propiedades intrínsecas de la metodología de NS como en las desventajas de la utilización de YTM para extrapolar directamente una curva de rendimientos y, fundamentalmente, en los resultados obtenidos entre la diferencia (error) obtenida entre los precios estimados o teóricos por cada metodología y los precios de mercado.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Zero-Bond ; Rendite ; Zinsstruktur ; Schätztheorie ; Argentinien
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We analyze the relationship between the economic growth rate and a rule of law indicator in Mexican states during the period 2006-2013. Specifically, we employ information regarding the time it takes to solve commercial disputes in local courts, which we use as a proxy variable to measure the efficiency of the justice system. In principle, we expect that the shorter the time it takes to resolve commercial disputes, the higher the growth rates will be in the states where the firms are located. The results suggest that a 100-day decrease in the average time it takes to resolve a commercial dispute is associated with an increase of 0.6 percent in the growth rate of state per capita GDP.
    Keywords: O43 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Growth ; Justice System ; Regional Economies
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  • 33
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonomen ; Veranstaltung ; Wirtschaftshochschule ; Argentinien
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  • 34
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: En la actualidad el uso de Generics está ampliamente difundido y le otorga a la programación un alto grado de reusabilidad y control. En particular cuando se menciona Generics, la reusabilidad y control se da sobre los tipos que deseamos que utilicen nuestras clases, estructuras e interfaces. El uso de genéricos y colecciones genéricas tienden a mejorar el rendimiento, debido a que suele evitar el proceso de boxing y unboxing tan costoso en términos de procesamiento. El concepto "genéricos o generics" es aplicable a clases, interfaces, métodos, delegados y parámetros. Esto implica que gran parte del código puede verse potenciado por esta característica.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 36
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bankenkrise ; Stresstest ; Private Banking ; Simulation ; Argentinien
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  • 37
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftslage ; Subprime-Krise ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Meinung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonomen ; Ökonomische Ideengeschichte ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Großbritannien
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  • 39
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El presente trabajo posee por objetivo analizar las decisiones de inversión adoptadas por las principales empresas participantes del mercado petrolero argentino en función de las políticas de derechos de exportación y precios internos del petróleo instrumentadas desde el año 2003, y cómo los flujos destinados a inversión pudieron haber afectado los niveles de producción de petróleo en la Argentina. Para ello se estudió la información proveniente de los estados contables correspondientes a treinta empresas participantes de la industria petrolera argentina, que en su conjunto representan más del 80% del tamaño de la industria petrolera local, en especial la referida a flujos de fondos destinados a inversión y variaciones en los activos fijos. Fue posible observar que la regulación de los precios internos mediante la instrumentación de derechos de exportación causó en forma simultánea un deterioro en la rentabilidad de las empresas pertenecientes a la industria petrolera. En forma simultánea, los derechos de exportación instrumentados entre los años 2004 y 2015 generaron una importante brecha de precios respecto de los valores internacionales del petróleo. La persistencia de dicha brecha de precios y de rentabilidad en el tiempo habría incidido en las decisiones de inversión realizadas en el segmento petrolero argentino, observándose una caída en los niveles de inversión y en los activos fijos productivos destinados a dicha actividad. Ello condujo a una reducción en la capacidad de producción de las empresas petroleras, lo cual generó para la Argentina la pérdida de la capacidad de autoabastecimiento de petróleo y combustibles.
    Description: The present paper analyzes the investment decisions made by the main companies participating in the Argentine oil market, based on the export taxes and domestic oil prices policies implemented since 2003, and how the cash flows destined for investment may have affected the oil production in Argentina. For this purpose, the financial statements corresponding to thirty participating companies of the Argentine oil industry (which together represent more than 80% of the size of the local oil industry) were studied, specially the information related to flows of funds destined to investment and changes in fixed assets. It was possible to observe that the regulation of domestic prices through the instrumentation of export taxes simultaneously caused a deterioration in the profitability of companies belonging to the oil industry. Simultaneously, the export taxes implemented between 2004 and 2015 generated a significant price gap with respect to international oil values. The persistence of this price and profitability gap over time would have affected the investment decisions made in the Argentine oil segment, with a drop on investment rates and fixed assets for that activity. This led to a reduction in the production capacity of the oil companies, which generated for Argentina the loss of the capacity of self-sufficiency of oil.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 40
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wehrtechnik ; Entscheidung ; Militärische Intervention ; USA
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  • 41
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: En el presente estudio sobre la movilización de recursos domésticos para el desarrollo social se analiza el sector de la salud en Nicaragua desde 1972 hasta 2015. Se examinan las variaciones en las políticas que afectan el sector salud y su financiamiento, el papel de las instituciones, la fuerza de las ideas nacionales e internacionales, y la influencia de la sociedad civil y del sector privado. Estos elementos se retoman para el análisis de diferentes periodos de gobierno: la dictadura de Somoza (1972–1979), una década de revolución (1979–1989), un período de políticas neoliberales (1990–2006), y finalmente una etapa de modelo híbrido que incorpora elementos de las dos etapas anteriores (2007–2015). El estudio examina los diferentes períodos y analiza con más detenimiento el período actual bajo el gobierno de Ortega. Los hallazgos son que a través del tiempo se observa una mejoría en la salud y en los servicios ofrecidos por el estado y el sector privado, y que ello en buena parte se debe a que el gasto social ha aumentado en la medida que la economía del país ha crecido y que las fuentes de financiamiento - con limitaciones presupuestarias por políticas macroeconómicas de control de déficit fiscal - se han diversificado. En cuanto al diseño de las políticas e instituciones de salud, en general ha prevalecido un modelo de salud curativo, aunque hubo períodos en que se enfatizó lo preventivo. Las razones por las que se obvia lo preventivo tienen que ver con el clima político-partidario en unos casos y el interés económico en otros casos. Entre los mayores desafíos en el sistema de salud en Nicaragua se encuentra la tarea de generar información fiable y democratizarla, lo que es más posible en el contexto actual de revolución tecnológica. Es la llave para poder optimizar la priorización de las inversiones, además de generar el mayor nivel posible de transparencia para poder maximizar la asignación de recursos propios y la obtención de recursos externos. De la misma manera la generación de información de calidad juega un papel esencial para mejorar la articulación entre diferentes sectores, y para una mayor participación de la población en el cuidado de su propia salud. Realizando esta tarea y los procesos relacionados a ella promete contribuir a la salud de la población y a que las instituciones sean cada vez más fuertes e inclusivas.
    Description: Preparad o para el proyecto de UNRISD sobre las políticas de movilización de recursos domésticos para el desarrollo social
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 43
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian Global Value Chains (GVC) for 2002, 2005 and 2011, using the Vertical Specialization Index (EV) of Hummels et al. (2001) and the measure of Upstreamness of Antràs y Chor (2011) (cited by Antràs et al., 2012b). Indicators show that trade patterns are represented by a concentration of raw materials, which have also taken advantage from those derived from GVC; while manufacturing sectors have been less important in this dynamic, and they even lost their relevance over time.
    Keywords: C02 ; F01 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Global Value Chains ; fragmentation indicators ; Bolivia
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Propósito – La presente investigación examina la existencia de memoria de largo plazo por medio del cálculo del coeficiente de Hurst y Hurst ajustado, y del análisis de características de estructuras caóticas en la serie del mercado bursátil de Chile, específicamente a través del Índice de Precios Selectivo de Acciones. Diseño/metodología/enfoque – Se desarrolló un breve análisis del mercado, según la metodología de Box y Jenkings. La validez de los resultados se realizó por medio de la prueba propuesta por Brock, Dechert y Scheinkman. En segundo lugar, se procedió a analizar la dinámica y patrones del índice y de su rendimiento, para observar si existía evidencia de memoria de largo plazo. Hallazgos – Los resultados demuestran la presencia de esta memoria en el mercado bursátil chileno, determinado a través del índice accionario en dos escalas, diaria y trimestral, lo que además corrobora resultados obtenidos por otros autores, confirmando el uso de la metodología de Rango Re-escaldo para la identificación y determinación de memoria de largo plazo en una serie temporal. Originalidad/valor – Este estudio permitirá a futuros investigadores realizar análisis similares en otros mercados, aportando un nuevo enfoque al analizar la memoria de la largo plazo y los factores que inciden en ella.
    Keywords: G14 ; ddc:330 ; Exponente de Hurst ; Índice bursátil ; Mercados eficientes ; Mercados fractales
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Propósito – Los call centers generan estrés y ausentismo en el personal y la literatura sugiere que el liderazgo orientado a la gente es el tipo adecuado de supervisión para tal situación. Este estudio comparó sus efectos versus los de otros tipos de liderazgo. Metodología – Datos de ausentismo de 379 representantes de servicios al cliente de un call center peruano fueron analizados y los representantes respondieron a un cuestionario sobre el Marco de Valores en Competencia y sus cuatro tipos de liderazgo. Turnos diurnos y nocturnos de trabajo fueron comparados. Resultados – Se observó que el ausentismo declina con el liderazgo orientado a la gente, aunque solo en el turno diurno, y la adición de liderazgos orientados al cambio, los resultados y el control resta validez a los modelos. Limitaciones/implicancias – Futuros estudios deberán abarcar el desempeño del trabajador. Los hallazgos sugieren una necesidad de volver a poner el foco teórico en las contingencias ambientales que afectan la eficacia del liderazgo. Originalidad/valor – Teóricos del liderazgo se preguntarán en qué circunstancias es efectivo el liderazgo múltiple. Gerentes de call centers apreciarán el valor organizacional del liderazgo orientado a la gente en el primer nivel de supervisión.
    Keywords: L83 ; ddc:330 ; Call center ; Gerencia de Recursos Humanos ; Liderazgo orientado a la gente ; Marco de valores en competencia ; Teoría y comportamiento organizacional
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Propósito – En el artículo se presenta una síntesis del impacto sobre la producción y el empleo generado por la realización de un megaevento deportivo en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Diseño/metodología/enfoque – El impacto se estima a través de los efectos sistemáticos producidos por las actividades de inversión/gasto de los agentes identificados y los consecuentes efectos multiplicadores capturados a partir de un modelo insumo-producto. Hallazgos – La realización de los Juegos Mundiales significó un nuevo flujo de ingreso monetario a la ciudad de Cali, de $101.036 millones de pesos (=53,4 millones de dólares) y se generaron 9.598 puestos de trabajo (=7.711 empleos de tiempo completo). Adicionalmente, se atrajo a la ciudad a 2.174 turistas internacionales y 11.250 turistas nacionales. Originalidad/valor – El artículo aporta aspectos innovadores metodológicamente útiles para futuros estudios de impacto económico en ciudades poco turísticas situadas en países en vías desarrollo.
    Keywords: C67 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; Cali ; Colombia ; Impacto económico ; Los Juegos Mundiales ; Megaeventos deportivos
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  • 47
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    Toronto: The Bichler & Nitzan Archives
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: SPANISH ABSTRACT: La mayoría de las explicaciones de las alzas y bajas del mercado de valores se basan en la comparación de la lógica “fundamental” subyacente de la economía con los factores exógenos que supuestamente la distorsionan. Este artículo presenta un modelo radicalmente distinto, y examina el mercado de valores desde la perspectiva del poder capitalizado y no desde el punto de vista de una economía distorsionada. El modelo demuestra que la valoración de acciones representa poder capitalizado, que el poder capitalizado está entrelazado al temor sistémico, y que estos dos elementos son mediados por el sabotaje estratégico. Este modelo triangular ofrece una base para examinar los límites del poder capitalizado y su relación con la transformación histórica y actual del modo de poder capitalista.
    Description: Translated from the English by Alberto Supelano.
    Description: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Most explanations of stock market booms and busts are based on contrasting the underlying ‘fundamental’ logic of the economy with the exogenous, non-economic factors that presumably distort it. Our paper offers a radically different model, examining the stock market not from the mechanical viewpoint of a distorted economy, but from the dialectical perspective of capitalized power. The model demonstrates that (1) the valuation of equities represents capitalized power; (2) capitalized power is dialectically intertwined with systemic fear; and (3) systemic fear and capitalized power are mediated through strategic sabotage. This triangular model, we posit, can offer a basis for examining the asymptotes, or limits, of capitalized power and the ways in which these asymptotes relate to the historical and ongoing transformation of the capitalist mode of power.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; capital as power ; crisis ; mismatch thesis ; stock market ; strategic sabotage ; systemic fear ; valuation
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Este estudio examina de manera empírica el efecto que tiene una mejora en las condiciones de la gobernabilidad en la gestión del riesgo sobre las pérdidas humanas ante la ocurrencia de un desastre. Para medir la gobernabilidad en la gestión del riesgo de desastres (GGRD), este análisis se fundamenta en el Índice de Gobernabilidad y de Políticas Públicas (iGOPP), desarrollado por el Banco Inter-Americano de Desarrollo, que caracteriza el desarrollo normativo, institucional y presupuestal sobre gestión de riesgo de desastres de un país. Utilizando modelos econométricos de datos de recuento con efectos fijos por año y país en un panel de datos de 15 países de América Latina y el Caribe para el periodo 1980-2014, este análisis demuestra que una mejora en la gobernabilidad de gestión del riesgo conlleva a una reducción significativa en la probabilidad de sufrir pérdidas humanas causadas por desastres naturales. Específicamente, un punto adicional en el iGOPP está asociado con una reducción entre 3 y 9% del total de fatalidades causadas por desastres naturales de gran magnitud. Los resultados sugieren que la creación de condiciones para mejorar la gobernabilidad en la gestión del riesgo es un elemento crucial no solo para revertir el impacto negativo de las causas subyacentes de vulnerabilidad social, como las deficiencias en el Sistema económico y una débil capacidad institucional, sino también para contrarrestar el efecto de presiones dinámicas como la rápida urbanización, degradación ambiental e ineficiencias de los mercados.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q54 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; desastres naturales ; gestión del riesgo ; gobernabilidad ; América Latina
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Keywords: D73 ; D78 ; L52 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: This paper discusses theoretical and practical issues related to long-term care (LTC) services in Latin America. Demand for these services will rise as the region undergoes a swift demographic transition from its currently young population to a rapidly aging one, especially since the region's aging cohorts are more prone to experience a decline in their functional and physical abilities than elderly people elsewhere in the world. We argue that private insurance markets are ill-equipped to provide coverage to meet the need for LTC, while the amount of personal savings required to afford self-insurance is prohibitively high. We study how developed economies have dealt with the issue of LTC and pay special attention to the most salient features of their LTC programs. We then direct the discussion to Latin America, where LTC may not be an immediate priority, but governments are likely to encourage the development of LTC programs as demand for them steadily grows. In particular, policymakers are probably going to focus initially on LTC programs for the poor and the vulnerable, for whom LTC affordability is a greater problem. We therefore study how basic elements of policy design affect costeffectiveness of LTC programs by means of a formal model. Our study shows that propoor programs are more cost effective when people have the option to receive cash subsidies, and the availability of in-kind and in-cash choices reduces program costs overall. We argue that our findings are natural starting points to start thinking about LTC program development in the region.
    Keywords: J14 ; N36 ; ddc:330 ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; population aging ; Latin America
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Keywords: D73 ; D78 ; L52 ; ddc:330
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  • 53
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Un sistema de transporte público urbano eficiente contribuye con mejorar la calidad de vida de sus usuarios, a la vez que fomenta el crecimiento y desarrollo económico local. Es por eso que la Quinta Reunión de la Red de Transporte del Diálogo Regional de Política del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, llevada a cabo en octubre de 2015, tuvo como objetivo presentar y discutir las mejores prácticas internacionales sobre los modelos de fondeo y financiamiento disponibles para la construcción de infraestructura para servicios de transporte público urbano, así como para la dotación de equipamiento para su operación. Este documento se presenta como seguimiento de la Quinta Reunión de la Red de Transporte. Su objetivo es documentar las mejores practices internacionales en materia de fondeo y financiamiento para el transporte público urbano. Para lograr lo anterior, se muestra una primera distinción entre el fondeo y el financiamiento de la infraestructura y cómo se vincula este debate con estrategias fiscales que pueden llevar a un mayor impulso de los sistemas de transporte a nivel local. Posteriormente, se analizan algunas de las opciones de fondeo desde la óptica local y la importancia de los recursos propios como instrumento para detonar la inversión, así como los esquemas de apoyo a nivel nacional para favorecer el desarrollo de los sistemas de transporte urbano. El documento continúa con una discusión sobre el financiamiento privado de los proyectos, lo que incluye una comparación entre los mecanismos crediticios disponibles según sus características (la calificación de crédito aceptada, los costos del capital, la duración del crédito, las condiciones de los préstamos y los costos de transacción). Además, se aborda el tema de las Asociaciones Público Privadas (APP) como mecanismo para incrementar el financiamiento para el transporte urbano, incluyendo sus ventajas y riesgos. Más adelante, el documento presenta los instrumentos de financiamiento internacional, mediante los Bancos Multilaterales de Desarrollo (BMD), incluyendo las opciones para el financiamiento climático. También se muestran algunos mecanismos de recuperación de plusvalías que permiten incrementar el financiamiento para transporte urbano gracias al impacto positivo en los valores del suelo que trae consigo este tipo de proyectos. Por último, se discuten algunos de los factores que facilitan o inhiben la ejecución de proyectos de transporte público urbano, incluyendo las barreras que enfrentan los gobiernos locales y los mecanismos de coordinación necesarios para su mplementación. El documento concluye con una serie de recomendaciones que, partiendo de los diferentes elementos de las finanzas públicas (ingreso, gasto y deuda), así como de la importancia de la participación del sector privado para el desarrollo del sector, pretenden establecer orientaciones generales para el adecuado financiamiento de los sistemas de transporte público urbano en la región.
    Keywords: R40 ; R42 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; Transporte ; Financiamiento ; Fondeo ; infraestructura
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Muchos hogares pobres en los países en desarrollo enfrentan problemas de liquidez. Como resultado, es probable que inviertan menos de lo necesario en el capital humano de sus niños. Utilizando datos de Ecuador, proporcionamos nueva evidencia sobre los efectos de largo plazo (10 años) de las transferencias monetarias. Nuestro análisis se basa en dos fuentes de datos diferentes y en dos estrategias de identificación. Primero, extendemos los resultados de un experimento que asignó aleatoriamente niños menores de 6 años a grupos de tratamiento “temprano” o “tardío”. Aunque el grupo de tratamiento temprano recibió el doble de transferencias totales, no enconramos diferencias entre los niños de ambos grupos en términos de su rendimiento en una variedad de pruebas. Segundo, utilizamos un diseño de regression discontinua aprovechando el uso de un “índice de pobreza” para determinar la elegibilidad para las transferencias. Nos enfocamos en niños que se encontraban justo por encima y justo por debajo del umbral de elegibilidad cuando estaban al final de la infancia y comparamos su rendimiento escolar y su estatus laboral 10 años más tarde. Las transferencias aumentaron la finalización de la escuela secundaria, pero los efectos son pequeños: entre 1 y 2 puntos porcentuales de una tasa contrafactual de finalización escolar del 75 por ciento. Concluimos que cualquier efecto de las transferencias monetarias en la transmisión intergeneracional de la pobreza en Ecuador será apenas modesto.
    Description: Many poor households in developing countries are liquidity-constrained. As a result, they may under-invest in the human capital of their children. We provide new evidence on the long-term (10-year) effects of cash transfers using data from Ecuador. Our analysis is based on two separate sources of data and two identification strategies. First, we extend the results from an experiment that randomly assigned children under the age of 6 years to early or late treatment groups. Although the early treatment group received twice as much in total transfers, we find no difference between children in the two groups on performance on a large number of tests. Second, we use a regression discontinuity design exploiting the fact that a poverty index was used to determine eligibility for transfers. We focus on children who were just-eligible and just-ineligible for transfers when they were in late childhood, and compare their school attainment and work status 10 years later. Transfers increased secondary school completion, but the effects are small, between 1 and 2 percentage points from a counterfactual school completion rate of 75 percent. We conclude that any effect of cash transfers on the inter-generational transmission of poverty in Ecuador is likely to be modest.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Transferencias monetarias condicionadas ; pobreza ; impactos de largo término ; Ecuador ; Bono de Desarrollo Humano ; Familienleistungsausgleich ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Kinder ; Bildungsverhalten ; Ecuador
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Keywords: H21 ; H26 ; H83 ; ddc:330
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Este estudio presenta evidencia empírica sobre los determinantes de la adopción de certificaciones internacionales de calidad (ISO) y sus efectos sobre el desempeño de las empresas argentinas en los años 2006 y 2010. Los resultados indican que las firmas exportadoras, extranjeras y de mayor tamaño en términos de empleados presentan mayor nivel de adopción, mientras que aquellas empresas que tienen problemas de acceso al financiamiento tienen una adopción menor. Por otro lado, la obtención de certificaciones tiene un efecto positivo en la probabilidad de exportar y el monto exportado, y, además, genera una reducción en la restricción al crédito de las empresas. Sin embargo, no se encuentra ningún efecto sobre ventas locales ni sobre distintas medidas de productividad de las firmas. Estos hallazgos sustentan la hipótesis de que mediante la señalización de calidad las certificaciones permiten resolver principalmente un problema de información asimétrica con respecto a clients externos e instituciones de crédito.
    Keywords: D22 ; D24 ; D82 ; L15 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Argentina ; asimetrías de información ; certificación internacional ; datos de panel ; evaluación de impacto ; señalización de calidad ; Standard ; International ; Einführung ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Argentinien
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  • 58
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: El desarrollo en la primera infancia predice lo que serán los resultados en la escolaridad y el mercado laboral en la edad adulta. En este documento usamos una estrategia de identificación de efectos fijos para evaluar el modo en que las diferencias en la calidad de los jardines de cuidado infantil afectan la comunicación, la motricidad fina y las destrezas en resolución de problemas de los niños menores de tres años. Demostramos que los niños logran resultados en su desarrollo significativamente mejores cuando han tenido en las aulas cuidadores más experimentados y cuidadores capaces de ofrecer interacciones de mayor calidad a los niños. Existe una heterogeneidad considerable en los efectos de la calidad del cuidador sobre el desarrollo infantil. Por lo general, los padres no pueden observar, o no valoran, la calidad del cuidado.
    Description: Development in early childhood predicts schooling and labor market outcomes in adulthood. In this paper we use a fixed effects identification strategy to assess how differences in the quality of child care affect the communication, fine motor, and problem solving skills of infants and toddlers. We show that children have significantly better development outcomes in classrooms with more experienced caregivers, and classrooms with caregivers who demonstrate higher-quality interactions with children. There is substantial heterogeneity in the effects of caregiver quality on child development. Parents either cannot observe, or do not value, the quality of care.
    Keywords: I00 ; I10 ; I20 ; I25 ; I30 ; I38 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; centros de cuidado infantil ; calidad ; desarrollo infantil ; CLASS ; ASQ ; Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung ; Kinderbetreuung ; Pädagogik ; Bewertung ; Peru
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  • 59
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of a cluster tourism policy in the region of Colonia, Uruguay. The policy was implemented as part of an IDB-supported program. The study conducted a comparative analysis of Colonia vs. other tourism regions of the country applying a synthetic control method. This method of identifying the counterfactual is especially useful in comparative case studies where there are a limited number of control units. This is the first time that the synthetic control method has been applied to a cluster policy. The estimations show a positive impact of the cluster program on the inflow of international tourists to Colonia of 30 percent in the period 2008-2015; however, no significant impact on total expenditure was found.
    Keywords: D73 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 60
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 61
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Keywords: F3 ; F31 ; D4 ; D44 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 62
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: The achievement of gender equality in the labor market is not only a desirable goal by itself, but by its effects on growth and welfare. Based on such acknowledgement, this research quantifies the effects of gender gaps in employment, participation, occupational segregation and labor income, over monetary poverty in urban Bolivia. For this purpose, it is proposed to use the non-parametric microsimulation strategy in order to generate free gender gaps scenarios. Based on the comparison of poverty indicators observed and simulated with this strategy, it is evident that from 2006 to 2015 gender inequality in participation and labor income implied costs on the welfare of the society.
    Keywords: C14 ; D31 ; I32 ; J7 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Gender gaps ; Poverty ; Labor market ; Microsimulation Techniques
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  • 63
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: Migration has been a difficult phenomenon to measure because of its volatile characteristics and the number of models that explain the essential incentives of the process. In Bolivia there are few quantitative studies of international migratory movements, however, there are records that reflect a great socioeconomic impact by the migratory decisions. Throughout the document it describes that Bolivia has a negative migratory balance and that the profiles of the migrants have certain variable characteristics in the time. Generally, the search for accumulation of wealth, better living conditions, access to better education, better remuneration for productivity, among others, are sufficiently valid incentives to migrate to another developed country. The paper measures the impact of international migration on inequality of Bolivian wealth through the use of a dynamic general stochastic model DSGE with heterogeneous agents, specifying Argentina as the foreign economy because it is the country that holds most of the Bolivian people.
    Keywords: D31 ; D59 ; D52 ; J11 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; International Migration ; Migration Profile ; Migration Flows ; Stochastic Dynamic General Equilibrium Model ; Heterogeneous Agents ; Inequality of Wealth ; Labor Productivity
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  • 64
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    Madrid: Asociación Espanola de Ciencia Política y de la Administración
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Este trabajo examina el proceso de incorporación de las democracias latinoamericanas a la base de datos del Manifesto Project –desde 2009 llamado Manifesto Research on Political Representation (MARPOR)–. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y conceptuales del estudio del funcionamiento de las cadenas de delegación en regímenes presidenciales empleando el enfoque de este proyecto. Particularmente, se analiza el significado de los programas electorales en sistemas parlamentarios y presidenciales. Asimismo, se explica la revisión del esquema de clasificación estándar y otros ajustes en la metodología de MARPOR introducidos con anterioridad a esta extensión. Finalmente, se comparte el protocolo seguido para recabar programas de partidos y candidatos en América Latina.
    Description: This piece of research examines the inclusion of Latin American democracies into the Manifesto Project´s database –named Manifesto Research on Political Representation (MARPOR) since 2009–. It addresses some theoretical and conceptual implications related to the study of the functioning of delegation chains in presidential regimes from MARPOR´s perspective. Particularly, it is here analyzed the meaning of electoral programs in parliamentary and presidential systems. Besides, it is explained the revision of the standard classification scheme and other adjustments introduced to the methodology prior to this extension. Lastly, the protocol applied for gathering Latin-American parties and candidates’ manifestos is shared.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Manifesto Project ; MARPOR ; Latin America ; presidential regimes
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