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  • 1
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    London: Taylor and Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We introduce progressive consumption taxation into a real-business-cycle setup augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of the presence of of progressive taxation of consumption expenditures for the stabilization of cyclical fluctuations in Bulgaria. We find the quantitative effect of such a tax to be very small, and thus not important for either business cycle stabilization, or public finance issues.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; business cycles ; progressive consumption taxation ; Bulgaria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Brussels: The Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with non-market ("home") sector calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy due to the presence of non-market production. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the findings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. Under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the economy calibrated to Bulgarian data displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "stable focus" dynamics.
    Keywords: J46 ; D91 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Progressive taxation ; Non-market sector ; Home production ; Equilibrium (In)determinacy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Bernkastel-Kues: Cusanus Hochschule, Institut für Ökonomie und Institut für Philosophie
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Friedrich von Hayek, die wirkungsmächtigste Person im Neoliberalismus, hat insbesondere in seiner Theorie des "Wettbewerbs als Entdeckungsprozess" eine Utopie formuliert, deren Besonderheit darin besteht, dass sie versucht, jeder anderen Utopie - gleich welcher Richtung - ihre Berechtigung zu entziehen. Denn hier wird "dem Markt" bzw. "der erweiterten Ordnung" eine Übervernunft zugeschrieben, die von keinem menschlichen Wesen kognitiv zu bewältigen ist. Hayek landet folgerichtig bei dem Bild, "den Markt" wie einen Gott anzusehen und ihm gottgleiche Attribute zu verleihen.
    Keywords: A11 ; A12 ; B25 ; B53 ; ddc:330 ; Neoliberalismus ; Marktdenken ; Propaganda ; Gesellschaftstheorie ; Transformation der Gesellschaft
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    Freiburg i. Br.: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Allgemeine Wirtschaftsforschung, Abteilung für Wirtschaftspolitik und Ordnungsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: [Einleitende Bemerkungen] Eine Reform der Grundsteuer ist unabweisbar geworden. Dies ist nicht dem politischen Willen von Bund oder Ländern geschuldet, sondern geht auf das Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 10. April 2018 zurück, wonach die Einheitsbewertung zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer jedenfalls seit dem 1. Januar 2002 unvereinbar mit Art. 3 Abs. 1 Grundgesetz und somit verfassungswidrig ist. Diese Entscheidung war spätestens seit dem Jahr 2010 absehbar, als der Bundesfinanzhof feststellte, dass „[…] das weitere Unterbleiben einer allgemeinen Neubewertung des Grundvermögens […]“ für Stichtage nach dem 1.1.2007 mit der Verfassung nicht vereinbar ist (Pressemitteilung BFH vom 11. August 2010). Der Wissenschaftliche Beirat beim Bundesfinanzministerium legte im Dezember 2010 eine Stellungnahme zur Grundsteuerreform vor, die Möglichkeiten zu einer Neubewertung der Immobilien in Deutschland mit einigermaßen vertretbarem administrativem Aufwand aufzeigte. Gleichwohl haben Bund und Länder die vergangenen acht Jahre nicht für eine Reform nutzen können. Insbesondere unter den Ländern bestand keine Einigkeit, ob ein wertbasiertes Modell oder ein reines Flächenmodell zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer herangezogen werden sollte. Diese Frontstellung besteht zwischen den beiden Lagern fort. Nur bleibt nun leider wenig Zeit, eine Reform der Grundsteuer auf den Weg zu bringen. Bis zum Ende des Jahres 2019 muss der Gesetzgeber die Grundsteuer reformiert haben und ein neues Bewertungsgesetz verabschiedet haben. Danach hat der Gesetzgeber fünf Jahre Zeit, also bis zum 31. Dezember 2024, die neuen Bewertungsregeln anzuwenden. Diese Frist ist für eine Bewertung aller Immobilien in Deutschland relativ kurz. Das Bundesfinanzministerium hat mittlerweile seine Vorschläge für eine Grundsteuerreform unterbreitet. Darin sind zwei Modelle enthalten, ein wertunabhängiges, flächenbasiertes Modell und ein wertabhängiges Modell, in das Boden- und Gebäudewertcharakteristika einfließen. Das Bundesfinanzministerium favorisiert sein wertabhängiges Grundsteuermodell. Vor diesem Hintergrund, und weil die Zeit drängt, spitzt sich die Debatte derzeit weiter zu. In diesem Beitrag soll daher das Für und Wider der unterschiedlichen Modelle beleuchtet werden. Zudem werden Weiterungen der Reform, insbesondere die Möglichkeit der formalen Überwälzung der Grundsteuer auf den Mieter diskutiert.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Recognizing that identities are not static but instead forged in social interactions, this article explores how interplays of similarity and difference can stimulate identity development in organizations. Artistic interventions in organizations are conceived as opening spaces for interactions in which intercultural contention can stimulate identity development at the individual and organizational levels. The contribution draws on data generated from Webbased surveys of employees, managers, and artists who participated in artistic interventions in small and medium sized companies in Spain. Several tensions between their culturally distinct worlds emerge as drivers of a process in which the participants engage in identity development characterized by double-mirroring, coevolution, and resonance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; artistic interventions ; identity development ; intercultural interactions ; creative processes ; discursive perspective ; lexical analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Bernkastel-Kues: Cusanus Hochschule, Institut für Ökonomie und Institut für Philosophie
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Wie selbstverständlich geht die heutige ökonomische Standardlehre davon aus, dass sie Studierenden eine feste und unveränderliche Sicht auf die Welt vermitteln kann. Doch woher kommt diese Annahme? Walter Lippmann, einer der Begründer des Neoliberalismus, gibt hierauf einen ersten Hinweis: Wirtschaftswissenschaft soll in der Lage sein, Bilder in Köpfen von Menschen zu verankern, die allem Denken und Handeln unbewusst zugrunde liegen, selbst aber nicht schöpferisch veränderbar sind. Anhand dreier Stationen - ausgesuchten Textpassagen von Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill und Léon Walras - zeigt der Beitrag, wie die Wirtschaftswissenschaft hierfür das Denken umformen musste: hin zu einem rein erfahrungsunabhängigen Denken, das seine Inspiration nicht aus der Begegnung mit der Wirklichkeit, sondern allein aus der reinen Mathematik und Mechanik übernimmt. Zugleich zeigt die philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte dieser Wissenschaft, dass diese Umformung selbst weder zwangsläufig noch alternativlos ist. Auch in der Ökonomie lässt sich die schöpferische Kraft des Denkens zurückgewinnen.
    Keywords: A11 ; A12 ; A23 ; B12 ; B13 ; B21 ; B31 ; B41 ; ddc:330 ; Wirkung ökonomischen Denkens ; Adam Smith ; John Stuart Mill ; Léon Walras ; Lehrbuchökonomie ; Objektivität ; Erfahrung ; mathematisches Denken ; Manipulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Bernkastel-Kues: Cusanus Hochschule, Institut für Ökonomie und Institut für Philosophie
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Die Geschichte des Kapitalismus ist mit der Geschichte des (naiv realistischen) Alltagsverständnisses einer "objektiven" Außen-Welt eng verwoben. Damit eine Geldorientierung und der Kapitalismus kulturdurchdringend werden konnten, musste sich die Vorstellung einer objektiven und messbaren "Außen-Welt" entwickeln und in Lebenspraktiken durchsetzen. Das Paper erläutert die These, dass die Entstehungsgeschichte des Kapitalismus (lebenswirklich und in seiner theoretischen Reflexion) parallel zur Entstehungsgeschichte von Grundkonzepten (lebenswirklich und in ihrer theoretischen Reflexion), wie Ding, Raum und Zeit verlaufen ist bzw. einen gemeinsamen Prozess ausmacht.
    Keywords: A11 ; A14 ; B25 ; B31 ; B53 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Geschichte des Kapitalismus ; Entstehung der Neuzeit ; Weltbild ; Objekt ; Raum ; Zeit ; Descartes ; Naturwissenschaftliches Weltbild ; Homogenisierung der Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Neubiberg: Universität der Bundeswehr München, Economic Research Group
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The decision over exports vs. foreign direct investment (FDI) is usually discussed in an extension of the so-called Melitz model where firms with heterogeneous costs compete in a monopolistically competitive industry. The present paper starts from a situation where a potential foreign entrant would be just indifferent between exports and FDI in such a setting. However, by assuming oligopolistic interaction, strategic considerations are also taken into account. It is shown how the strategic impact of lower marginal cost makes FDI more attractive in a Cournot setting while exports are preferable under price competition in a market with differentiated goods. Beyond that it is also explored how a strategic alliance with a local incumbent could be a superior alternative for market entry.
    Keywords: D43 ; L11 ; L41 ; ddc:330 ; Entry strategies ; Trade ; FDI ; Alliances ; Oligopoly
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Bernkastel-Kues: Cusanus Hochschule, Institut für Ökonomie und Institut für Philosophie
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The article compares market fundamentalism and right-wing populism on the basis of its core patterns of thinking and reasoning. Based on an analysis of important texts in both fields we find many similarities of these two concepts in their "inner images". Thus, we develop a scheme of the similar dual social worlds of right-wing-populism and market fundamentalism and offer some recent examples of market fundamentalism and right-wing populism mutually reinforcing each other or serving as a gateway for each other. We then apply our scheme for the analysis of the recent political developments and its ideological roots in the US under Donald Trump.
    Keywords: A12 ; A14 ; B25 ; P16 ; N42 ; N44 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Right-wing populism ; market-fundamentalism ; inner images ; Donald Trump ; patterns of thinking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Die Polarforschung der DDR begann nach dem Internationalen Geophysikalischen Jahr (IGJ) 1957/58 etwa gleichzeitig auf Spitzbergen und in der Antarktis. Initiator des Spitzbergen-Programms war der österreichische Kartograf Wolfgang Pillewizer, der 1958-1971 an der TU Dresden lehrte und dessen Begeisterung der Glaziologie im Hochgebirge und in Polarregionen galt. Leiter der ersten deutschen Antarktis-Forschergruppe nach dem 2. Weltkrieg war der Potsdamer Meteorologe Günter Skeib, der im IGJ gemeinsam mit russischen Kollegen in mittelasiatischen Hochgebirgen gearbeitet hatte. Während die Forschungsarbeiten auf Spitzbergen nach 2 selbständigen Expeditionen 1965 eingestellt wurden, entwickelte sich im Südpolargebiet eine seit 1959 nahezu kontinuierliche DDR-Beteiligung an sowjetischen Antarktisexpeditionen, stets mit eigenen Programmen, hauptsächlich auf den Gebieten der Meteorologie, der Glazialgeodäsie, Ionosphärenforschung, Gravimetrie und Medizin. Die Arbeiten wurden bis 1978 an den sowjetischen Stationen Mirny, Wostok und Molodjoshnaja durchgeführt. Ab 1972 beteiligten sich Geologen aus der DDR an sowjetischen Arbeiten auf Druzhnaja; seit 1979 gab es kontinuierlich DDR-Gastwissenschaftler auf Bellingshausen, die faunistische und populations­statistische Untersuchungen durchführten. Organisatorisch, logistisch und auch finanziell wurden die Expeditionen zunächst vom Nationalkomitee für Geodäsie und Geophysik (NKGG) bei der Akademie der Wissenschaften, seit den 1970er Jahren vom Zentralinstitut für Physik der Erde Potsdam abgesichert. Staatliche Stellen unterstützten speziell die Antarktisforschung der DDR, nicht aber Arbeiten in der Arktis. 1974 trat die DDR- vor der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - dem Antarktisvertrag bei. Zur wirkungsvollen diplomatischen Unterstützung der sowjetischen Positionen im Vertragssystem war jedoch ein Konsultativstatus erforderlich, der zur damaligen Zeit nur durch eine eigene Forschungsstation zu erreichen war. 1975 wurde bei der sowjetischen Station Nowolasarewskaja in der Schirmacheroase ein Komplex aus in der DDR vorbereiteten Containern errichtet, der für 6-9 deutsche Überwinterer ausreichte und als Basis für kontinuierliche Arbeiten, zunächst zum Studium der Ionosphäre und des Polarlichtes, später auch der Geologie, Hydrologie, des Geomagnetismus, von stabilen und radioaktiven Isotopen, der Botanik, der Bodenkunde und der Gletscherdynamik diente. Zu den wichtigsten hier erzielten Ergebnissen zählt der Nachweis der vertikalen Ozonverteilung im 1985 erstmals beschriebenen „Ozonloch" über der Antarktis. Dieser Komplex wurde 1987 „Georg-Forster-Station" benannt und war zu diesem Zeitpunkt ausreichend für die Aufnahme der DDR als Konsultativstaat im Antarktisvertrag. Von 1987 bis 1991 fanden 4 „Antarktisexpeditionen der DDR" statt, die aber nach wie vor auf sowjetische Transportsysteme angewiesen waren. Ab 1980 war - angesichts der bundesdeutschen Aktivitäten - eine neue Qualität im Antarktisprogramm der DDR vorgesehen. Eine logistisch von der Sowjetunion völlig unabhängige Forschungsstation sollte auf den Larsemann Hills (Princess Elizabeth Land) errichtet werden. Das Projekt scheiterte an den zu hohen Kosten, führte aber zur Mitgliedschaft der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR im „Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research" und zur Bildung einer Abteilung Polarforschung im Zentralinstitut für Physik der Erde in Potsdam, die bis 1990 die Koordinierung der Antarktisforschung sowohl mit der Sowjetunion, als auch mit Akademie-Instituten und Hochschulen übernahm. Nach der Vereinigung der beiden deutschen Staaten haben viele aktive Polarforscher aus der DDR Arbeitsmöglichkeiten im Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung in Potsdam und Bremerhaven, an der Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe in Hannover und an deutschen Universitäten gefunden. Die „Georg-Forster-Station" wurde abgebaut und ihre wichtigsten Programme an die Neumayerstation überführt.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Keywords: Artis ; malacologie ; geschiedenis
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: report
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  • 13
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Das Urheberrecht soll allgemein einen Anreiz zur Schöpfung von Werken der Literatur, Kunst und Wissenschaft schaffen. Was aber, wenn der Künstler oder Autor eine Maschine ist? Im Zeitalter der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) schon lange keine Utopie mehr. Aus ökonomischer Sicht gibt es gute Gründe, warum keine Maschine Urheber sein kann und sollte. Nichtsdestotrotz stellt sich die Frage, ob es im KI-Kontext Handlungsbedarf in Form eines digitalen Updates des Urheberrechts oder ergänzender Rechtsnormen gibt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 14
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Im vergangenen Jahr verhinderte die Bundesregierung zwei Transaktionen chinesischer Investoren und verschärfte nach 2017 im zweiten Jahr in Folge die Außenwirtschaftsverordnung. Dennoch waren Investoren aus China weiterhin sehr aktiv.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 15
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Ausschlaggebend für den starken Anstieg der Kinderzahlen waren eine steigende Zahl an potenziellen Müttern, mehr Geburten je potenzieller Mütter und eine substanzielle Zuwanderung von Kindern. Dadurch werden in den nächsten Jahren zusätzliche Kapazitäten in den Kitas und Grundschulen notwendig, auch wenn sich die Entwicklungen nicht fortsetzen sollten.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 16
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: It is well known that the self-employed are over-represented at the bottom as well as the top of the income distribution. This paper shifts the focus from the income situation of the self-employed to the distributive effects of a change in self-employment rates. With representative German data and unconditional quantile regression analysis we show that an increase in the proportion of self-employed individuals in the labor force increases income polarization by tearing down floors at the bottom and allowing higher earnings potentials at the very top of the hourly income distribution. Recentered influence function regression of inequality measures corroborate that self-employment is a source of income inequality in the labor market.
    Keywords: L26 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; income ; earnings inequality ; self-employment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In the shadow of homeownership and public housing, social policy through the regulation of private rental markets is a neglected and underestimated field of social policy. This paper, therefore, presents unique new data on the development of private tenancy legislation through the binary coding of rent control, the protection of tenants from eviction, and rental housing rationing laws across more than 25 countries and 100 years. This long-run perspective reveals the dynamic effects of rent control on the rise of homeownership as the dominant tenure during the 20th century. We find that both rent regulation and rationing legislation effectively increased homeownership, but only up to a certain threshold. We suggest that the short-term lure of an inexpensive social policy for tenants has led to the long-term marginalization of rental markets in many countries.
    Keywords: C23 ; O18 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; homeownership ; rent control ; tenure security ; housing rationing ; dynamic panel data model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: For four years, a group of experts from public administration, academia and practice has collaborated to highlight the important aspects of corridor development, to provide a first integrated assessment for the entire corridor system and to prepare a draft of an integrated strategy. Of course, this is just a beginning and should be followed up by additional initiatives to produce an organisational framework that will allow intensified collaboration on the corridors, which are so important for the cohesion of Europe. Moreover, we hope that our insights will also stimulate the development of the OEM Corridor and similar investigations into other European corridors. Due to the international nature of the project topic, the working group comprises prominent experts of spatial development and infrastructural engineering from both academia and from planning practice, and from various countries along the corridor [...].
    Keywords: ddc:710
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The goal of this study was to identify and empirically test variables that indicate how well partners in relationships know each other's food preferences. Participants (n = 2,854) lived in the same household and were part of a large, nationally representative panel study in Germany. Each partner independently predicted the other's preferences for several common food items. Results show that predictive accuracy was higher for likes and for extreme and stereotypical preferences as compared to dislikes and for moderate and idiosyncratic preferences. Accuracy was also higher for couples with a high similarity in preferences and with longer relationship duration but was independent of participants' age after controlling for relationship duration. The data also show that relationship duration was accompanied by higher similarity in couples' food preferences. There was a small positive correlation between partner knowledge and both partner similarity and satisfaction with family life, but no correlation between partner knowledge and general life satisfaction. The results reconcile both valence and base-rate accounts of preference prediction accuracy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) ; prediction accuracy ; food preferences ; romantic couples ; perspective-taking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This review summarizes the empirical literature on the effects of natural disasters and weather variations on international trade flows. A first result is that the body of literature is actually not as small as previously suggested. In total, I summarize 19 studies of 18 independent research teams and show that there is a large diversity in terms of motivations, data sets used, methodologies, and results. Still, some overarching conclusions can be drawn. Increases in average temperature seem to have a detrimental effect on export values (less on imports), mainly for manufactured and agricultural products. Given climate change, this is an important finding for projecting long-term developments of trade volumes. Imports seem to be less affected by temperature changes in the importing country. Findings on the effects of natural disasters are more ambiguous, but at least it can be said that exports seem to be affected negatively by occurrence and severity of disasters in the exporting country. Imports may decrease, increase, or remain unaffected by natural disasters. Regarding heterogeneous effects, small, poor, and hot countries with low degrees of institutional quality and political freedom seem to face the most detrimental effects on their trade flows. Possible directions of future research include analyzing spillover effects in-depth (in terms of time, space, and trade networks), considering adaptation, and using more granular data.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; F14 ; F18 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Climate Change ; Natural Disasters
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 21
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    Freiburg: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Wilfried-Guth-Stiftungsprofessur für Ordnungs- und Wettbewerbspolitik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In recent years, a number of major terrorist attacks in EU member states has put the fight against homegrown and international terrorism at the top of the agenda of European policy-makers. This paper analyzes the costs of terrorism in the European Union from both a theoretical and empirical perspective in order to evaluate counter-terrorism policies by comparing their costs and benefits. Two important policy implications can be derived from our exercise. First, individuals' behavioral predispositions typically result in a biased perception of the risk of terrorism leading to too high a demand for counter-terrorism measures relative to what the objective probability of terrorist events suggests. This results in a tendency to favor repressive over preventive measures against terrorism. Second, uncoordinated European policies against terrorism have the potential to undermine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures. If there is a justification for the existence of the European Union (which an increasing number of populist parties in Europe seems to doubt), then it is to provide supranational answers to coordination failure in European counter-terrorism policies.
    Keywords: D74 ; H56 ; N44 ; ddc:330 ; terrorism ; home-grown terrorism ; European Union ; counter-terrorism policies ; coordination failure ; behavioral responses to terrorism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This study analyzes the effect of fathers' parental leave-taking on the time fathers spend with their children and on mothers' and fathers' labor supply. Fathers' leave-taking is highly selective and the identification of causal effects relies on within-father differences in leave-taking for first and higher order children that were triggered by a policy reform promoting more gender equality in leave-taking. Results show that even short periods of fathers' parental leave may have long-lasting effects on fathers' involvement in childcare and housework. Effects on maternal labor supply are also significantly positive but do not persist over time.
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; childcare ; female labor supply ; gender differences ; policy evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Gerzensee: Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Import competition from China is pervasive in the sense that for many good categories, the competitive environment that US firms face in these markets is strongly driven by the prices of Chinese imports, and so is their pricing decision. This paper quantifies the effect of the government-controlled appreciation of the Chinese renminbi vis-à-vis the USD from 2005 to 2008 on the prices charged by US domestic producers. In a panel spanning the period from 1994 to 2010 and including up to 519 manufacturing sectors, import price changes of Chinese goods pass into US producer prices at an average rate of 0.7, while import price changes that can be traced back to exchange rate movements of other trade partners only have mild effects on US prices. Further analysis points to the importance of trade integration, variable markups, and demand complementarities on the one side, and to the importance of imported intermediate goods on the other side as drivers of these patterns. Simulations incorporating these microeconomic findings reveal that a substantial revaluation of the renminbi would result in a pronounced increase of aggregate US producer price inflation.
    Keywords: F11 ; F12 ; F14 ; F15 ; F16 ; F40 ; E31 ; E37 ; L16 ; ddc:330 ; Price Complementarities ; Exchange Rate Pass-Through ; China ; Inflation ; Monetary Policy ; Exchange Rate Pass-Through ; Außenhandelspreis ; Wettbewerb ; Mark-up Pricing ; Inflation ; Schätzung ; USA ; Renminbi ; Aufwertung ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (SOEP) data, this paper offers the first evidence that the 2011 news revelations about crimes committed by National Socialist Underground (NSU) network in early the 2000s resulted in an increase in worries about xenophobic hostility among NSU's targeted groups. This serves as an indication of the minority's perceived maltreatment by German institutions while investigating the NSU crimes. The results further show that the revelations significantly reinforced a feeling of estrangement among Turks, who were now less likely to self-identify as Germans and more likely to see themselves as foreigners; they, therefore, tended to bond more strongly with the ethos of their country of origin. The results also demonstrate that Turks reported a substantial decrease in their health satisfaction and subjective wellbeing. In conclusion, the paper underlines the pertinence of judicial efficacy over rightwing crimes for assimilation and welfare of immigrants.
    Keywords: D63 ; F22 ; J15 ; Z10 ; ddc:330 ; rightwing crimes ; immigration ; delayed justice ; social assimilation
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The ability-to-pay approach assesses taxes paid as a sacrifice by the taxpayers. This raises the question of how to define and how to measure it: in absolute, relative, or marginal terms? U.S. respondents prefer a tax schedule that is either a pure (absolute) Equal Sacrifice or a mixture of Equal Sacrifice and Utilitarianism [Weinzierl, 2014]. To determine whether Germans prefer absolute, relative, or marginal Equal Sacrifice principle for their income taxation, I use a question item from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to obtain information on the level of taxes individuals consider as fair. I estimate tax and transfer schedules with regard to three Equal Sacrifice definitions and analyze which one of the three best fits the data. The absolute and the relative Equal Sacrifice principle are the dominant candidates in terms of statistical fit.
    Keywords: H21 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Equal Sacrifice ; Optimal Taxation ; Fair Taxation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital. Training increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
    Keywords: J24 ; I21 ; M53 ; ddc:330 ; non-pecuniary returns ; social capital ; work-related training ; matched difference-in-differences approach ; entropy balancing
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Individuals often have to decide to which degree of risk they want to expose others, or how much risk to accept if their choice has an externality on third parties. One typical application is a household. We run an experiment in the German Socio-Economic Panel with two members from 494 households. Participants have a good estimate of each other's risk preferences, even if not explicitly informed. They do not simply match this preference when deciding on behalf of the other household member, but shy away from exposing others to risk. We model the situation, and we find four distinct types of individuals, and two distinct types of households.
    Keywords: C45 ; D13 ; D81 ; D91 ; ddc:330 ; risk preference ; household ; reticence to expose others to risk ; trade-off between individual and foreign risk preference
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This paper is the first to analyze the joint determinants of premiums and spreads in structured financial products, while also focusing on issuers' hedging costs. We evaluate more than 396,000 single stock discount certificates on an intraday basis in the German secondary market. We find that premiums and spreads are endogenous and negatively related to each other, and depend on different key determinants. The economically significant determinants of the premiums are mainly profit-related, i.e. dividends of the underlying, issuers' credit risk, lifecycle effect and competition, whereas hedging costs and risks are economically less important. However, initial hedging costs are also priced into the premium in the case of large inventory changes. The spread is mostly determined by hedging costs and risk components, such as initial hedging costs, rebalancing costs, volatility, scalper risk, and overnight gap risk, but also depends on dividends. Initial hedging costs appear to be more relevant than rebalancing costs.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Discount certificates ; Derivatives ; Pricing ; Market microstructure ; Trading costs ; Hedging
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and exploiting the staggered implementation of a compulsory schooling reform in West Germany, this article finds that an additional year of schooling lowers the probability of being very concerned about immigration to Germany by around six percentage points (20 percent). Furthermore, our findings imply significant spillovers from maternal education to immigration attitudes of her offspring. While we find no evidence for returns to education within a range of labour market outcomes, higher social trust appears to be an important mechanism behind our findings.
    Keywords: I26 ; J15 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; attitudes towards immigration ; intergenerational effects ; schooling ; externalities ; instrumental variables estimation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We examine the impact of dynamic hedging demand of German option and discount certificate markets on the autocorrelation of German stock price changes. We theoretically model the demand of liquidity providers in the discount certificate market, a structured financial product with a concave payoff profile, asking whether dynamic hedging by certificate issuers induces negative return autocorrelation in stock markets. We find empirical evidence that the hedging demand of option issuers has a positive impact on return autocorrelation, while the opposite holds for certificate issuers, whose hedging demand enhances the negative return autocorrelation in the stock market. We thus theoretically and empirically provide evidence that there are persistent spillover effects from option and certificate markets to stock markets due to dynamic hedging activities.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Structured products ; Derivatives ; Dynamic hedging ; Stock return autocorrelation ; Market microstructure
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  • 33
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Although it is not part of what has been called the "ambition mechanism" or "ratchet mechanism", Article 6 of the Paris Agreement also has an explicit requirement to promote ambition. Article 6 specifically highlights that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions. Despite the common purpose, the two elements have to date been discussed mostly in isolation, both in the negotiations as well as in the wider literature. This JIKO Policy Paper sets out to change this by exploring the relationship between Article 6 and the Global Stocktake.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This JIKO Policy Brief summarizes the state of play of the negotiations on a global market-based mechanism (global MBM) under ICAO. It specifies the respective responsibilities and different approaches of ICAO and the UNFCCC. It traces the historic activities in regard of climate protection under ICAO and provides an overview of the current negotiation process that is to culminate at the upcoming ICAO General Assembly in autumn 2016. Furthermore, the Policy Brief reflects on the CDM experience and derives recommendations.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    Berlin : Vereinigung für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Die sozial-ökologische Forschung (SÖF) ist seit fast 20 Jahren ein Förderschwerpunkt des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung. Zur Weiterentwicklung dieses Förderschwerpunktes wurde bereits in der Vergangenheit ein Austausch mit relevanten Akteuren organisiert, um gemeinsam die Inhalte und Themenschwerpunkte der SÖF zu diskutieren. Ein neuer Agendaprozess ist 2018 gestartet. In einem ersten Schritt konnten bis Juni 2018 Themenvorschläge, sogenannte Agendapapiere, auf einer Plattform hochgeladen und kommentiert werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist im Rahmen dieses Prozesses entstanden. Aus Sicht der Autorinnen und Autoren stellt die Erforschung von Arbeit - insbesondere in Bezug zur sozial-ökologischen Forschung in den Feldern Mobilität, Ernährung und Energie - eine eklatante Forschungslücke innerhalb der sozial-ökologischen Forschung dar. Dabei sind etliche Bedarfsfelder geradezu auf unsere Arbeitsgesellschaft hin ausgerichtet. Wenn die Realität der Arbeitsgesellschaft thematisiert wird, geschieht dies jedoch meist ohne Berücksichtigung der damit einhergehenden ökologischen Effekte. Doch in kaum einem anderen Forschungsfeld sind soziale und ökologische Fragen so eng miteinander verzahnt wie in der Arbeitspolitik. Daher wollen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren in diesem Papier für eine sozial-ökologische Ausrichtung der Arbeitsforschung stark machen und plädieren für eine eigenständige Forschungsagenda zu sozial-ökologischer Arbeitspolitik.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The new mechanism under Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement is to be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA). However, so far there is no clarity what role exactly the supervisory body (Body) is to play. Against this background, this JIKO Policy Paper analyses different governance options for Art. 6.4. The paper first reflects the objectives of the new mechanism and on what the role of the mechanism as a whole should be. The paper then summarises what has already been agreed on the functioning of the mechanism and elaborates what steps will be needed to generate transferrable emission reductions under the Article 6.4 mechanism. On this basis, the paper develops criteria for how to decide what role the Body should have, and then discusses what role the Body and the other actors that are involved in the mechanism could have in each of the steps of the activity cycle.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: There is general agreement that preventing dangerous climate change requires a fundamental transformation of the global economy. Regarding carbon markets, the EU, for example, has called for the new market-based mechanism (NMM) to be established under the UNFCCC to "facilitate transition towards low carbon economy and attract further international investment". This JIKO Policy Paper discusses the transformative potential of the NMM and how it should be structured to maximize transformative impact. The analysis shows that details in the arrangements of the scheme, such as allocation of allowances can significantly influence the incentive structure of the instrument and hence its potential to contribute to transformational change. The authors conclude that carbon pricing is necessary but is by itself not sufficient to redeem the various types of market failures that have led to the unsustainable global socio-economic system we are deemed to change. An NMM should therefore be tailored to complement other national policies.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With the adoption of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, former debates about generating carbon credits on the basis of national policies have resurged. National policies have not been eligible as project activities under the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms. The Paris Agreement opens the possibility for such policy crediting but also provides an entirely new context: Universal participation, ambitious long-term targets and nationally defined contributions (NDCs) that are to be made more ambitious over time. As this paper shows, these changes in the framework conditions add an additional layer of complexity to policy-based cooperation. The paper explores the potential for policy-based cooperation by first briefly presenting the regulatory basis provided by the Paris Agreement before outlining a prototype for policy-based cooperation and its key challenges.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This policy brief discusses the opportunities and obligations of host country DNAs within the Standardized Baselines framework and identifies options for strategic intervention. Host countries can, for example, intervene by selecting the right sectors for which they develop an SB in the first place. DNAs can also tailor their SBs to some extent to support certain technologies, fuels or feed- stocks over others by choosing the right level of aggregation of the sector to be covered. Last but not least, the paper discusses the DNAs' role in managing the data for the development and maintenance of the SB. Host countries should take full advantage of potential synergies between data collection for SBs and other data intensive processes such as national greenhouse gas inventories or national statistics. SBs and the data gathered in the process of developing them can also be a basis for the development of other mitigation instruments such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) or New Market Mechanisms (NMM).
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Humpback whales are a highly vocal baleen whale species. Alongside social sounds produced by both sexes, male humpback whales also produce song, which is thought to play a role in reproduction processes during the breeding season. Humpback whales are traditionally thought to seasonally migrate between winter breeding areas in lower latitudes and summer feeding areas in higher latitudes. Evidence of offseason humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) acoustic presence in high latitude feeding areas is accumulating for Northern Hemisphere waters. For the Southern Ocean seasonal patterns in humpback whale vocal behaviour have to date only been investigated for a coastal site. This study provides preliminary year-round baseline data from 2011 from three offshore recording sites on humpback whale vocal behaviour on Antarctic feeding grounds. Passive acoustic recorders were located along a transect from the Greenwich meridian to the Antarctic continent, at 59’S (AWI227- 11_SV0002), at 64’S (AWI229-9_SV1000) and 66’S (AWI230-7_SV1001). Humpback whales were found to be acoustically present from January to August (AWI227- 11_SV0002), from January to June (AWI229-9_SV1000) and from January until May (AWI230-7_SV1001). Acoustic presence was most pronounced (〉80% of recording days containing calls) from May to August (AWI227- 11_SV0002), and April to May (AWI229-9_SV1000 and AWI230-7_SV1001) concurring with substantial local increases in ice cover. From January to March acoustic presence was sparser (〈35% of recording days containing calls). Calls were divided into 27 call categories with a maximum of 10 subtypes per category. For all three recorders 4 to 8 call categories made up 〈80% of all calls, three call categories of which were the same for all three recorders. The vocal repertoire was more diverse in March, April and May compared to January, February, June, July and August in all three recorders. Furthermore, humpback whale song was present at all three recording sites, at AWI227- 11_SV0002 in May and June, AWI229-9_SV1000 in April and May and AWI230-7_SV1001 in April. This study presents new insights with respect to the spatio- temporal patterns in presence of humpback whale acoustic presence on Southern Ocean feeding grounds, showing that at least part of the population resides in Antarctic waters into the seasonal breeding season. It seems that humpback whales move further north with extending ice coverage, as they were present until the end of May on the southernmost recording site at 66°S and left this area possibly by the influence of expanding ice.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: No other region has warmed as much or as rapidly in the past decades as the Arctic. A new project, CACOON, investigates how the ecosystems are influenced by this warming. Funded by the British Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), CACOON will help to better predict changes to the Arctic coastal-marine environment. Arctic rivers (Fig. 1) annually carry around 13% of all dissolved organic carbon transported globally from land to ocean, despite the Arctic Ocean making up only approximately 1% of the Earth's ocean volume. Arctic shelf waters are therefore dominated by terrestrial carbon pools, so that shelf ecosystems are intimately linked to freshwater supplies. Arctic ecosystems also contain perennially frozen carbon that may be released by further warming. Climate change already thaws permafrost, reduces sea-ice and increases riverine discharge over much of the pan-Arctic, triggering important feedbacks (Mann et al. 2015). The importance of the near-shore region, consisting of several tightly connected ecosystems that include rivers, deltas, estuaries and the continental shelf, is however often overlooked. We need year-round studies to be able to predict the impact of shifting seasonality, fresher water, changing nutrient supply and greater proportions of permafrost-derived carbon on coastal waters
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: No other region has warmed as much or as rapidly in the past decades as the Arctic. A new project, CACOON, will investigate how coastal Arctic Ocean waters and planktonic communities will respond to changing freshwater inputs driven by on-going climate change. Funded by the British Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), CACOON will help to better understand and predict changes to the Arctic marine environment. Arctic rivers annually carry around 13% of all dissolved organic carbon transported globally from land to ocean, despite the Arctic Ocean (AO) making up only approximately 1% of the Earth’s ocean volume. Arctic shelf waters are therefore dominated by terrestrial carbon pools and shelf ecosystems intimately linked to freshwater supplies. Arctic ecosystems also contain perennially frozen carbon that may be released by further warming. Climate change already thaws permafrost, reduces sea-ice and increases riverine discharge over much of the pan-Arctic, triggering important feedbacks. The importance of the near-shore region, consisting of several tightly connected ecosystems that include rivers, deltas, estuaries and the continental shelf, is however often overlooked. We need year-round studies to be able to predict the impact of shifting seasonality, fresher water, changing nutrient supply and greater proportions of permafrost-derived carbon on coastal water processes. CACOON addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the near-shore regions of two major Arctic rivers, the Lena and Kolyma, which together drain 19% of the pan-Arctic watershed area. CACOON will quantify the effect of changing freshwater export and terrestrial permafrost thaw on the type and fate of river-borne organic matter (OM) delivered to Arctic coastal waters, and the resultant changes to ecosystem functioning in the coastal AO. We will achieve this though a combined observational, experimental and modelling study. We will conduct laboratory experiments to parameterise the susceptibility of terrigenous carbon to abiotic and biotic transformation and losses, then use the results from these to deliver a marine ecosystem model of the major biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients and OM cycling in these regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: n the framework of atmospheric circulation regimes, we study whether the recent Arctic sea ice loss and Arctic Amplification are associated with changes in the frequency of occurrence of preferred atmospheric circulation patterns during the extended winter season from December to March. To determine regimes we applied a cluster analysis to sea-level pressure fields from reanalysis data and output from an atmospheric general circulation model. The specific set up of the two analyzed model simulations for low and high ice conditions allows for attributing differences between the simulations to the prescribed sea ice changes only. The reanalysis data revealed two circulation patterns that occur more frequently for low Arctic sea ice conditions: a Scandinavian blocking in December and January and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation pattern in February and March. An analysis of related patterns of synoptic-scale activity and 2 m temperatures provides a synoptic interpretation of the corresponding large-scale regimes. The regimes that occur more frequently for low sea ice conditions are resembled reasonably well by the model simulations. Based on those results we conclude that the detected changes in the frequency of occurrence of large-scale circulation patterns can be associated with changes in Arctic sea ice conditions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Over the last years passive acoustic recording devices were used frequently to observe baleen whales acoustic presence in the Southern Ocean. During previous analyses a low frequency call was detected that had not been observed before in recordings from the passive acoustic recording device at 61°00.88’ S and 55°58.53’ W off Elephant Island, Antarctica, further referred to as “13-Hz” short call. The name was chosen on the basis of the frequency and duration of the call. Due to signal characteristics of the sound and known acoustic presence from previous studies, fin and blue whales were considered as potential producers of this call. Previous analysis detected the “13-Hz” short call in Austral fall, therefore, data from March to June of 2014 were analysed to associate the hourly presence of the “13-Hz” short call with the presence of either ’20-Hz’ fin whale pulses or Antarctic blue whale z-calls. Additionally, the “13-Hz” short call characteristics were investigated (n = 75). Furthermore, temporal distances between single “13-Hz” short calls to vocalizations of fin and blue whales were investigated (n = 518). The “13-Hz” short call had a frequency range of 11 ± 1 Hz to 14 ± 1 Hz and a mean duration of 2 ± 1 seconds. The temporal distribution analysis showed a positive correlation between the occurrence of fin whale pulses and “13-Hz” short calls and a negative correlation of blue whale z-calls and the “13-Hz” short call. The investigation of the temporal distances between the “13-Hz” short call and fin and blue whale calls showed a non-normal distribution of the data for both species, but a more normal distribution of the data for blue whale z-calls, suggesting an association with fin whale pulses. Overall, the results indicate that fin whales could be the producers of the “13-Hz” short call, but further investigation is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Further investigation could include analysis of more data as well as the use of a continuous passive acoustic recording, or the use of different methods such as tagging, simultaneous visual surveys and the comparison with vocalizations of other fin whale populations in different regions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Stratospheric ozone loss inside the Arctic polar vortex for the winters between 2004–2005 and 2012–2013 has been quantified using measurements from the space-borne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). For the first time, an evaluation has been performed of six different ozone loss estimation methods based on the same single observational dataset to determine the Arctic ozone loss (mixing ratio loss profiles and the partial-column ozone losses between 380 and 550 K). The methods used are the tracer-tracer correlation, the artificial tracer correlation, the average vortex profile descent, and the passive subtraction with model output from both Lagrangian and Eulerian chemical transport models (CTMs). For the tracer-tracer, the artificial tracer, and the average vortex profile descent approaches, various tracers have been used that are also measured by ACE-FTS. From these seven tracers investigated (CH4, N2O, HF, OCS, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113), we found that CH4, N2O, HF, and CFC-12 are the most suitable tracers for investigating polar stratospheric ozone depletion with ACE-FTS v3.5. The ozone loss estimates (in terms of the mixing ratio as well as total column ozone) are generally in good agreement between the different methods and among the different tracers. However, using the average vortex profile descent technique typically leads to smaller maximum losses (by approximately 15–30 DU) compared to all other methods. The passive subtraction method using output from CTMs generally results in slightly larger losses compared to the techniques that use ACE-FTS measurements only. The ozone loss computed, using both measurements and models, shows the greatest loss during the 2010–2011 Arctic winter. For that year, our results show that maximum ozone loss (2.1–2.7 ppmv) occurred at 460 K. The estimated partial-column ozone loss inside the polar vortex (between 380 and 550 K) using the different methods is 66–103, 61–95, 59–96, 41–89, and 85–122 DU for March 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Ozone loss is difficult to diagnose for the Arctic winters during 2005–2006, 2008–2009, 2011–2012, and 2012–2013, because strong polar vortex disturbance or major sudden stratospheric warming events significantly perturbed the polar vortex, thereby limiting the number of measurements available for the analysis of ozone loss.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Coastal ecosystems in the Arctic are affected by climate change. As summer rainfall frequency and intensity are projected to increase in the future, more organic matter, nutrients and sediment could be mobilized and transported into the coastal nearshore zones. However, knowledge of current processes and future changes is limited. We investigated streamflow dynamics and the impacts of summer rainfall on lateral fluxes in a small coastal catchment on Herschel Island in the western Canadian Arctic. For the summer monitoring periods of 2014–2016, mean dissolved organic matter flux over 17 days amounted to 82.7 ± 30.7 kg km−2 and mean total dissolved solids flux to 5252 ± 1224 kg km−2. Flux of suspended sediment was 7245 kg km−2 in 2015, and 369 kg km−2 in 2016. We found that 2.0% of suspended sediment was composed of particulate organic carbon. Data and hysteresis analysis suggest a limited supply of sediments; their interannual variability is most likely caused by short-lived localized disturbances. In contrast, our results imply that dissolved organic carbon is widely available throughout the catchment and exhibits positive linear relationship with runoff. We hypothesize that increased projected rainfall in the future will result in a similar increase of dissolved organic carbon fluxes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: To develop reliable and effective management and conservation strategies for marine mammals, a profound knowledge about their distribution, as well as on the location of key habitats are essential. The waters off Elephant Island (Antarctica) are thought to serve as a feeding ground for baleen whales; however, detailed long-term information on patterns in the distribution of marine mammals in this area is still lacking for many species. This study aimed to investigate i) the acoustic biodiversity, as well as ii) inter-annual patterns, and iii) intra-annual patterns in the acoustic presence of marine mammals off Elephant Island. For this purpose, passive acoustic data collected here from January 2013 to February 2016 were analyzed both visually (in the form of spectrograms) and aurally for the presence of marine mammal vocalizations. Daily acoustic presence of marine mammals was assessed based on species-specific vocal signatures. During the overall recording period, eight marine mammal species were identified: Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia), fin whales (B. physalus), Antarctic minke (B. bonaerensis) whales, humpback whales (Megaptera novaeanglia), Killer whales (Orcinus orca), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga). For some species, a temporal pattern in the acoustic presence was detected, whereas other species did not exhibit a temporal pattern in their acoustic presence, but were acoustically present either year-round or rather occasionally. Antarctic minke whales were acoustically present from June to September and absent during austral summer, indicating that their acoustic presence was linked to the formation of sea-ice. Furthermore, the annual number of days with Antarctic minke whale calls declined from 2013 to 2015, which might possibly be linked to an inter-annual decrease in the sea-ice extent off Elephant Island. The amount of days with killer whale vocalizations peaked during austral winter when the amount of days with Antarctic minke whale vocalizations reached its maximum, indicating a possible link between killer whale acoustic presence and the availability of their prey (Antarctic minke whales, amongst others). Vocalizations of both seal species occurred primarily during austral winter and spring, i.e. from September to December for leopard seals and during September and October for crabeater seals, which is in accordance with their breeding period and suggests that both species were breeding off Elephant Island. Besides, vocalizations of all four baleen whale species were detected during austral winter, possibly indicating that part of the populations remained in the Southern Ocean year-round. Hence, this study adds further evidence for the hypothesis of a complex migratory behavior of baleen whales. Overall, this study suggests that the Elephant Island region serves as an important feeding and breeding habitat for several marine mammal species either year-round or seasonally. The identification of such ecologically important areas with high (acoustic) biodiversity can considerably benefit future conservation applications, such as the designation of marine protected areas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The paper is aimed to determine the optimality of taxation, that can be used to plan and implement effective anti-crisis measures. Objective is not to define or diagnose crisis and suggest strategies, but to offer methodologies, that can be used to determine the influence of formal and informal institutions of company’s ongoing activities. To develop recommendations for avoiding business crisis situation and support its development. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is the main provisions of the market economy, legislative and regulatory acts of Georgia and foreign countries, statistical data of Georgia, the global risks report, government bodies and business structures in this field. In the process of analysis of the actual material, together with the general scientific method of research, is used: systemic analysis, comparative analysis of scientific literature, statistical analysis, analogy and other methods. As a result of researches it is established that developed countries emphasize the importance of fairness, while developing countries are mainly focused on mobilizing budget revenues and lesser consideration of fair taxation principles, since the tax system performs a fiscal function more effectively than developing countries. In our opinion, the main idea of tax policy should be the optimal distribution of tax literacy on the basis of a direct definition of income of taxpayers or progressive taxation. Practical implementation of the proposed proposals will facilitate further improvement of the social climate in the country, revitalize small and medium businesses, and solve the problem of employment in the country.
    Keywords: E62 ; G30 ; H30 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal Policy ; Financial Crises ; Crisis Management ; Small Business ; Social Stimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With Germany's nuclear phase-out, 23 reactors need to be dismantled in the near future. Initiated by the dire financial situation of the affected utilities in 2014, a major discourse on ensuring financial liability led to a redistribution of liabilities and finances, with the utilities remaining in charge of dismantling, while liability for interim and final storage now transferred to the public. This paper assesses whether the new regulation will ultimately be to the benefit of the public. It introduces a two-stage stochastic optimization framework which encompasses the different dismantling phases and resulting waste flows and storage levels of low- and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) as well as the associated costs. Results show that storage risk - proclaimed as a major barrier to efficient decommissioning - is not a major driver for the optimal decommissioning schedule. However, a delay of ten years might now increase interim storage costs borne by the public by over 20%. By contrast, lacking knowledge and limited machinery is a major unaccounted cost driver, which might quickly eat-up the buffer currently included in utility funds in order to deal with dismantling uncertainties. Our analysis reveals the storage gate as the new crucial interface between utilities and the public storage provider.
    Keywords: C61 ; H44 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; nuclear decommissioning ; nuclear dismantling ; financial liability ; nuclear logistics ; stochastic modeling ; regulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Die professionalisierte, kontinuierliche Vermietung von Wohnraum über Homesharing-Plattformen wie Airbnb kann dem Markt Wohnraum entziehen und lokal existierende Wohnraum-knappheit verschärfen. Regelungen zur Steuerung der Vermietungstätigkeit wie Zweckentfremdungsverbote sollen dem entgegenwirken. In Nordrhein-Westfalen lässt sich jedoch kein empirischer Beleg für umfangreichen Wohnraumentzug durch Airbnb feststellen.
    Description: A professional, continuous short-term letting of accommodation via home sharing platforms like Airbnb can lead to a reduction of housing space and therefore intensify housing shortages. Regulation like the ban of an exclusive use of apartments or houses for short-term accommodation (so-called ban on misuse or Zweckentfremdungsverbot) are supposed to prevent or to mitigate such developments. In the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia however, no empirical evidence for such reductions of housing space due to home sharing via Airbnb can be found.
    Keywords: D52 ; L14 ; L51 ; L86 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 52
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Despite the headway the world has experienced over the last couple of years in terms of a substantial increase in digital access, there are still significant challenges to overcome in ensuring women are included in the transformation to a digital society, which in turn will enhance productivity and social development. Efforts to increase internet adoption access through broadband plans and legislative reforms have yielded improvements in use and adoption. However, there is still a stark and pervasive gender inequality in terms of access, ownership of digital devices, digital fluency as well as the capacity to make meaningful use of the access to technology. Even though affordability is a key source of exclusion, there are also significant socio-cultural norms that restrict access for women. This paper brings forward the argument that access alone is not enough, women need agency and capacity to leverage access. The authors thus highlight the need to make an assessment of the global gender gap and develop meaningful indicators that contribute to the design and implementation of effective policies that drive adoption. We need effective promotion of women's digital adoption not only from the government but also from the private sector and civil society in order to lead the digital adoption of best practices for women around the world.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; digital gender gap ; digital inclusion ; digital skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 53
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The introduction of a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) in the European Union (EU) would substantially change the rules of the game in international taxation. According to the proposal by the European Commission (EC), the profits of a Multinational Enterprise (MNE) would no longer be assessed by using the arm's length principles and (hypothetical) market prices, but split based on a formulary apportionment. This implies that an allocation key consisting of sales volume, number of employees and capital invested would be applied to distribute the taxable profits of an MNE. From an economic perspective, the principle of taxing profits at source would be thereby abolished. However, due to the current difficulty for taxpayers and tax authorities to agree on adequate transfer prices, a radical change as proposed by the EC might be reasonable. Hence, the EC proposal for the CCCTB is a promising goal as it could lower the red tape burden for MNE as well as tax authorities. Furthermore, the adjustment of the debt bias and the encouragement of R&D as additional items of the EC proposal could stimulate economic growth. A main obstacle for the implementation of a CCCTB would be the expected shifts in tax revenue which make a political agreement at the EU level very difficult. The application of a CCCTB would substantially redistribute corporate profits among the EU member states as a simulation by the German Economic Institute (IW) shows. Especially, Ireland, Luxembourg and Malta would receive significantly less tax revenue since sales volume, number of employees and capital invested are relatively small in these countries. France and Italy, in contrast, would be on the winning side. Germany would also benefit even though to a rather low degree. A main reason for this result is that the strongly exporting German corporations today pay a large proportion of their corporate taxes in Germany. With the application of the CCCTB, parts of the taxable profits would be allocated to foreign countries. From a systematic point of view, the CCCTB is only convincing if there is a global commitment. A simulation of the tax revenue effects for the G20 countries when applying a CCCTB shows that the shift would also be drastic. The EU member states - even the big ones - would have to accept lower taxable corporate profits. Instead, the United States could increase the corporate tax base mainly because of the high consumption level. China and India would benefit due to the large number of employees. Thus, whether a country ranks among the winners or losers in terms of tax revenue depends foremost on the peer group.
    Keywords: H25 ; H26 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: A correlation curve is introduced as a tool to study the degree of intergenerational income mobility, i.e. how income status is related between parents and adult child. The method overcomes the shortcomings of the elasticity of children's income with respect to parents' income (i.e. its sensitiveness to different dispersion among the generations) and the correlation coefficient (i.e. its inability to capture nonlinearities). The method is particularly suitable for comparative studies and in this study labour earnings are compared to disposable income. The correlation between the parental income and the child's adult disposable income becomes stronger for higher percentiles in the income distribution of the parents. Above the median the correlation is found to be stronger than for labour earnings. Interestingly, the elasticity is higher for labour earnings for most part of the distribution and complementing the elasticity with correlation curves provides a much more complete picture of the intergenerational income mobility.
    Keywords: C14 ; D63 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; nonlinear ; nonparametric ; correlation curve
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 55
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Commerce changes the production of wealth in a society as well as its ethics. What is appropriate in a non-commercial society is not necessarily appropriate in a commercial one. Adam Smith criticizes Stoic self-command in commercial societies, rather than embracing it, as is often suggested. He argues that Stoicism, with its promotion of indifference to passions, is an ethic appropriate for savages. Savages live in hard conditions where expressing emotions is detrimental and reprehensible. In contrast, the ease of life brought about by commerce fosters the appropriate expressions and sharing of emotions. Imposing Stoicism on a commercial society is therefore imposing an ethic for savages onto a refined society - something to abhor. Smith's rejection of Stoicism in commercial societies can thus be seen as a defense of commerce.
    Keywords: B12 ; B15 ; D91 ; F69 ; O1 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; Adam Smith ; Stoicism ; Commerce ; Commercial Societies ; Savages ; Expression of Emotions ; Insensitivity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The relationship between many G20 governments and organized civil society has become more complex, laden with tensions, and such that both have to find more optimal modes of engagement. In some instances, state-civil society relations have worsened, leading some experts and activists to speak of a 'shrinking space' for civil society. How wide-spread is this phenomenon? Are these more isolated occurrences or indeed part of a more general development? How can countries achieve and maintain an enabling environment for civil society? The authors suggest that much of the current impasse results foremost from outdated and increasingly ill-suited regulatory frameworks that fail to accommodate a much more diverse and expanded set of civil society organizations (CSO). In response, they propose a differentiated model for a regulatory framework based on functional roles. Based on quantitative profiling and expert surveys, moreover, the paper also derives initial recommendations on how governments and civil society could find ways to relate to each other in both national and multilateral contexts.
    Keywords: F5 ; L31 ; H7 ; K33 ; ddc:330 ; civil society ; NGOs ; closing civic space ; nonprofit regulation ; G20
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 57
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The authors examine the impacts of quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure on overall and intra-Africa trade covering 44 African countries and their 173 trade partners for the periods 2000-2014. Aggregate indicators are derived for the quality of economic institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure using principal component analysis. The findings disclose that intra-Africa and overall Africa's trade robustly determined by the quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure. The estimates also indicate that the marginal effect of the quality of institutions, physical and communication infrastructure on trade flow appears to be increasing in GDP per capita. In contrast, the marginal effect of border and transport efficiency on trade decreases in GDP per capita. The authors compute simulation of improving each indicator to the best performer in the sample. Their findings are robust to estimation method conducted to account for potential endogeneity.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; trade flow ; transport and border efficiency ; quality of institutions ; physical and communication infrastructure ; gravity model ; African countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 58
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Das MIP-Erhebungsdesign sieht vor, abwechselnd Kurz- und Langerhebungen durchzuführen. Die Erhebung des Jahres 2018 war eine Kurzerhebung. Das bedeutet unter anderem, dass sich das Fragenspektrum vorrangig auf Fragen zu den Kernindikatoren des Innovationsverhaltens beschränkt. Die Haupterhebungsergebnisse zu diesen Kernindikatoren sind in einem Indikatorenbericht (vgl. Rammer et al., 2019) sowie in 47 Branchenberichten1 veröffentlicht. Zusätzlich zu den Fragen zu Kernindikatoren des Innovationsverhaltens wurden in die Erhebung 2018 auch zwei Schwerpunktfragen aufgenommen: - Eine Schwerpunktfrage widmete sich der Zusammenarbeit mit der Wissenschaft. Gefragt wurde, ob Unternehmen mit Wissenschaftseinrichtungen (Hochschulen, Forschungseinrichtungen) im Zeitraum 2015-2017 zusammengearbeitet haben. Für den aus Sicht des Unternehmens wichtigsten Kooperationspartner auf Wissenschaftsseite wurde die Form der Zusammenarbeit und deren Effektivität für den Zugang zum Knowhow der Wissenschaftseinrichtung sowie die Nutzung von Förderung für diese Zusammenarbeit erhoben. - Eine zweite Schwerpunktfrage betraf das Thema Fachkräftebedarf. Erhoben wurde, wie viele offene Stellen Unternehmen im Jahr 2017 hatten, welchen Qualifikationsniveau diese offenen Stellen vorausgesetzt haben, und wie viele dieser Stellen wie geplant, nur verspätet oder nicht mit dem gewünschten Personal oder gar nicht besetzt werden konnten. Außerdem wurde erfasst, wie viele Auszubildende im Unternehmen im Jahr 2017 beschäftigt waren. Der vorliegende Bericht fasst zentrale deskriptive Ergebnisse zu diesen Schwerpunktfragen zusammen. Die vollständigen Ergebnisse differenziert nach Branchen und Größenklassen sind in Tabellenform online verfügbar. Außerdem werden methodische Aspekte der Befragung (Grundgesamtheit, Stichprobe, Datenaufbereitungs- und Hochrechnungsverfahren) dargestellt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 59
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Environmental externalities call for the use of environmental taxes to get prices right and thereby reduce environmental pressures. To date, however, the Spanish government makes only limited use of environmental taxes. One major reason for the policy reluctance are concerns on the regressive impacts of environmental taxes. We argue that policy can hedge against these concerns by means of revenue recycling. More specifically, we assess the impacts of a green tax reform where additional revenues are redistributed lump-sum to Spanish households on an equal-per-capita basis. Based on quantitative evidence from coupled microsimulation and computable equilibrium analyses we find that such a green tax reform leads to a substantial reduction in harmful emissions while having a progressive impact.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q4 ; Q53 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; environmental tax reform ; household incidence ; computable general equilibrium ; microsimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 60
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Evidence suggests that people evaluate outcomes relative to expectations. I analyze this expectation-based loss aversion (Köszegi and Rabin (2006, 2009)) in the context of dynamic and static auctions, where the reference point is given by the (endogenous) equilibrium outcome. If agents update their reference point during the auction, the arrival of information crucially affects equilibrium behavior. Consequently, I show that - even with independent private values - the Vickrey auction yields strictly higher revenue than the English auction, violating the well known revenue equivalence. Thus, dynamic loss aversion offers a novel explanation for empirically observed differences between these auction formats.
    Keywords: D03 ; D44 ; ddc:330 ; Vickrey auction ; English auction ; expectation-based loss aversion ; revenue equivalence ; dynamic loss aversion ; personal equilibrium
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 61
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 62
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)