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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: Aim Epiphytes are a conspicuous feature of numerous forests, yet they are poorly understood compared with terrestrial plants. Theoretical frameworks have helped bridge this gap; however, important questions relating to epiphyte community development have yet to be answered. For example, at what point in tree ontogeny do epiphytes first establish? Do epiphyte communities develop uniformly, or is there variation among host trees? Methods In this study, we build upon Darwin's geological theory of island ontogeny to explore changes in epiphyte species richness throughout the life span of their respective host trees. Based on the general features of island ontogeny, we predict that there are three stages of epiphyte community development: (i) an initial stage where host trees are devoid of epiphytes because they lack sufficient architectural and physiological characteristics suitable for epiphyte establishment, (ii) a second stage where trees acquire epiphytes as adults and continue to do so into maturity, and (iii) a final stage where epiphyte communities progress through a period of species decline following host tree mortality. To test our model predictions, we censused epiphyte communities on 371 host trees from six New Zealand tree species. We first assessed the relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree diameter. We then tested whether relationships between epiphyte species richness and host tree diameter varied between host species. Results and conclusion Results were consistent with model predictions. Our investigation found variation in the ontogenetic stage at which host trees become favourable for epiphyte establishment. Moreover, the rate at which epiphyte species richness increased with host tree diameter varied among host species. Our findings indicate that an island ontogeny framework is useful for guiding investigations on epiphyte community development. We built upon Darwin's geological theory of island ontogeny, to explore the development of epiphyte communities throughout the life span of their respective hosts. We observed variation in the ontogenetic stage that host trees become favorable for epiphytes to establish on. Additionally, epiphyte community development varied between tree species.
    Print ISSN: 1100-9233
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-1103
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: Purpose Microwave (MW) heating has been identified as a potential cost-effective technique to remediate hydrocarbon-polluted soils; however, the soil texture and properties could have a great impact on its full-scale treatment. In addition, very limited energy and economical data on MW treatment are available, and this lack makes its real application very limited. In this work, a first experimental phase was performed simulating a MW of several hydrocarbon-polluted soils. Obtained data were elaborated for a techno-economic analysis. Materials and methods Four soil textures, corresponding to medium, fine silica sand (at different soil moistures), silt as silica flour and clay as kaolin, were artificially contaminated with diesel fuel and irradiated by MWs using a bench scale apparatus. Soil samples were treated applying four specific power values at different times. At the end, soil temperature was measured, whereas residual contaminant concentrations were measured and fitted considering and exponential decay kinetic model. Temperature data, as well as kinetic parameters obtained, were used for the techno-economic analysis. The changing of the internal electric field was calculated for all the soils and operating conditions, then considering initial contamination values ranging from 750 to 5000 mg kg −1 , the minimal remediation time, specific energy and costs for the remediation were assessed. Results and discussion At low powers, MW effectiveness is limited by low soil moistures or fine soil textures due to a limitation of the electric field penetration, whereas when high powers are used soil properties have a limited effect. Remediation time, as a function of the initial contamination level, follows a linear trend, except for dry soils, for which an exponential trend was observed. For powers higher than 30 kW Kg −1 , remediation times lower than about 100 min are needed, for all the moisturized soils, in order to treat a contamination of 5000 mg kg −1 . The variation of soil moisture or soil texture results in the range 20–160 € ton −1 , and doubled costs are required for the treatment of clayey soils respect to sandy soils. Conclusions The analysis performed suggests that soil layers lower than 70 cm should be considered for ex situ remediation. MW has been shown as a quick technique also for high hydrocarbon concentrations; however, for energy saving, the application of some powers should be avoid. Unmoisturized or fine texture soil treatment results in higher costs; however, a maximum cost of 160 € ton −1 generally makes MW heating a quick and cost-effective ex situ technique.
    Print ISSN: 1439-0108
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7480
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b01707
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: Questions What were the features of the historical forest fire regime, fire intensity in particular, in Pinus sylvestris -dominated stands of Białowieża Forest? Did tree recruitment patterns relate to the fire history? Location Białowieża Forest, western Belarus and northeast Poland. Methods We used dendrochronological methods to reconstruct the fire regime in a 8.5-ha mixed coniferous ( Pinus sylvestris – Picea abies ) forest stand located in the Belarusian part of Białowieża Forest. We analysed fire frequency at stand and point scale, seasonal distribution of fires and fire intensity. We compared the results to a previous study done in a 13.0-ha site of similar habitat and stand structure, located in the Polish part of Białowieża Forest. Results We reconstructed fires back to 1655, the most recent fire dating to 1918. Mean fire interval at stand scale during 1645–2010 was 9 ± 7.8 yrs (±SD). Fire frequency gradually declined after 1811, with mean fire interval at stand scale increasing from 5 ± 2.5 yrs prior to 1811 to 18 ± 9.3 yrs thereafter. Most fires were likely of low intensity, as suggested by (1) small average tree diameter (5.1 ± 2.9 cm) at the first scar, (2) absence of strong negative growth reactions after fire, and (3) high fire frequency likely limiting fuel build-up. However, a fire in 1718 was intense and resulted in a wave of P. sylvestris regeneration. The reconstructed fire history in the Belarusian part of Białowieża Forest showed many similarities with that done in the Polish section of this forest. Similarities included dominance of low-intensity dormant and early-season fires, sporadic occurrence of high-intensity fires, high fire frequencies between the 1650s and the early 1800s, and cessation of fires since the early 20th century. Six out of 50 fire dates reconstructed in both sites were common and represented a level of synchrony that was significantly higher than expected under a random pattern of fire occurrence. Conclusions Low-intensity surface fires dominated the historical fire regime of Białowieża Forest. However, occasional high-intensity stand-replacing fires led to successional changes at the stand scale. We present dendrochronological evidence for a mixed-intensity fire regime in P. sylvestris -stands of Białowieża, a remnant of European natural old-growth lowland forests. We show that low-intensity surface fires were common but also occasionally interrupted by high-intensity stand-replacing fire events, that led to large successional changes by initiating cohort regeneration in the midst of long periods with only sporadic tree establishment.
    Print ISSN: 1100-9233
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-1103
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00161
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The Journal of Organic Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b00049
    Print ISSN: 0022-3263
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6904
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b00389
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5207
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The Journal of Organic Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/jo502894r
    Print ISSN: 0022-3263
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6904
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b01051
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5207
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The effect of aging time on physicochemical and catalytic properties of CuO-ZnO-Al 2 O 3 /HZSM-5 nanocatalyst for direct conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) has been investigated. Nanocatalysts were synthesized using co-precipitation method in which the aging time varied from 0 to 6 h. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, FTIR, and temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (TPR-H 2 ) techniques. Results showed that the crystallinity of CuO-ZnO-Al 2 O 3 has been increased significantly by increasing of aging time. FESEM analysis showed that, with extension of the aging time, the aggregation of CuO-ZnO-Al 2 O 3 over HZSM-5 has been increased. The size of the particles in the active phase was between 25.0 and 127.1 nm with an average size of 48.36 nm. TPR-H 2 profiles indicated that reducibility of nanocatalysts was enhanced with increasing of aging time. Catalytic performance was investigated at 200–300 °C, 10–40 bar, GHSV = 600 cm 3 g/h, and H 2 /CO = 2. It was found that the increase of aging time had a great influence on the activity of nanocatalysts. Moreover, the 6 h aged nanocatalyst displayed the highest catalytic activity. It was also observed that the optimum operating conditions for syngas to DME reaction were 275 °C and 40 bar.
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-7012
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/ja513002h
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The influence of dihedral angle and particle coordination on the evolution of densification rate is investigated throughout the intermediate and final stages of sintering. From a review of literature data, heuristic expressions are proposed for representing different trajectories of evolution of coordination from the onset of skeleton formation up to full density. The influence of dihedral angle and coordination on the threshold density for pore closure is established by revisiting the Plateau–Rayleigh instability criterion. The intermediate and final stages are modeled using representative volume elements that do not restrict coordination to integer values. Computational results enlighten the interplay between coordination and dihedral angle on the evolution of sintering stress, bulk viscosity, and sintering rate. The results allow quantifying the amplitude of the drop of densification rate at pore closure transition. The monotonous increase of coordination with relative density brings about a monotonous increase of sintering rate at constant particle size. Simulations emphasize the beneficial effect of higher initial density and coordination in the green part.
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Rare-earth ion-doped semiconducting phosphor has attracted extensive attention due to the ability to achieve efficient luminescence through the host sensitization. Here, we present a new type red-emitting Eu 3+  -doped BiOCl phosphors possessing a broad excitation band in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) region. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations confirm that Eu 3+ ion dopants result in forming impurity energy level near valence band, and the excellent broadband NUV-exciting ability of Eu 3+ ion is due to the electronic transitions of BiOCl band gap. Moreover, the highest emission intensity of the phosphors is from the 5 D 0 7 F 4 transition of Eu 3+ around 699 nm (far-red) through whether host excitation or direct Eu 3+ ions excitation, which lie in the particular structure of BiOCl crystals. Our results indicate that the Eu 3+  -doped BiOCl crystals show great potential as red phosphors for white-light-emitting diodes.
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/ja5115776
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b02799
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b02753
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b01112
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b02026
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b00914
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    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b01899
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b02635
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 22
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    Vogel Business Media
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Vor der norwegischen Inselgruppe Spitzbergen strömt in einigen hundert Metern Wassertiefe Methangas aus dem Meeresboden. Ein großer Teil davon wird allerdings von Bakterien abgebaut, bevor es die Wasseroberfläche erreicht und in der Atmosphäre als Treibhausgas wirken kann. Eine interdisziplinäre Studie konnte nun zeigen, dass Meeresströmungen den Methanabbau stark beeinflussen können.
    Print ISSN: 0344-1733
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Vogel Business Media
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  • 23
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    American Chemical Society (ACS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00251
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00388
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00833
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00768
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00568
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) play a key role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of PCSK9 (R46L, I474V, and E670G) and APOE polymorphisms on lipid levels in a Southern Thai population. A total of 495 participants (307 urban, 188 rural) were recruited for the study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were evaluated. PCSK9 and APOE polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR–RFLP. The 46L urban male carriers had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting blood sugar compared with non-carriers. In contrast, the 46L urban female carriers had significantly lower total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels compared with non-carriers. The 474V rural female carriers had significantly lower HDL-C levels than non-carriers. The 670G urban female carriers showed significantly higher TC and LDL-C levels compared with non-carriers. APOE4 carriers had increased TC and LDL-C levels relative to APOE3 carriers in the urban males. APOE2 carriers had decreased TC and/or LDL-C levels compared with APOE3 carriers in urban males and females. A significant trend of increased TC and LDL-C levels was observed in non- APOE4 - PCSK9 670EE carriers to APOE4 - PCSK9 670EG carriers in urban subjects. In summary, R46L, I474V, and E670G may be genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in urban males, rural females, and urban females, respectively. In contrast, R46L had a favorable lipid profiles that may protect against CVD in urban females. The combination of PCSK9 E670G and APOE polymorphisms may represent an independent factor for the determination of lipid levels.
    Print ISSN: 0024-4201
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-9307
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT) having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm) were produced by extrusion and used as containers and releasing devices for cement paste/mortar healing agents. Based on the results of preliminary mechanical tests, sodium silicate was selected as the healing agent. The morphological features of several mix designs used to manufacture the extruded hollow tubes, as well as the coatings applied to increase the durability of both core and shell materials are discussed. Three-point bending tests were performed on samples produced with the addition of the above-mentioned cementitious hollow tubes to verify the self-healing effectiveness of the proposed solution. Promising results were achieved, in particular when tubes with a bigger diameter were used. In this case, a substantial strength and stiffness recovery was observed, even in specimens presenting large cracks (>1 mm). The method is inexpensive and simple to scale up; however, further research is needed in view of a final optimization.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: We have studied three-dimensional (3D) configurations of dislocations in the β phase of a Ti–35mass%Nb alloy by means of single-axis tilt tomography using bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM). To visualize dislocations, the hh0 systematic reflections were excited throughout tilt-series acquisition with the maximum tilt angle of 70°. Dislocations in the β grains were clearly reconstructed by the weighted back-projection algorithm. The slip planes of the dislocations were deduced by rotating the reconstructed volumes with the aid of selected area electron diffraction patterns. It was found that BF-STEM images with relatively low contrasts, taken along low-order zone axes, are capable to reproduce and preserve the quality of reconstructed image of dislocations. We also found that tilt angles as low as 40° are practically acceptable to visualize 3D configurations of dislocations, while there exists limitation in resolution due to the existence of a large missing wedge.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD) of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70), first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C), diamond (D), truncated cube (TC), truncated cuboctahedron (TCO), rhombic dodecahedron (RD), and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO)) were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell) and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell).
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The engineering of quantum dot solids with low defect concentrations and efficient carrier transport through a ligand strategy is crucial to achieve efficient quantum dot (QD) optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the consequences of various surface ligand treatments on the light emission properties of PbS quantum dot films using 1,3-benzenedithiol (1,3-BDT), 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT), mercaptocarboxylic acids (MPA) and ammonium sulfide ((NH4)2S). We first investigate the influence of different ligand treatments on the inter-dot separation, which mainly determines the conductivity of the QD films. Then, through a combination of photoluminescence and transient photoluminescence characterization, we demonstrate that the radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms in the quantum dot films depend critically on the length and chemical structure of the surface ligands.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1940
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Fractional-order time-delay system is thought to be a kind of oscillatory complex system which could not be controlled efficaciously so far because it does not have an analytical solution when using inverse Laplace transform. In this paper, a type of fractional-order controller based on numerical inverse Laplace transform algorithm INVLAP was proposed for the mentioned systems by searching for the optimal controller parameters with the objective function of ITAE index due to the verified nature that fractional-order controllers were the best means of controlling fractional-order systems. Simulations of step unit tracking and load-disturbance responses of the proposed fractional-order optimal controller (FOPID) and corresponding conventional optimal PID (OPID) controller have been done on three typical kinds of fractional time-delay system with different ratio between time delay () and time constant () and a complex high-order fractional time delay system to verify the availability of the presented control method.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The present work describes the evolution of microstructures and textures in alloys Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (A1), Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-7.2V-3Cr (A2), Ti-5Al-5Mo-8.6V-1.5Cr (A3), and Ti-5Al-3.5Mo-5V-3.94Cr (A4) during unidirectional hot rolling. The hot-rolled microstructures of the alloy A1 exhibit large fraction of recovered/recrystallized grains, while the alloy A3 shows small fraction of recovered/recrystallized grains. The alloy A2 displays subgrains and recrystallized grains, while the alloy A4 exhibits the microstructure consisting of the features of both the alloys A1 and A2. The alloys A1, A3, and A4 show the presence of shear bands within the β grains and also small volume fraction of the α phase. The dominance of deformation and/or recrystallization components in respective α and γ fibers varies with alloy compositions and hot rolling reductions. In alloys A1 and A2, deformation components dominate from 30 to 50 pct rolling reductions, while recrystallization components govern in 70 pct rolled samples. The deformation components prevail from 30 to 70 pct rolling reductions in alloy A3. The alloy A4 exhibits softening of texture due to recovery or early stage of recrystallization from 30 to 50 pct reductions, while texture present in 70 pct rolled sample consists of mainly the deformation components. The role of molybdenum appears to be quite critical in the evolution of microstructures and textures of these alloys. The alloys with low and high Mo contents display high and low amount of the α phase, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1940
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The microstructure of the near-surface region of twin-roll cast foil stock 8906 AlFeSi alloy has been investigated. It was revealed that a near-surface layer with microstructure differing from that of the underlying bulk alloy was generated due to severe surface shear strain during twin-roll casting. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the near-surface layer consists of nano-sized grains with diameters varying in the range of 50 to 600 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that grain boundaries within the near-surface layer were decorated by aluminum oxide particles and carbon-containing lubricant inclusions. Preferential precipitation of a high population density of cubic α-AlFeSi dispersoids, of 30 to 150 nm diameter, was observed within the near-surface layer. The near-surface layer was associated with shingles on the twin-roll cast alloy surface and the maximum layer thickness of approximately 6  µ m was observed at the shingles. Other areas of the surface were either free of the near-surface layer or had a thinner near-surface layer.
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1940
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: A process to achieve strengthening in an Al 6061 alloy by grain refinement to ~200 nm using high-pressure torsion (HPT) and fine precipitation using aging treatment is studied. It is shown that although aging of the HPT-processed sample is effective for extra strengthening of the alloy, the imposed shear strain and the aging temperature should be selected carefully. The HPT processing after 5 turns leads high saturation hardness and tensile strength of 163 Hv and 470 MPa, respectively. The hardness at the saturation level remains the same during aging at 373 K (100 °C), while the hardness decreases by aging at 423 K (150 °C). When the disks are processed for 0.75 turns (lower shear strains) and aged at 373 K (100 °C), the hardness increases above the hardness level at the saturation because of the formation of B′ and β ′ precipitates. Quantitative analyses indicate that three major hardening mechanisms contribute to the total hardening: grain boundary hardening through the Hall–Petch relationship, dislocation hardening through the Bailey–Hirsch relationship and precipitation hardening through the Orowan relationship. This study shows that the contribution of different strengthening mechanisms can be estimated using a linear additive relationship in ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys.
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1940
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Melt-spun FINEMET amorphous ribbons were milled for different periods up to 65 minutes. The effect of milling time on the structure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that partial crystallization of the amorphous powder occurs during milling. Transmission electron microscope observations confirmed that an α-Fe(Si) phase with a mean crystallite size of ~9 nm nucleates inhomogenously on the plastically deformed regions. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that under high-energy vibrational milling, the Fe 23 B 6 phase becomes unstable, and Fe 2 B and Fe 3 B phases could form instead in the amorphous matrix. Gibbs free energy calculations explained the increase of crystalline phases’ nucleation rates under the high pressures resulting from the mechanical milling impacts.
    Electronic ISSN: 1543-1940
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: We present the first extensive study of the coronal line variability in an active galaxy. Our data set for the nearby source NGC 4151 consists of six epochs of quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy spanning a period of about 8 yr and five epochs of X-ray spectroscopy overlapping in time with it. None of the coronal lines showed the variability behaviour observed for the broad emission lines and hot dust emission. In general, the coronal lines varied only weakly, if at all. Using the optical [Fe vii ] and X-ray O vii emission lines we estimate that the coronal line gas has a relatively low density of n e  ~ 10 3 cm –3 and a relatively high ionization parameter of log U  ~ 1. The resultant distance of the coronal line gas from the ionizing source is about two light years, which puts this region well beyond the hot inner face of the obscuring dusty torus. The high ionization parameter implies that the coronal line region is an independent entity rather than part of a continuous gas distribution connecting the broad and narrow emission line regions. We present tentative evidence for the X-ray heated wind scenario of Pier & Voit. We find that the increased ionizing radiation that heats the dusty torus also increases the cooling efficiency of the coronal line gas, most likely due to a stronger adiabatic expansion.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: -ray spectra of pulsars have been mostly studied in a phenomenological way, by fitting them to a cut-off power-law function. Here, we analyse a model where pulsed emission comes from synchro-curvature processes in a gap. We calculate the variation of kinetic energy of magnetospheric particles along the gap and the associated radiated spectra, considering an effective particle distribution. We fit the phase-averaged and phase-resolved Fermi -LAT (Large Area Telescope) spectra of the three brightest -ray pulsars: Geminga, Crab, and Vela, and constrain the three free parameters we leave free in the model. Our best-fitting models well reproduce the observed data, apart from residuals above a few GeV in some cases, range for which the inverse Compton scattering likely becomes the dominant mechanism. In any case, the flat slope at low energy ( GeV) seen by Fermi -LAT both in the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra of most pulsars, including the ones we studied, requires that most of the detected radiation below ~GeV is produced during the beginning of the particle trajectories, when radiation mostly come from the loss of perpendicular momentum.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: At high-energy -rays (〉100 MeV), the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite already detected more than 145 rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs), while the number of pulsars seen at soft -rays (20 keV–30 MeV) remained small. We present a catalogue of 18 non-recycled RPPs from which presently non-thermal pulsed emission has been securely detected at soft -rays above 20 keV, and characterize their pulse profiles and energy spectra. For 14 of them, we report new results, (re)analysing mainly data from RXTE , INTEGRAL , XMM–Newton and Chandra . The soft -pulsars are all fast rotators and on average ~9.3 times younger and ~43 times more energetic than the Fermi LAT sample. The majority (11 members) exhibits broad, structured single pulse profiles, and only six have double (or even multiple, Vela) pulses. 15 soft -ray pulsar show hard power-law spectra in the hard X-ray band and reach maximum luminosities typically in the MeV range. For only 7 of the 18 soft -ray pulsars, pulsed emission has also been detected by the LAT, but 12 have a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) detected at TeV energies. For six pulsars with PWNe, we present also the spectra of the total emissions at hard X-rays, and for IGR J18490–0000, associated with HESS J1849–000 and PSR J1849–0001, we used our Chandra data to resolve and characterize the contributions from the point source and PWN. Finally, we also discuss a sample of 15 pulsars which are candidates for future detection of pulsed soft -rays, given their characteristics at other wavelengths.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2015-04-12
    Description: We examine a sample of ~250 000 ‘locally brightest galaxies’ selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to be central galaxies within their dark matter haloes. We stack the X-ray emission from these haloes, as a function of the stellar mass of the central galaxy, using data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We detect emission across almost our entire sample, including emission which we attribute to hot gas around galaxies spanning a range of 1.2 dex in stellar mass (corresponding to nearly two orders of magnitude in halo mass) down to M *  = 10 10.8 M ( M 500   10 12.6 M ). Over this range, the X-ray luminosity can be fit by a power law, either of stellar mass or of halo mass. From this, we infer a single unified scaling relation between mass and L X which applies for galaxies, groups, and clusters. This relation has a slope steeper than expected for self-similarity, showing the importance of non-gravitational heating. Assuming this non-gravitational heating is predominately due to AGN feedback, the lack of a break in the relation shows that AGN feedback is tightly self-regulated and fairly gentle, in agreement with the predictions of recent high-resolution simulations. Our relation is consistent with established measurements of the L X – L K relation for elliptical galaxies as well as the L X – M 500 relation for optically selected galaxy clusters. However, our L X – M 500 relation has a normalization more than a factor of 2 below most previous relations based on X-ray-selected cluster samples. We argue that optical selection offers a less biased view of the L X – M 500 relation for mass-selected clusters.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Author(s): M. Bianchi, F. Song, S. Cooil, Å. F. Monsen, E. Wahlström, J. A. Miwa, E. D. L. Rienks, D. A. Evans, A. Strozecka, J. I. Pascual, M. Leandersson, T. Balasubramanian, Ph. Hofmann, and J. W. Wells The high index (441) surface of bismuth has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (APRES), and spin-resolved ARPES. The surface is strongly corrugated, exposing a regular array of (110)-like terraces. Two surface localized states are observ... [Phys. Rev. B 91, 165307] Published Tue Apr 21, 2015
    Keywords: Semiconductors II: surfaces, interfaces, microstructures, and related topics
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The DK4D code has been written to solve a set of time-dependent, axisymmetric, finite-Larmor-radius drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) for the non-Maxwellian part of the electron and ion distribution functions using the full, linearized Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator. The plasma is assumed to be in the low- to finite-collisionality regime, as is found in the cores of modern and future magnetic confinement fusion experiments. Each DKE is formulated such that the perturbed distribution function carries no net density, parallel momentum, or kinetic energy. Rather, these quantities are contained within the background Maxwellians and would be evolved by an appropriate set of extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. This formulation allows for straight-forward coupling of DK4D to existing extended MHD time evolution codes. DK4D uses a mix of implicit and explicit temporal representations and finite element and spectral spatial representations. These, along with other computational methods used, are discussed extensively. Steady-state benchmarks are then presented comparing the results of DK4D to expected analytic results at low collisionality, qualitatively, and to the Sauter analytic fits for the neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current, quantitatively. These benchmarks confirm that DK4D is capable of solving for the correct, gyroaveraged distribution function in stationary magnetic equilibria. Furthermore, the results presented demonstrate how the exact drift-kinetic solution varies with collisionality as a function of the magnetic moment and the poloidal angle.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Print ISSN: 0032-079X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-5036
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Springer
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Kinetic simulations of two-dimensional finite-amplitude electron plasma waves are performed in a one-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and wavenumber k y , is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are compared with numerical and analytical solutions to a two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model [H. A. Rose and L. Yin, Phys. Plasmas 15 , 042311 (2008)] and to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23 , 838 (1969)] generalized to two dimensions.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
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  • 47
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Author(s): Michael Gronau Flavor SU(3) symmetry, including 30% first-order SU(3) breaking, has been shown to describe adequately a vast amount of data for charmed meson decays to two pseudoscalar mesons and to a vector and a pseudoscalar meson. We review a recent dramatic progress achieved by applying a high-order perturbati... [Phys. Rev. D 91, 076007] Published Tue Apr 21, 2015
    Keywords: Field Theory, General Methods
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
    Topics: Physics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Author(s): Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, Stefano Bianco, Francesco Brighenti, and Riccardo Junior Buonocore Theories involving curved momentum space, which recently became a topic of interest in the quantum-gravity literature, can, in general, violate many apparently robust aspects of our current description of the laws of physics, including relativistic invariance, locality, causality, and global momentu... [Phys. Rev. D 91, 084045] Published Tue Apr 21, 2015
    Keywords: General Relativity and Gravitation
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
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  • 49
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Author(s): M. P. Fry Consider the Euclidean functional integral representation of any physical process in the electroweak model. Integrating out the fermion degrees of freedom introduces 24 fermion determinants. These multiply the Gaussian functional measures of the Maxwell, Z, W, and Higgs fields to give an effective f... [Phys. Rev. D 91, 085026] Published Tue Apr 21, 2015
    Keywords: Field Theory, Formal Particle Theory
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Are silencing, ectopic shifts, and receptive field (RF) scaling in cortical scotoma projection zones (SPZs) the result of long-term reorganization (plasticity) or short-term adaptation? Electrophysiological studies of SPZs after retinal lesions in animal models remain controversial, because they are unable to conclusively answer this question because of limitations of the...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 51
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Albert Valeev, Sergei Litvinov, Ruslan Valiev, Vita Akhmetova, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Shahlo Turdikulova, Dilbar Dalimova, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Kristiina Tambets, Sardana Fedorova, Nikolay Barashkov, Irina Khidiyatova, Evelin Mihailov, Rita Khusainova, Larisa Damba, Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Ludmila Osipova, Mikhail Voevoda, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Toomas Kivisild, Elza Khusnutdinova, Richard Villems The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language’s expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (〉 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts ( p -values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th–17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th–16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.
    Print ISSN: 1553-7390
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-7404
    Topics: Biology
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  • 52
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Francesco De Cobelli, Giulio Pezzetti, Sergio Margari, Antonio Esposito, Francesco Giganti, Giulia Agostini, Alessandro Del Maschio Introduction Abdominal pain in PNH has never been investigated by in-vivo imaging studies. With MRI, we aimed to assess mesenteric vessels flow and small bowel wall perfusion to investigate the ischemic origin of abdominal pain. Materials and Methods Six PNH patients with (AP) and six without (NOP) abdominal pain underwent MRI. In a blinded fashion, mean flow (MF, quantity of blood moving through a vessel within a second, in mL·s -1 ) and stroke volume (SV, volume of blood pumped out at each heart contraction, in mL) of Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) and Artery (SMA), areas under the curve at 60 (AUC 60 ) and 90 seconds (AUC 90 ) and K trans were assessed by two operators. Results Mean total perfusion and flow parameters were lower in AP than in NOP group. AUC 60 : 84.81 ± 11.75 vs. 131.73 ± 18.89 ( P 〈 0.001); AUC 90 : 102.33 ± 14.16 vs. 152.58 ± 22.70 ( P 〈 0.001); K trans : 0.0346 min -1 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0521 ± 0.0015 ( P = 0.093 duodenum, 0.009 jejunum/ileum). SMV: MF 4.67 ml/s ± 0.85 vs. 8.32 ± 2.14 ( P = 0.002); SV 3.85 ml ± 0.76 vs. 6.55 ± 1.57 ( P = 0.02). SMA: MF 6.95 ± 2.61 vs. 11.2 ± 2.32 (P = 0.07); SV 6.52 ± 2.19 vs. 8.78 ± 1.63 ( P = 0.07). We found a significant correlation between MF and SV of SMV and AUC 60 (MF: ρ = 0.88, P 〈 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.644, P = 0.024), AUC 90 (MF: ρ = 0.874, P 〈 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.774, P = 0.003) and K trans (MF: ρ = 0.734, P = 0.007; SV: ρ = 0.581, P = 0.047). Conclusions Perfusion and flow MRI findings suggest that the impairment of small bowel blood supply is significantly associated with abdominal pain in PNH.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 53
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Wen-Pin Cheng, Bao-Wei Wang, Huey-Ming Lo, Kou-Gi Shyu The expression of TRB3 (tribbles 3), an apoptosis regulated gene, increases during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. How mechanical stress affects the regulation of TRB3 in cardiomyocytes during apoptosis is not fully understood. An in vivo model of aorta-caval shunt in adult rats demonstrated the increased TRB3 protein expression in the myocardium. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist etanercept reversed the TRB3 protein expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by AV shunt. An in vitro model of cyclic stretch in neonatal rats was also used to investigate TRB3 expression. We hypothesized that cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch is TRB3 dependent. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes grown on a flexible membrane base were stretched by vacuum to 20% of maximum elongation, at 60 cycles/min. Cyclic stretch significantly increased TRB3 protein and mRNA expression. Addition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, TNF-α antibody and etanercept 30 min before stretch reversed the induction of TRB3 protein induced by stretch. Cyclic stretch induced the DNA-binding activity of growth arrest and DNA damaged inducible gene-153 (GADD153) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SP600125, JNK siRNA, TNF-α antibody and etanercept abolished the binding activity induced by stretch. TRB3 promoter activity was enhanced by stretch and TRB3-mut plasmid, SP600125, TNF-α antibody and etanercept attenuated TRB3 promoter activity induced by stretch. Exogenous administration of TNF-α recombinant protein to the non-stretched cardiomyocytes increased TRB3 protein expression similar to that seen after stretch. Cyclic stretch induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is inhibited by TRB3 siRNA and etanercept. The stretch-induced TRB3 is mediated by TNF-α、JNK and GADD153 pathway. These results indicate that TRB3 plays an important role in stretch-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Yoon Hong Chun, Kyungdo Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Jong-seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim, Dae Chul Jeong Purpose Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10–18 years of age) participating in the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use. Results Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively). After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.68). Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01). The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007). Conclusions In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Melissa C. Smith, Richard Gomulkiewicz, Richard N. Mack We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species ( Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata ), wheat, Pinus ponderosa , and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y . brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Rui Chen, Jinchuan Yan, Peijing Liu, Zhongqun Wang Background Inflammation is a common feature in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T 2 DM). This meta-analysis aimed to assess the influence of thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy on the circulating levels of inflammatory markers in patients with T 2 DM. Methods and Results We searched the databases Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SpringerLink, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of thiazolidinedione vs. a placebo on patients with T 2 DM. The main outcomes were absolute changes in levels of circulating inflammatory markers. Twenty-seven RCTs were included and data were analyzed using a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on heterogeneity. Pooled results indicated that circulating levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP; SMD = –0.65, 95% CI = –0.98 to –0.32, p 〈 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; WMD = –54.19, 95% CI = –73.86 to –34.52, p 〈 0.01), von Willebrand factor% (vWF%; WMD = –8.18, 95% CI = –13.54 to –2.81, p 0.01), fibrinogen (SMD = –0.26, 95% CI = –0.41 to –0.11, p 〈 0.01) and E-selectin(WMD = –3.57, 95% CI = –5.59 to -1.54, p
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Byung Ha Chung, Yu Young Joo, Jaesin Lee, Hyung Duk Kim, Ji-Il Kim, In Sung Moon, Bum Soon Choi, Eun-Jee Oh, Cheol Whee Park, Yong-Soo Kim, Chul Woo Yang Whether the coexistence of anti-A/B antibody and donor specific anti-HLA antibody (HLA-DSA) has a synergistic impact on the development of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is unclear. This study includes 92 KTRs who received a kidney from an ABO-incompatible (ABOi) donor or were presensitized to donor HLA (HLAs) and 292 controls (CONT). HLAs was defined as a crossmatch positivity or the presence of HLA-DSA. We compared the incidence of AAMR among ABOi (n = 58), ABOi+HLAs (n = 12), HLAs (n = 22), and CONT (n = 292) groups and evaluated the risk factors and antibody type (anti-A/B vs. HLA-DSA) responsible for AAMR. AAMR developed less frequently in ABOi and CONT than in the ABOi+HLAs or HLAs (P 〈 0.05 for all); however, there was no difference between the ABOi+HLAs and HLAs groups. AAMR developed more frequently with strong HLA-DSA at baseline; however, high baseline anti-A/B titer did not affect AAMR development. Strong baseline HLA-DSA was an independent predictor for AAMR, however the baseline anti-A/B titer was not. All four AAMR episodes in ABOi+HLAs were positive to HLA-DSA but not to anti-A/B. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility does not increase the risk for AAMR in HLAs KTRs.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 58
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    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: by Maria E. Vaquero, Laura I. de Eugenio, Maria J. Martínez, Jorge Barriuso The fungus Pseudozyma antarctica produces a lipase (CalB) with broad substrate specificity, stability, high regio- and enantio-selectivity. It is active in non-aqueous organic solvents and at elevated temperatures. Hence, CalB is a robust biocatalyst for chemical conversions on an industrial scale. Here we report the in silico mining of public metagenomes and fungal genomes to discover novel lipases with high homology to CalB. The candidates were selected taking into account homology and conserved motifs criteria, as well as, phylogeny and 3D model analyses. The most promising candidate (PlicB) presented interesting structural properties. PlicB was expressed in a heterologous host, purified and partially characterized. Further experiments will allow finding novel catalytic properties with biotechnological interest.
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 59
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    National Academy of Sciences
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Atomic microscopy, done using dynamic TEMs such as this one, have the potential to help materials scientists to optimize reactions in areas ranging from battery design to medical research. Image courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. DTEM will capture extremely quick-succession images of atoms as they interact at solid–solid, solid–liquid,...
    Keywords: Core Concepts
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Copper phthalocyanine oligomer (CuPc) possessing high dielectric constant was grafted onto acrylic elastomer (ACM) backbones to fabricate elastomeric nanocomposites (referred to here as ACM- g -CuPc) with high dielectric constant. High strain of ACM- g -CuPc film could be achieved at low electric field. The electric field-induced strain properties of ACM- g -CuPc films were studied from four aspects: the pre-stretch value, butyl acrylate (BA) content, active region-to-window radius ratio, and strain hysteresis. The results revealed that the area strain in the active region first increased and then decreased with the increase in the pre-stretch value; however, it increased with the increase in BA content and decreased with the increase in the active region-to-window radius ratio. When the active region-to-window radius ratio was 1:5, the ACM- g -CuPc film with 60 wt% BA content and 150 × 150 % pre-stretch value exhibited the maximum area strain of 23.8 % under an electric field of 12.5 MV m −1 . In a complete driving period, ACM- g -CuPc film exhibited a strain hysteresis phenomenon, forming a strain hysteresis loop.
    Print ISSN: 0170-0839
    Electronic ISSN: 1436-2449
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: In order to meet the non-stationary characteristics of Magnetotelluric (MT) data series, a new method, which is called EMD-Teager, was proposed based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Teager operator for the first time. With the EMD-Teager method, the amplitude of data series is expressed as a function of frequency and time, and then margin spectrum are calculated statistically from the time–frequency spectrum. This paper focuses on two aspects which are facilitated by applying the EMD-Teager. The first aspect is the time–frequency characteristics analysis of MT signal and using the time–frequency spectrum to do pretreatment for MT signal through piece-wise stationary analysis and MT data subsets selection; the other concerns the calculation of the Teager margin spectrum from the time–frequency spectrum. The conclusion reached through discussion of the first aspect is that EMD-Teager has a strong ability to describe the time–frequency characteristic of MT signal. Using the Teager spectrum, the better data section can be selected and the reliability of geological data is improved greatly. The conclusion draws from the second aspect is that Teager marginal spectrum, which is coming from the integral of Teager time–frequency spectrum along the time axis, overcomes the drawbacks of Fourier methods and minimizes the estimation bias brought about by the non-stationarity feature of MT signal. Therefore, EMD-Teager method is effective in analyzing the time–frequency characteristics and marginal spectrum estimation of MT signals, and it will have a wide application in processing of MT data.
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The Bayesian method is used to evaluate earthquake hazard parameters of maximum regional magnitude ( M max ), β value, and seismic activity rate or intensity ( λ ) and their uncertainties for the 15 different source regions in Western Anatolia. A compiled earthquake catalog that is homogenous for M s  ≥ 4 was completed during the period from 1900 to 2013. The computed M max values are between 6.00 and 8.06. Low values are found in the northern part of Western Anatolia, whereas high values are observed in the southern part of Western Anatolia, related to the Aegean subduction zone. The largest value is computed in region 10, comprising the Aegean Islands. The quantiles of functions of distributions of true and apparent magnitude on a given time interval [0 ,T ] are evaluated. The quantiles of functions of distributions of apparent and true magnitudes for future time intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years are calculated in all seismogenic source regions for confidence limits of probability levels of 50, 70, and 90 %. According to the computed earthquake hazard parameters, the requirement leads to the earthquake estimation of the parameters referred to as the most seismically active regions of Western Anatolia. The Aegean Islands, which have the highest earthquake magnitude (7.65) in the next 100 years with a 90 % probability level, is the most dangerous region compared to other regions. The results found in this study can be used in probabilistic seismic hazard studies of Western Anatolia.
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The focus of this paper is to characterize near-ground wave propagation in the lower Very High Frequency (VHF) band and to assess advantages that this frequency band offers for reliable short range low data rate communications and geolocation applications in highly cluttered environments as compared to conventional systems in the microwave range. With the advent of palm-sized miniaturized VHF antennas, interest in low power and low frequency communication links is increasing because 1) channel complexity is far less in this frequency band compared to higher frequencies and 2) significant signal penetration through/over obstacles is possible at this frequency. In this paper, we quantify the excess path loss and small scale fading at the lower VHF and the 2.4 GHz bands based on short range measurements in various environments. We consider indoor-to-indoor, outdoor-to-indoor, and non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) outdoor measurements and compare the results with measurements at higher frequencies which are used in conventional systems (i.e., 2.4 GHz). Propagation measurements at the lower VHF band are carried out by using an electrically small antenna to assess the possibility of achieving a miniaturized, mobile system for near-ground communication. For each measurement scenario considered, path loss and small scale fading are characterized after calibrating the differences in the systems used for measurements at different frequencies including variations in antenna performance.
    Print ISSN: 0048-6604
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-799X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Specular meteor radars (SMRs) have become a widely used tool to observe horizontal winds at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Typically 30- to 120-minute mean winds are obtained assuming horizontal homogeneity of the observed area (i.e., few hundreds of kilometers radius). The quality of the measured wind velocity vector depends on the number of detected meteors per altitude and time bins. In order to improve the wind measurements of typical SMRs, here we propose a multi-static and multi-frequency approach, that consists mainly on adding GPS synchronized receiving stations with interferometric capabilities to existing SMRs. Compared to typical SMRs operating in a monostatic mode, our new approach called MMARIA (Multi-static and Multi-frequency Agile Radar for Investigations of the Atmosphere), allow us to: (a) increase the number of meteors using the same transmitter (by more than 70%), (b) increase the altitudinal coverage by 5–10 km higher depending on the geometry used, and (c) derive the horizontal wind field in the observed volume, by relaxing the assumption of homogeneity. The latter result is facilitated by having common volume observations from at least two different viewing angles. We show the feasibility of these three goals, from measurements at two different frequencies using a MMARIA configuration between Juliusruh and Kühlungsborn in northern Germany.
    Print ISSN: 0048-6604
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-799X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Print ISSN: 0034-0111
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-4179
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Land cover identification and area quantification are key aspects of implementing the European Common Agriculture Policy. Legitimacy of support provided to farmers is monitored using the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), with land cover identification performed by visual image interpretation. While the geometric orthoimage quality required for correct interpretation is well understood, little is known about the photometric quality needed for LPIS applications. This paper analyzes the orthoimage quality characteristics chosen by authors as being most suitable for visual identification of agricultural fields. We designed a survey to assess users’ preferred brightness and contrast ranges for orthoimages used for LPIS purposes. Survey questions also tested the influence of a background color on the preferred orthoimage brightness and contrast, the preferred orthoimage format and color composite, assessments of orthoimages with shadowed areas, appreciation of image enhancements and, finally, consistency of individuals’ preferred brightness and contrast settings across multiple sample images. We find that image appreciation is stable at the individual level, but preferences vary across respondents. We therefore recommend that LPIS operators be enabled to personalize photometric settings, such as brightness and contrast values, and to choose the displayed band combination from at least four spectral bands.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: An extensive literature on climate change modeling points to future changes in wind climates. Some areas are projected to gain wind resources, while others are projected to lose wind resources. Oklahoma is presently wind rich with this resource extensively exploited for power generation. Our work examined the wind power implications under the IPCC’s A2 scenario for the decades 2040–2049, 2050–2059 and 2060–2069 as compared to model reanalysis and Oklahoma Mesonetwork observations for the base decade of 1990–1999. Using two western Oklahoma wind farms as examples, we used North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) modeling outputs to calculate changes in wind power generation. The results show both wind farms to gain in output for all decades as compared to 1990–1999. Yet, the results are uneven by seasons and with some decades exhibiting decreases in the fall. These results are of interest in that it is clear that investors cannot count on wind studies of the present to adequately characterize future productivity. If our results are validated over time, Oklahoma stands to gain wind resources through the next several decades.
    Electronic ISSN: 2079-9276
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The prospect of unprecedented environmental change, combined with increasing demand on limited resources, demands adaptive responses at multiple levels. In this article, we analyze different attributes of farm-level capacity in central Arizona, USA, in relation to farmers’ responses to recent dynamism in commodity and land markets, and the institutional and social contexts of farmers’ water and production portfolios. Irrigated agriculture is at the heart of the history and identity of the American Southwest, although the future of agriculture is now threatened by the prospect of “mega-droughts,” urbanization and associated inter-sector and inter-state competition over water in an era of climatic change. We use farm-level survey data, supplemented by in-depth interviews, to explore the cross-level dimensions of capacity in the agriculture–urban nexus of central Arizona. The surveyed farmers demonstrate an interest in learning, capacity for adaptive management and risk-taking attitudes consistent with emerging theory of capacity for land use and livelihood transformation. However, many respondents perceive their self-efficacy in the face of future climatic and hydrological change as uncertain. Our study suggests that the components of transformational capacity will necessarily need to go beyond the objective resources and cognitive capacities of individuals to incorporate “linking” capacities: the political and social attributes necessary for collective strategy formation to shape choice and opportunity in the future.
    Print ISSN: 1436-3798
    Electronic ISSN: 1436-378X
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB) products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB), with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2) and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2). Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW) radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW) radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our study on radiation data of China provides a case example for worldwide validation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The scanning electron microscope is becoming a popular tool to perform tasks that require positioning, manipulation, characterization, and assembly of micro-components. However, some of these applications require a higher level of performance with respect to dynamics and precision of positioning. One limiting factor is the presence of unidentified noises and disturbances. This work aims to study the influence of mechanical disturbances generated by the environment and by the microscope, identifying how these can affect elements in the vacuum chamber. To achieve this objective, a dedicated setup, including a high-resolution vibrometer, was built inside the microscope. This work led to the identification and quantification of main disturbances and noise sources acting on a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the effects of external acoustic excitations were analysed. Potential applications of these results include noise compensation and real-time control for high accuracy tasks.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: A new microelectromechanical systems-based 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) scanner with an integrated cantilever for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The silicon cantilever features a layer of piezoelectric material to facilitate its use for tapping mode AFM and enable simultaneous deflection sensing. Electrostatic actuators and electrothermal sensors are used to accurately position the cantilever within the x-y plane. Experimental testing shows that the cantilever is able to be scanned over a 10 μ m × 10 μ m window and that the cantilever achieves a peak-to-peak deflection greater than 400 nm when excited at its resonance frequency of approximately 62 kHz.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The gut microbiota plays an important role in nutrient digestibility in animals. To examine changes in the pig gut microbiota across growth stages and its effects on nutrient digestion, the gut microbiota population in pigs at 28 days (before weaning), and 60, 90, and 150 days of age was assessed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was also assessed in these pigs. A total of 19,875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from all samples. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased with age. A total of 22 phyla and 249 genera were identified from all fecal samples; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla in all samples. With increasing age, the proportion of TM7 and Tenericutes increased, whereas the proportion of Lentisphaerae and Synergistetes decreased. The abundance of 36 genera varied with age, and the apparent digestibility of CF increased with age. Three phyla, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and TM7, and 11 genera, including Anaeroplasma, Campylobacter, and Clostridium, were correlated with apparent CF digestibility. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep09938
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Based on our previously developed scheme to stabilize nonplanar optical resonant cavities utilizing polarization caused by a geometric phase in electromagnetic waves traveling along a twisted path, we report an application of the technique for a cavity installed in the Accelerator Test Facility, a 1.3-GeV electron beam accelerator at KEK, in which photons are generated by laser-Compton scattering. We successfully achieved a power enhancement of 1200 with 1.4% fluctuation, which means that the optical path length of the cavity has been controlled with a precision of 14 pm under an accelerator environment. In addition, polarization switching utilizing a geometric phase of the nonplanar cavity was demonstrated.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep09921
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies (“F0” and “G0”), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep09989
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: Transition metal oxides are widely used in solar cells, batteries, transistors, memories, transparent conductive electrodes, photocatalysts, gas sensors, supercapacitors, and smart windows. In many of these applications, large surface areas and pore volumes can enhance molecular adsorption, facilitate ion transfer, and increase interfacial areas; the formation of complex oxides (mixed, doped, multimetallic oxides and oxide-based hybrids) can alter electronic band structures, modify/enhance charge carrier concentrations/separation, and introduce desired functionalities. A general synthetic approach to diverse mesoporous metal oxides is therefore very attractive. Here we describe a powerful aerosol-spray method for synthesizing various mesoporous metal oxides from low-cost nitrate salts. During spray, thermal heating of precursor droplets drives solvent evaporation and induces surfactant-directed formation of mesostructures, nitrate decomposition and oxide cross-linking. Thirteen types of monometallic oxides and four groups of complex ones are successfully produced, with mesoporous iron oxide microspheres demonstrated for photocatalytic oxygen evolution and gas sensing with superior performances. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep09923
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2015-04-22
    Description: The realization of ballistic graphene pn-junctions is an essential task in order to study Klein tunneling phenomena. Here we show that intercalation of Ge under the buffer layer of pre-structured SiC-samples succeeds to make truly nano-scaled pn-junctions. By means of local tunneling spectroscopy the junction width is found to be as narrow as 5 nm which is a hundred times smaller compared to electrically gated structures. The ballistic transmission across the junction is directly proven by systematic transport measurements with a 4-tip STM. Various npn- and pnp-junctions are studied with respect to the barrier length. The pn-junctions are shown to act as polarizer and analyzer with the second junction becoming transparent in case of a fully ballistic barrier. This can be attributed to the almost full suppression of electron transmission through the junction away from normal incidence. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep09955
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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