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  • Articles  (2,204)
  • Animals  (2,204)
  • 1980-1984  (2,204)
  • 1925-1929
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  • Articles  (2,204)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 19;209(4463):1317-438.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7414318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *DNA, Recombinant ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Regulation of hemoglobin synthesis depends in part on the population of cells available for erythroid differentiation. Mouse erythroleukemia cells were cloned, and the clones were induced with dimethyl sulfoxide to test the relative induction of beta minor and beta major synthesis. Cells of line 745 produced approximately 35 percent beta minor after induction, and 39 clones of line 745 produced from 23 to 61 percent beta minor. Further subcloning of the clone that produced 61 percent beta minor led to three subclones, all of which produced more than 90 percent beta minor. Thus one kind of hemoglobin regulation occurs at the cellular level.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alter, B P -- Goff, S C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):647-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6928071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Clone Cells/metabolism ; Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology ; Globins/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute/metabolism ; Mice
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-01-18
    Description: In view of similarities between the behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological effects of amphetamine and stress, we tested the hypothesis that presentation of a stressor, mild tail pressure, can sensitize an animal to the later effects of amphetamine, and vice versa. Our findings supported this hypothesis and suggest that amphetamine and at least some stressors may be interchangeable in their ability to induce a sensitization. The data raise the possibility that stress might be a common variable contributing to both amphetamine psychosis and some forms of schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Antelman, S M -- Eichler, A J -- Black, C A -- Kocan, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 18;207(4428):329-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7188649" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects/*physiology ; Dextroamphetamine/*pharmacology ; Dopamine/physiology ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Haloperidol/pharmacology ; Humans ; Male ; Rats ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology ; Stereotyped Behavior/drug effects ; Stress, Physiological/*physiopathology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1980-07-11
    Description: When mammalian cell cultures are exposed for 2 hours to (+/-)-7 beta, 8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, a mutagenic and carcinogenic derivative of benzo[a]pyrene, the extent of covalent modificationof mitochondrial DNA is 40 to 90 times greater than that of nuclear DNA. Evidence is presented that this reflects the lipophilic character of the derivative and the very high ratio of lipid to DNA in mitochondria. These results suggest that mitochondrial DNA may be an important cellular target of chemical carcinogens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Backer, J M -- Weinstein, I B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 11;209(4453):297-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6770466" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide ; Animals ; Benzopyrenes/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; DNA Replication/drug effects ; DNA, Mitochondrial/*metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian ; Embryo, Nonmammalian ; L Cells (Cell Line) ; Liposomes
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Astroglial cells in primary culture release factors into the medium that promote the growth and prolong the survival of rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banker, G A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):809-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403847" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/cytology/*physiology ; Cell Communication ; Cells, Cultured ; Culture Media ; Hippocampus/*cytology/embryology ; Nerve Growth Factors/*physiology ; Rats
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: The cellular mechanisms underlying picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity were studied by using mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity in most but not all of the cells studied. The activity could be inverted by polarizing to positive potentials and eliminated either by decreasing the ratio of calcium to magnesium or by applying tetrodotoxin. When applied locally to individual cells, picrotoxin lowered spike threshold and induced spontaneous firing in some but not all cells tested. The results suggest that picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity involves rapidly summating synaptic activity which may be evoked by high-frequency repetitive firing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- MacDonald, J F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1054-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375918" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Calcium/pharmacology ; Cells, Cultured ; Magnesium/pharmacology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Picrotoxin/*pharmacology ; Seizures/*chemically induced ; Spinal Cord/*drug effects/physiology ; Synapses/*drug effects
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Neurons in the torus semicircularis of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia encode phase differences between sinusoidal electrical stimuli received in different body regions. These fish normally experience time-varying phase differences when the electric organ discharge fields of two or more individuals overlap. These phase differences supply information necessary for the animal's jamming avoidance behavior.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bastian, J -- Heiligenberg, W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):828-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403849" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Electric Organ/*physiology ; Escape Reaction/physiology ; Fishes/*physiology ; Mesencephalon/cytology/physiology ; Orientation/physiology ; Periodicity ; Sensory Receptor Cells/physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-03
    Description: Suckling is the only behavior that is common among mammals. In newborn albino rats it is originally elicited by amniotic fluid deposited by the mother during parturition. Subsequent suckling is stimulated by saliva deposited on the nipples by the infant rats. Internal controls over the volume of milk suckled do not appear until infant rats are about 2 weeks of age at which time gastric distension, milk, systemic dehydration, and intestinal hormone cholecystokinin suppress milk intake derived through suckling. The development of controls over suckling appetite appears to parallel that of consummatory control. Until about 2 weeks of age infant rats choose to suckle a nonlactating nipple with the same frequency as a lactating nipple. Thereafter, the lactating nipple is unanimously chosen. These studies suggest differences and commonalities in the suckling behavior of laboratory rats and other mammals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Blass, E M -- Teicher, M H -- AM-18560/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 3;210(4465):15-22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6997992" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Population Groups/*physiology ; Animals ; Animals, Suckling/*physiology ; Cholecystokinin/physiology ; Dehydration ; Feeding Behavior/physiology ; Female ; Food Deprivation ; Humans ; Instinct ; Lactation ; Lithium/pharmacology ; Maternal Behavior ; Pheromones ; Pregnancy ; Rats ; Saliva ; Sucking Behavior/drug effects/*physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-18
    Description: The accumulation of rat plasminogen in the medium of primary monolayer cultures of adult parenchymal hepatocytes was detected with a quantitative immunological assay. These primary cultures synthetisized and secreted both circulating isozymic forms of plasminogen at rates sufficient to account for the majority of the in vivo plasminogen turnover.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bohmfalk, J F -- Fuller, G M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):408-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7384814" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Liver/*metabolism ; Male ; Plasminogen/*biosynthesis ; Rats
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Scald injury to one ear of the hairless mouse induced significant (P 〈 .05) delayed edema formation in remote, uninjured skin. This remote edema formation was completely inhibited by immediate cold-water treatment of the scalded ear. Cold-water treatment significantly reduced histamine loss from the scalded ear, and the edema-inhibiting effect of the treatment could be mimicked by treating the animal prior to injury with the H2-histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine or a drug that causes histamine depletion. These observations suggest (i) that a histamine-mediated, delayed permeability response occurs after thermal injury that causes remote edema formation and (ii) that one mechanism of remote edema inhibition by cold-water treatment is the prevention of histamine release from thermally injured tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boykin, J V Jr -- Eriksson, E -- Sholley, M M -- Pittman, R N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):815-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6157189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Burns/complications/physiopathology/*therapy ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cimetidine/*pharmacology ; *Cold Temperature ; Edema/etiology/physiopathology ; Guanidines/*pharmacology ; Histamine Release/*drug effects ; Indomethacin/pharmacology ; Male ; Mice ; Receptors, Histamine H2/physiology
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Several dysgenic traits may occur within the Drosophila melanogaster species as a result of crosses between different strains. Crossing two mutually interacting categories, named inducer and reactive, may lead, among other abnormalities, to a specific kind of female sterility that has proved useful for investigating the genetic factors involved in the interaction. The reactive state appears to result from a cytoplasmic state ultimately controlled by a chromosomal polygenic system. The inducer character is determined by a chromosomal factor that exhibits all characteristics of a transposable element. Overall, the data contribute to clarification of mutator activities in D. melanogaster and open new opportunities to investigate unusual genetic mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bregliano, J C -- Picard, G -- Bucheton, A -- Pelisson, A -- Lavige, J M -- L'Heritier, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):606-11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6766221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/genetics ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Cytoplasm/physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics ; Ecology ; Female ; Genes, Regulator ; Hot Temperature ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Infertility, Female/genetics ; Mutation ; Oocytes/physiology
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-31
    Description: The fifth and sixth lumbar segments of the rat spinal cord were found to contain a sexually dimorphic nucleus, the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). The SNB, which contains motoneurons innervating perineal striated muscles in normal male rats, is adiminished or absent in normal females and in males with a genetic mutation rendering them insensitive to androgens. The presence of the nucleus is apparently not dependent on genetic sex, but on the action of androgens. The motoneurons of the adult male SNGH accumulate hormone after systemic injections of radioactive testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, but not estradiol, and the SNB motoneurons accumulate more of the injected androgens than do other motoneurons in the same spinal segments. These results demonstrate a morphological sex difference in hormone-sensitive motoneurons that are probably involved in the sexually dimorphic copulatory behavior of the rat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Breedlove, S M -- Arnold, A P -- 5-S07/PHS HHS/ -- RR07009-14/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):564-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423210" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoradiography ; Copulation/physiology ; Dihydrotestosterone/*metabolism ; Estradiol/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; Motor Neurons/*metabolism ; Rats ; Sex ; Spinal Cord/*metabolism ; Testosterone/*metabolism
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-02
    Description: Interferon derived from human leukocytes, human fibroblasts, and mouse fibroblasts was found to inhibit the motility of cultured cells. It inhibits the tumor-induced motility of capillary endothelial cells as well as the spontaneous migration of other cell types. The ability of a given preparation of interferon to inhibit the motility of a given cell type is proportional to its antiviral activity in that particular cell type. Antiserum to human leukocyte interferon neutralizes both the motility-inhibitory activity and the antiviral activity of this preparation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brouty-Boye, D -- Zetter, B R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 2;208(4443):516-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6154315" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antineoplastic Agents ; Antiviral Agents ; Capillaries/cytology ; Cattle ; *Cell Movement ; Cells, Cultured/physiology ; Endothelium/cytology ; Fibroblasts ; Humans ; Interferons/*pharmacology ; Leukocytes/physiology ; Mice ; Neoplasms/pathology
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-01-25
    Description: Vasopressin and oxytocin are made and released by neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Pulse labeling these neurons with radioactive amino acid indicates that the two hormones and their respective neurophysin carrier proteins are synthesized as parts of separate precursor proteins. The precursors seem to be processed into smaller, biologically active molecules while they are being transported along the axon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brownstein, M J -- Russell, J T -- Gainer, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 25;207(4429):373-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6153132" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axonal Transport ; Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism ; Glycoproteins/metabolism ; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/*metabolism ; Median Eminence/metabolism ; Oxytocin/*metabolism ; Pituitary Gland, Posterior/metabolism ; Pituitary Hormones, Posterior/*metabolism ; Protein Precursors/*metabolism ; Rats ; Supraoptic Nucleus/metabolism ; Vasopressins/*metabolism
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-25
    Description: The study involved quantitative measurement of arterial and venous oxygen saturation, oxygen extraction, blood flow, and oxygen consumption in specific areas of the brain. No regional differences in oxygen consumption were found in anesthetized cat brain, and the amount of oxygen available to all regions studied was more than 2.5 times the consumption throughout the brain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Buckweitz, E -- Sinha, A K -- Weiss, H R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):499-501.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anesthesia, General ; Animals ; Brain/blood supply/drug effects/*metabolism ; Cats ; Chloralose/*pharmacology ; Female ; Male ; Oxygen/*blood ; Oxygen Consumption/*drug effects ; Regional Blood Flow ; Tissue Distribution
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 1980-11-28
    Description: Conditioned medium derived from organ or cell cultures prepared from 19- to 21-day fetal rat calvaria stimulated the incorporation of [3H]proline collagen and of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ cultures of the same tissue. Addition of cortisol enhanced the effect on collagen but not on DNA synthesis. These effects appeared to be due to a nondialyzable and heat-stable growth factor.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Canalis, E -- Peck, W A -- Raisz, L G -- AM-18063/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM-19855/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 28;210(4473):1021-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7434011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Bone Development ; Bone and Bones/*physiology ; Collagen/*biosynthesis ; Culture Techniques ; DNA/biosynthesis ; Growth Substances/isolation & purification/*physiology ; Hydrocortisone/pharmacology ; Rats ; Skull
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 1980-05-09
    Description: The connections between the spinal cord and lower leg muscles of the rat are significantly altered by repair of the intervening sciatric nerve. Muscles supplied by the peroneal branch of the sciatic are innervated by fewer motoneurons after sciatic repair. Many of these neurons originally innervated the peroneal muscles, and others formerly served the antagonistic tibial muscles. Perikarya in the size range of alpha motoneurons regained peripheral connections with greater frequency than those in the gamma range. There are thus postoperative defects in the extent and specificity of alpha reinnervation as well as in the degree of gamma control.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brushart, T M -- Mesulam, M M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 9;208(4444):603-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7367884" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anterior Horn Cells/*cytology ; Female ; Horseradish Peroxidase ; Motor Neurons/*cytology ; Muscles/*innervation ; Nerve Regeneration ; Neural Pathways/cytology ; Peripheral Nerves/*surgery ; Rats ; Sciatic Nerve/surgery
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 1980-09-05
    Description: Footshock stress produced an immediate increase in brain concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4), a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, in the rat brain. Twenty-four hours after footshock stress, when concentrations had returned to baseline, increases in MHPG-SO4 and emotional behavior could be elicited by previously neutral environmental stimuli that had been paired with the stress.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cassens, G -- Roffman, M -- Kuruc, A -- Orsulak, P J -- Schildkraut, J J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 5;209(4461):1138-40.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403874" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Brain/*metabolism ; *Conditioning (Psychology) ; Electroshock ; Environment ; Male ; Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol/metabolism ; Norepinephrine/*metabolism ; Posture ; Rats ; Stress, Physiological/*metabolism ; Sulfates
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 1980-05-02
    Description: Analysis of extracts of the bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei showed that both DNA polymerase-alpha and DNA polymerase-beta activities were present. The detection of DNA polymerase-beta in T. brucei demonstrates the presence of this enzyme in unicellular organisms. DNA polymerase-beta is present also in Leishmania mexicana. The DNA polymerases in T. brucei are immunologically distinct from the host enzymes. The structural differences between the parasite and the host enzymes could be exploited for the development of agents to combat parasitic diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chang, L M -- Cheriathundam, E -- Mahoney, E M -- Cerami, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 2;208(4443):510-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7367875" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centrifugation, Density Gradient ; Chickens ; DNA Polymerase I/analysis ; DNA Polymerase II/analysis ; DNA Polymerase III/analysis ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/*analysis ; Fishes ; Immune Sera ; Leishmania/*enzymology ; Molecular Weight ; Rabbits ; Rats ; Species Specificity ; Trypanosoma brucei brucei/*enzymology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 1980-11-14
    Description: Repeated electroconvulsive shock, applied to rats, induces a subsensitivity of dopamine autoreceptors located in the substantia nigra as indexed by single-unit electrophysiological techniques. This reduced sensitivity is time-dependent, since effects similar to those seen with repeated treatment were also observed when single electroconvulsive shock was followed by an appropriate treatment-free interval. These data, coupled with identical results after the repeated administration of tricyclic antidepressants, raise the possibility that a reduction of dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity could underlie both electroconvulsive shock and pharmacological treatment of depression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chiodo, L A -- Antelman, S M -- 5T32-MH-14634/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH-00238/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH-32306/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 14;210(4471):799-801.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6254148" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Depression/physiopathology ; Dopamine/physiology ; *Electroshock ; Humans ; Neurons/physiology ; Periodicity ; Rats ; Receptors, Dopamine/*physiology ; Substantia Nigra/*physiology ; Synaptic Transmission
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-07
    Description: Injection of synthetic bovine parathyroid hormone (the amino terminal peptide containing the first 34 amino acids) to the coronary circulation of the dog resulted in a marked coronary vasodilation. The vasodilatory response was dose-dependent and amounted to a 161 percent increase over the resting flow rate at a concentration of 1.0 unit per kilogram.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crass, M F 3rd -- Pang, P K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 7;207(4435):1087-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355275" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Coronary Circulation/*drug effects ; Dogs ; Hormones/pharmacology ; Myocardial Contraction/drug effects ; Myocardium/metabolism ; Oxygen Consumption/drug effects ; Parathyroid Hormone/*pharmacology ; Time Factors ; Vascular Resistance/drug effects ; *Vasodilator Agents
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-04-11
    Description: Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crane, M S -- Dvorak, J A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 11;208(4440):194-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6987737" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antigens/isolation & purification ; *Cell Fusion ; Cell Line ; Clone Cells ; Hybrid Cells/*immunology ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Mammals ; Polyethylene Glycols ; Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics/*immunology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1980-03-28
    Description: Growth of head-fold-stage rat embryos cultured with human serum for 48 hours was enhanced by supplementation with glucose. Embryo growth (protein and DNA contents) varied with the source of the serum. Serum from 16 of 19 untreated subjects produced normal embryos. Serum from five subjects undergoing cancer chemotherapy and six subjects receiving anticonvulsants was either lethal or teratogenic.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chatot, C L -- Klein, N W -- Piatek, J -- Pierro, L J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 28;207(4438):1471-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361097" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/pharmacology ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology ; Blood ; Culture Media ; *Culture Techniques ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods ; *Embryo, Mammalian/drug effects ; Female ; Glucose ; Humans ; Male ; Rats ; *Teratogens
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Two experiments show that, after taste-aversion conditioning, rats can use external retrieval cues to recall or anticipate the aversive taste solution and avoid its location without making contact with the flavor. They also show that the rat's avoidance of a conditioned aversive taste and its consumption of the aversive flavored solution can be attenuated by giving it prior runway training in which taste reward is given inconsistently on a partial reinforcement schedule.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, J S -- Amsel, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):831-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403850" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avoidance Learning/*physiology ; Conditioning (Psychology) ; Extinction, Psychological ; Female ; Lithium ; Male ; Memory/*physiology ; Mental Recall/*physiology ; Rats ; Reinforcement (Psychology) ; Sodium Chloride ; Taste/*physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-01-04
    Description: The role of calcium ions (Ca2+) in cell function is beginning to be unraveled at the molecular level as a result of recent research on calcium-binding proteins and particularly on calmodulin. These proteins interact reversibly with Ca2+ to form a protein . Ca2+ complex, whose activity is regulated by the cellular flux of Ca2+. Many of the effects of Ca2+ appear to be exerted through calmodulin-regulated enzymes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cheung, W Y -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 4;207(4426):19-27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6243188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases/metabolism ; Allosteric Regulation ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Calcium/*physiology ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/*physiology ; Calmodulin/*physiology ; Cell Communication ; Cyclic AMP/*physiology ; Enzyme Activation ; Phospholipases A/metabolism ; Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Receptors, Drug/physiology ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Troponin/physiology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1980-07-25
    Description: Serotonin infused into the lateral ventricle in rats produced a dose-dependent depression of the acoustic startle reflex. When infused onto the spinal cord, serotonin produced a dose-dependent increase in startle. Thus the same neurotransmitter can modulate the same behavior in opposite ways, depending on which part of the central nervous system is involved.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davis, M -- Strachan, D I -- Kass, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):521-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394520" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Kinetics ; Male ; Rats ; Reflex, Acoustic/*drug effects ; Reflex, Startle/*drug effects ; Serotonin/*pharmacology
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-19
    Description: Immunoglobulin class switching involves specific DNA rearrangements of the gene segments coding for heavy chain constant regions (CH) during B lymphocyte differentiation. In two different cases of C mu to C alpha switching examined here (T15 and M603) and one taken from the literature (MC101), three different sites on the 5' side of C mu and three different sites on the 5' side of C alpha are joined together in the process of CH switching. The sequences surrounding the three germ-line C alpha sites of recombination are highly conserved blocks of 30 nucleotides that may serve as recognition sequences for CH switching to the C alpha gene. This putative recognition sequence is repeated 17 times in approximately 1400 nucleotides of the germ-line Calpha 5' flanking sequence. The lack of homology between this C alpha sequence and sequences reported for the C gamma 1 and C gamma 2b switch sites suggests that heavy chain switching is mediated by class-specific recognition sequences and, presumably, class-specific regulatory mechanisms. In addition, it appears that in one example (MC101) CH switching progressed from C mu to C alpha to C gamma 1. This switching pathway may present difficulties for the simple deletional model of CH switching.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davis, M M -- Kim, S K -- Hood, L E -- AI 09072/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM 07616/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- PCM76-81546/PC/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 19;209(4463):1360-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6774415" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Base Sequence ; DNA/genetics ; *Genes ; Immunoglobulin Constant Regions/*genetics ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/*genetics ; Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics ; Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains/*genetics ; Immunoglobulin mu-Chains/*genetics ; Immunoglobulins/*genetics ; Mice ; Myeloma Proteins/genetics ; Recombination, Genetic
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-31
    Description: Timing of the repetitive movements that constitute any rhythmic behavior is regulated by intrinsic properties of the central nervous system rather than by sensory feedback from moving parts of the body. Evidence of this permits resolution of the long-standing controversy over the neural basis of rhythmic behavior and aids in the identification of this mechanism as a general principle of neural organization applicable to all animals with central nervous systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Delcomyn, F -- NS 15632/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- S07 RR 7030/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):492-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Biological Clocks ; Central Nervous System/physiology ; Feedback ; Locomotion ; Mastication ; *Nervous System Physiological Phenomena ; *Periodicity ; Peripheral Nerves/physiology ; Respiration ; Vocalization, Animal/physiology
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-16
    Description: Infant rat pups, fed through intragastric cannulas from postnatal day 4 through day 18, showed a 19 percent reduction in total brain weight when ethanol was included in their diet on days 4 through 7. This reduction in brain weight occurred even though body growth in the experimental rats was equal to that of their littermate controls. The ethanol-exposed animals were markedly hypoactive during the period of drug administration, then displayed gross body tremors for 3 to 5 days. Throughout the study, the animals treated with ethanol had poor motor coordination and were hyperresponsive. These brain and behavioral effects appear similar to those seen in fetal alcohol syndrome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diaz, J -- Samson, H H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 16;208(4445):751-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7189297" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Brain/anatomy & histology/drug effects/*growth & development ; Cerebellum/growth & development ; Disease Models, Animal ; Ethanol/*pharmacology ; Female ; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/*embryology ; Organ Size ; Pregnancy ; Rats
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 1980-11-07
    Description: The response to different environmental conditions and negative air ions was investigated on cerebral cortical serotonin and cyclic nucleotides. The results indicated that negative air ions alter the weight of the cerebral cortex and that concentrations of serotonin and cyclic nucleotides can be altered both by different environments and by negative air ions. The data stress the importance of the role of the environment when studying the structure and chemistry of the cerebral cortex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diamond, M C -- Connor, J R Jr -- Orenberg, E K -- Bissell, M -- Yost, M -- Krueger, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 7;210(4470):652-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6254145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anions ; Atmosphere ; Brain/growth & development ; Cerebral Cortex/*metabolism ; Crowding ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; Cyclic GMP/metabolism ; *Environment ; Male ; Nucleotides, Cyclic/*metabolism ; Rats ; Serotonin/*metabolism
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-29
    Description: Pairs of hybridizable species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila differ qualitatively in the distributions of specific enzymes in their tissues. An examination of the patterns of enzyme expression in the hybrids showed that, in three instances, absence of an enzyme from a specific tissue was dominant to presence. Since other developmental features indicated that both parental genomes were functioning, these results suggest that, in these cases, the pattern differences in the parental species were due to diffusible factors that affected expression of the relevant structural genes rather than to differences in the genes themselves or in cis-acting regulatory sites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dickinson, W J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 29;207(4434):995-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/enzymology ; Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics ; Aldehyde Oxidoreductases/genetics ; Animals ; Drosophila/embryology/*enzymology/genetics ; Genes ; *Genes, Regulator ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Malpighian Tubules/enzymology ; Octanols ; Tissue Distribution
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-21
    Description: Intensive research in the last decade has revealed a wealth of detail on the mechanism of biosynthesis, molecular structure, and covalent cross-linking of collagen. Tissues of higher animals express a family of at least five genetically distinct types of collagen molecule, each apparently tailored for different construction work outside the cell. Within each genetic type of collagen, further chemical heterogeneity is also evident; the variations in hydroxylation, glycosylation, and cross-linking are dependent, for example, on tissue type, age, and hormonal status. The functional significance of collagen's molecular diversity and its control by different cells and tissues are not yet well understood but abnormalities of collagen in many human diseases keep this protein a focal molecule of medical research.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eyre, D R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 21;207(4437):1315-22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355290" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcification, Physiologic ; Cartilage/ultrastructure ; *Collagen/genetics/metabolism ; Epithelium/ultrastructure ; Extracellular Space/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Protein Conformation ; Vertebrates
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-06-27
    Description: Mice of two different strains were injected subcutaneously with spontaneously metastasizing syngeneic melanomas. After 4 to 6 weeks, the local tumors were removed and, 3 days after surgery, treatment of the metastases was initiated. The treatment consisted of intravenous injections of liposomes containing lymphokines or control supernatant fluids. Liposomes were injected twice weekly for 3 weeks, and the mice were killed 2 weeks later. Seventy-three percent of the mice injected with liposomes containing lymphokines were free of metastases, whereas only 10 percent of the mice treated with control liposomes were tumor-free. These experiments suggest that this form of therapy may provide a valuable addition to the more conventional approaches to the eradication of cancer metastases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fidler, I J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 27;208(4451):1469-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7384789" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Liposomes/*therapeutic use ; Lymphokines/*therapeutic use ; Melanoma/*drug therapy ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C3H ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Neoplasm Metastasis ; Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy ; Species Specificity
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 1980-04-18
    Description: Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) occurring in the presence and in the absence of GABA-containing nerve terminals were estimated in rats in which the dense GABA projection to the substantia nigra was surgically destroyed on one side of the brain. The net increase in GABA of the denervated nigra was compared with that of the intact nigra at various times after a single injection of gama-vinyl-GABA, which irreversibly inhibits GABA transaminase. Total GABA reached a maximum within 12 hours, but the GABA pool associated with nerve terminals did not increase until 36 hours and peaked at 60 hours. The onset and peak of anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock seizures directly paralleled the time course for the increase in GABA in nerve terminals, but was not positively correlated with that independent of the terminals. This result supports the concept that elevating GABA in nerve terminals facilitates GABA-mediated synaptic transmission and predicts anticonvulsant activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gale, K -- Iadarola, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 18;208(4441):288-91.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6768130" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Aminocaproates/*pharmacology ; Aminooxyacetic Acid/pharmacology ; Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Cell Compartmentation ; Electroshock ; Nerve Endings/metabolism ; Rats ; Seizures/*physiopathology ; Substantia Nigra/metabolism ; Time Factors ; Transaminases/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Valproic Acid/pharmacology ; Vigabatrin ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*physiology
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-11-14
    Description: Electromyograms recorded by bipolar, fine wire electrodes placed into anatomically equivalent sites in skeletal muscles of vertebrates are repeatable when the animals use the muscles in a similar way. Repeatability applies to the number of spikes recorded from a given site and to their average amplitude as well as to the root-mean-square value, though the values obtained for these descriptors differ among muscles, and perhaps fascicles, of particular animals even when the animals are performing equivalent actions. Tests suggest that these results are not affected by the nature of most kinds of recording equipment. Also, substantial differences in electrode tip configuration and wire diameter induce relatively minor, less than 8 percent, differences in electrode resistance and impedance. Doubling the length of the fine wire leads produces less than an 8 percent (15 percent when the length is tripled) effect; however, the effect of electrode material may be as much as 85 percent in resistance and 20 percent in impedance. Reports of nonreproducibility or variability of electromyograms apparently result mainly from anatomically inexact placement into physiologically and histochemically different fascicles of compound muscles, from recordings of muscles that are active at very low levels, and perhaps from comparison among recordings of muscles that really differ in their activity level.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gans, C -- Gorniak, G C -- DHEW-PHS-G 1R01DE052112-01/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 14;210(4471):795-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Cats ; Electrodes ; Electromyography/instrumentation/*methods ; Mastication ; Temporal Muscle/physiology
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: Specific binding of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) was found in nuclear and cytosol fractions of the bovine pituitary. For nuclear binding. the dissociation constant was 0.1 namomole per liter, and maximum binding was 104 femtomoles per milligram of protein. In competition studies, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) was 300 times weaker than 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). The existence of high-affinity sites supports a physiologic role for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in the pituitary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gelbard, H A -- Stern, P H -- U'Prichard, D C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1247-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6250221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/metabolism ; Cattle ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cholecalciferol/*metabolism ; Cytosol/metabolism ; Dihydroxycholecalciferols/*metabolism ; Hydroxycholecalciferols/*metabolism ; Kinetics ; Pituitary Gland/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Receptors, Drug/*metabolism
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: The hindlimb of the spinal frog produces a wiping reflex evoked by electrically or chemically stimulating distal skin of the forelimb. The reflex was released in frogs supported on a flat surface or suspended. It was found to have two stages. During the first, the frog fixed the hindlimb in an intermediate posture irrespective of forelimb position. In the second, the movement depended on forelimb position, which determined the final posture of the hindlimb. In this final posure, all joints except the hip joint were fully extended; the hip angle was correlated with forelimb position and varied on repeated wipings. When the stimulus was applied to the skin of the back, the pattern of final postures was the same, but the intermediate postures differed. The organization of the wiping reflex is discussed in light of the hypothesis that movement is evoked according to changes in the equilibrium (postural state) of the system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fukson, O I -- Berkinblit, M B -- Feldman, A G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1261-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403886" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anura/*physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; *Movement ; Posture ; *Proprioception ; Reflex/*physiology ; Spinal Cord/*physiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 1980-07-11
    Description: A single injection of amphetamine given to rats treated concurrently with iprindole so that they could not metabolize the amphetamine by para-hydroxylation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of striatal dopamine 1 week later. The decrease was antagonized by amfonelic acid, an inhibitor of uptake into dopamine neurons. The long-lasting depletion of cerebral dopamine by amphetamine may be analogous to the depletion of cerebral serotonin by halogenated derivatives of amphetamine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fuller, R W -- Hemrick-Luecke, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 11;209(4453):305-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7384808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amphetamine/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Brain/drug effects/metabolism ; Corpus Striatum/drug effects/*metabolism ; Dopamine/*metabolism ; Epinephrine/metabolism ; Indoles/*pharmacology ; Iprindole/*pharmacology ; Male ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Norepinephrine/metabolism ; Organ Specificity ; Rats ; p-Chloroamphetamine/pharmacology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: Neurons in deep laminae of the rabbit cingulate cortex develop discriminative activity at an early stage of behavioral discrimination learning, whereas neurons in the anteroventral nucleus of thalamus and neurons in the superficial cortical laminae develop such activity in a late stage of behavioral learning. It is hypothesized that early-forming discriminative neuronal activity, relayed to anteroventral neurons via the corticothalamic pathway, contributes to the construction of changes underlying the late-forming neuronal discrimination in the anteroventral nucleus. The resultant late discriminative activity in the anteroventral nucleus is then relayed via the thalamocortical pathway back to the superficial cortical laminae, promoting disengagement of cortex from further task-processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gabriel, M -- Foster, K -- Orona, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1050-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avoidance Learning/*physiology ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/*physiology ; Discrimination (Psychology)/*physiology ; Gyrus Cinguli/*physiology ; Neural Pathways/physiology ; Rabbits ; Thalamus/*physiology ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garcia-Bunuel, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 8;209(4457):720-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394536" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caudate Nucleus/physiology ; Gallamine Triethiodide/*pharmacology ; Receptors, Dopamine/drug effects/*physiology ; Synapses/drug effects/*physiology
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-01
    Description: Antibody to platelet factor 4 was used to demonstrate permeation of this factor into the blood vessel wall after endothelial injury in rabbits. The presence of platelet factor 4 antigen in the vessel wall after removal of the endothelium was shown by immunofluorescence 10 and 30 minutes after injury but not 240 minutes afterward. This study demonstrates that factors carried by platelets can enter the vessel wall and that the movement of these platelet products into the vasculature is a short-lived, self-limiting process.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldberg, I D -- Stemerman, M B -- Handin, R I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 1;209(4456):611-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6994228" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Coagulation Factors/*physiology ; Endothelium/physiology ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Immune Sera ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/*physiopathology ; Permeability ; Platelet Factor 4/*physiology ; Rabbits ; Wounds and Injuries/*physiopathology
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 1980-06-13
    Description: In a dye-sensitized photooxidation system, lens crystallin polypeptides become cross-linked, and a blue fluorescence that is associated with the proteins is produced. These changes are similar to those seen in vivo in the aging human lens. Evidence implicating singlet oxygen as the causative agent of the effects in vitro is presented, and the possibility that this species may play a role in aging and cataractogenesis in vivo is discussed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goosey, J D -- Zigler, J S Jr -- Kinoshita, J H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 13;208(4449):1278-80.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375939" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Cataract/etiology ; Cattle ; Crystallins/*radiation effects ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fluorescence ; Light ; Methylene Blue ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen ; Photochemistry ; Riboflavin ; Rose Bengal
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-18
    Description: Two independent cytochemical techniques were used to demonstrate that a trypsin-like protease is bound to the acrosomal tubule of the sea urchin sperm. The enzyme is associated with binding on the reacted acrosome and presumably functions in the early phases of fertilization.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Green, J D -- Summers, R G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):398-400.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992277" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acrosome/*enzymology/ultrastructure ; Animals ; Histocytochemistry ; Male ; Microscopy, Electron ; Peptide Hydrolases/*analysis ; Sea Urchins ; Spermatozoa/*enzymology ; Trypsin/*analysis
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Selenium, administered to mice with Ehrlich ascites tumors, effectively limited tumor growth. The response was dependent on the chemical form and dose of selenium administered. At the doses administered, there were no detectable adverse effects to the host.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greeder, G A -- Milner, J A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):825-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7406957" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/*drug therapy/pathology ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cystine/analogs & derivatives ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Male ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Selenium/*administration & dosage/metabolism/therapeutic use ; Selenomethionine/administration & dosage
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 1980-06-06
    Description: Oxygen (O2) consumption and net K+ uptake were measured simultaneously upon reintroduction of K+ into a K+-depleted suspension of renal tubules. The K+/O2 stoichiometries of 11.8 +/- 0.2 and 8.4 +/- 0.6 were obtained for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- and flavoprotein-linked substrates, respectively. These values complement classical K+ to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ATP/O2 stoichiometries, thereby demonstrating a remarkably efficient coupling between the processes of Na+- and K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase-mediated ion transport and oxidative phosphorylation within the intact cell.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harris, S I -- Balaban, R S -- Mandel, L J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 6;208(4448):1148-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6246581" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/*metabolism ; Animals ; Biological Transport, Active ; Kidney Tubules/metabolism ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/metabolism ; Ouabain/pharmacology ; *Oxidative Phosphorylation ; *Oxygen Consumption/drug effects ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Rabbits ; Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/*metabolism
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  • 47
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-22
    Description: Normotensive anephric rats infused with 2 milliliters of a hyperosmolar solution of either sodium chloride or mannitol showed an increase in arterial pressure that was very pronounced with the sodium chloride and that could be partly abolished by administration of an antagonist to the vasopressor action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Rats with congenital ADH deficiency subjected to the same treatment showed smaller increments in arterial pressure that remained unchanged after administration of the ADH antagonist. Expansion of intravascular fluid volume was similar in all four groups and bore no correlation to the change in arterial pressure. It is concluded that about half of the increase in blood pressure induced by saline was attributable to the vasopressor effect of stimulated ADH and the remainder to an additional sodium-related factor, since it was more pronounced in the saline-infused than in the mannitol-infused groups. Expansion of the intravascular volume per se could only account for a minimal part of the increment in pressure.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hatzinikolaou, P -- Gavras, H -- Brunner, H R -- Gavr