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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: biomass ; carotenoids ; chlorophyll ; nutrients ; sulphur dioxide ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Field experiments were conducted on four cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to examine the variability in cultivar response to sulphur dioxide (SO2) under different concentrations of mineral nutrients. Thirty-days-old plants were exposed for 8 weeks to 390±20 µg m−3 (0.15 ppm) SO2 for 4 h per day, 5 d per week. Decline in net photosynthetic rate, contents of pigments and nitrogen, biomass and grain yield of each cultivars were due to SO2 at all the nutrient concentrations studied. However, the magnitude of reduction was higher in plants grown without nutrient application. On the basis of the reductions in photosynthesis and yield, the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to SO2 was in the order of Malviya 213 〉 Malviya 37 〉 Malviya 206 〉 Malviya 234 at recommended dose of NPK, whereas the same without the nutrients was Malviya 206 〉 Malviya 234 〉 Malviya 213 〉 Malviya 37.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: alanine ; aspartate ; glycine ; glycollate ; malate ; nitrate ; serine ; sugars ; Triticum aestivum ; urea ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 14CO2 uptake in leaves of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) fertilized by urea or Ca(NO3)2 (25 mol m-3) was investigated. The Warburg effect (inhibition of 14CO2 uptake by oxygen) under 0.03 vol. % CO2 concentration was observed only in non-fertilized plants. Under 0.03 vol. % CO2, the Warburg antieffect (stimulation of 14CO2 uptake by oxygen) was detected only in plants fertilized by Ca(NO3)2. Under saturating CO2 concentration (0.30 vol. %), the Warburg antieffect was observed in all variants. Under limitation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (0.30 vol. % CO2 + 1 vol. % O2), the rate of synthesis of glycollate metabolism products decreased in control and urea-fertilized plants but was enhanced in nitrate-fed plants. Hence, there was an activation of glycollate formation via transketolase reaction in fertilized plants, and the products of nitrate reduction function were oxidants in nitrate-fertilized plants whereas the superoxide radical played this role in urea-fertilized plants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1608-3040
    Keywords: antioxidant ; Endomyces magnusii ; apoptosis ; BHT ; DNA ; fragmentation ; DNA synthesis ; ontogenesis ; ROS ; plant ; protein synthesis ; superoxide ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract It was found that production of superoxide (O2 – ·) is crucial for normal morphogenesis of etiolated wheat seedlings in the early stages of plant development. The development of etiolated wheat seedlings was shown to be accompanied with cyclic changes in the rate of O2 – · production both in the entire intact seedling and in its separated organs (leaf, coleoptile). First increase in the rate of O2 – · production was clearly observed in the period from two to four days of seedling development, then the rate of O2 – · production decreased to the initial level, and then it increased again for two days to a new maximum. An increase in O2 – · production in the period of the first four days of seedling development correlates with an increase in DNA and protein contents in the coleoptile. The second peak of increased rate of O2 – · production observed on the sixth or seventh day of seedling development coincides with a decrease in DNA and protein contents and apoptotic internucleosomal nuclear DNA fragmentation in the coleoptile. Incubation of seedlings in the presence of the antioxidant BHT (ionol) strongly affects their development but it does not influence the increase in DNA and protein contents for the initial four days of seedling life, and it slows down the subsequent age-dependent decrease in protein content and fully prevents the age-dependent decrease in DNA content in the coleoptile. A decrease in the O2 – · amount induced by BHT distorts the seedling development. BHT retards seedling growth, presumably by suppression of cell elongation, and it increases the life span of the coleoptile. It seems that O2 – · controls plant growth by cell elongation at the early stages of seedling development but later O2 – · controls (induces) apoptotic DNA fragmentation and protein disintegration.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9788
    Keywords: AFLP ; flour colour ; STS ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Flour colour is an important quality trait in the production of bread, noodles and other related end products. Current screening for flour colour in breeding programs requires several grams of flour to be milled. In order to screen large numbers of plants, a rapid PCR-based assay is required. We report here the conversion of a codominant AFLP marker linked to a major locus controlling flour colour in hexaploid wheat, to a sequence tagged site (STS) marker for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The two-allelic AFLP bands were cloned and sequenced to allow specific primers to be designed. The primers amplified bands of the expected size in the parental varieties and co-segregated with the original AFLP marker in the mapping population. The primers also amplified alleles of the expected size from the DNA of parental lines of two other related mapping populations. Cultivars that contributed to the pedigree of the original parent `Schomburgk' used to generate the mapping population were also screened to determine the origin of the `yellow' allele.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: introns ; maize ubiquitin promoter ; tritordeum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The promoterless maize ubiquitin first exon and intron fragment can drive gusA expression in immature tritordeum inflorescences and immature wheat scutella. In fluorescence assays, this fragment induces gusA expression in tritordeum inflorescences to 50 times higher than background. The activity of the complete promoter, exon and intron cassette was up to 20 000-fold higher than background but the maize ubiquitin promoter in isolation had very low activity. A construct with the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first exon and intron had low activity, visible in histochemical assays. Both intron sequences have promoter-like features and in the ubiquitin intron there is a sequence homologous to the opaque-2-binding box. We suggest that the combination of these elements may explain the promoter activity detected in these introns.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Andisol ; phosphatases ; phosphorus ; roots ; VA mycorrhiza ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Phosphorus deficiency is a major yield limiting constraint in wheat cultivation on acid soils. The plant factors that influence P uptake efficiency (PUPE) are mainly associated with root characteristics. This study was conducted to analyze the genotypic differences and relationships between PUPE, root length density (RLD), colonization by vesicular arbuscular and arbuscular mycorrhizal (V)AM fungi and root excretion of phosphatases in a P-deficient Andisol in the Central Mexican Highlands. Forty-two semidwarf spring-bread-wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) genotypes from CIMMYT were grown without (−P) and with P fertilization (+P), and subsequently in subsets of 30 and 22 genotypes in replicated field trials over 2 and 3 years, respectively. Acid phosphatase activity at the root surface (APASE) was analyzed in accompanying greenhouse experiments in nutrient solution. In this environment, PUPE contributed more than P utilization efficiency, in one experiment almost completely, to the variation of grain yield among genotypes. Late-flowering genotypes were higher yielding, because the postanthesis period of wheat was extended due to the cold weather at the end of the crop cycles, and postanthesis P uptake accounted for 40–45% of total P uptake. PUPE was positively correlated with the numbers of days to anthesis (at −P r=0.57 and at +P r=0.73). The RLD in the upper soil layer (0–20 cm) of the wheat germplasm tested ranged from 0.5 to 2.4 cm cm-3 at –P and 0.7 to 7.7 at +P. RLD was the most important root trait for improved P absorption, and it was positively genetically correlated with PUPE (at –P r=0.42 and at +P r=0.63) and the number of spikes m-2 (at –P r=0.58 and at +P r=0.36). RLD in the upper soil layer was more important with P fertilizer application. Without P fertilization, root proliferation in the deeper soil profile secured access to residual, native P in the deeper soil layer. (V)AM-colonisation and APASE were to a lesser degree correlated with PUPE. Among genoptypes, the level of (V)AM-colonisation ranged from 14 to 32% of the RLD in the upper soil layer, and APASE from 0.5 to 1.1 nmol s-1 plant-1 10-2.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Ca2+-binding protein ; EF-hand ; elicitor ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Intracellular Ca2+ has been implicated in the signal transduction processes during the development of the plant defense system against fungal pathogens. From wheat cultured cells that had been treated with the elicitor derived from Typhula ishikariensis, the ccd-1 gene encoding a 14 kDa Ca2+-binding protein with an acidic amphiphilic feature was isolated. The ccd-1-encoded protein (CCD-1) shares homology to the C-terminal half domain of centrin, a Ca2+-binding protein conserved in eukaryotes. Unlike typical eukaryotic centrins, CCD-1 contains only one Ca2+-binding loop, which corresponds to the one in the fourth EF-hand from the N-terminus of centrin. The recombinant CCD protein expressed in Escherichia coli bound to a phenyl-Sepharose column in the presence of Ca2+ and was eluted out by EGTA. It also showed a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift on the non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The ccd-1 mRNA expression was rapidly induced by treatment with fungal and chitosan oligosaccharide elicitors, implying that it might have a role in transducing Ca2+ signals provoked by the elicitors. The expression of the ccd-1 mRNA was induced by treatment with A23187, and the induction was suppressed by La3+ or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). This study suggests the involvement of intracellular Ca2+ in the elicitor-induced mRNA expression of a novel class of Ca2+-binding proteins conserved in higher plants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Azospirillum brasilense ; 2 ; 4-D ; para-nodules ; saline stress ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effect of saline stress on the colonization of wheat was analyzed by using Azospirillum brasilense Cd carrying the fusion of the reporter gene lacZ (β-galactosidase) with the N2 fixation gene promoter nifA. Colonization was also studied by inducing para-nodules on wheat roots using 2,4-D, establishing that these structures acted as bacterium protected niches. Bacteria grown under standard conditions were distributed along the whole root system, except the elongation zone, and colonized the para-nodules. Bacteria experiencing saline stress were mainly localized at the root tips and the lateral roots. In 2,4-D treated plants, most of the bacteria were present around the basal surface of the modified lateral root structures. Using the MPN method, there were not statistical differences between the numbers of control and stressed bacteria. As this method estimates endophytic colonization in contrast with the one using X-gal, which emphasizes colonization on the root surface, both procedures demonstrated to be necessary, concluding that salt treatment reduced surface colonization (X-gal) but not colonization inside the root. The bacterial counts made on inoculated wheat roots indicated higher numbers of both control and stressed bacteria in roots treated with 2,4-D compared with untreated roots.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: cultivars ; drought stress ; droughtsusceptibility index ; landraces ; wheat ; yield
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In a 2-years experiment, 30 wheat cultivars and 21 landraces from different countries were tested under near optimum and drought stress conditions. Plant height, number of sterile spikelets per spike, spikelets per spike, number of kernels per spike, kernel weight per spike, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were evaluated. The number of kernels per spike, 1000 kernel weight and especially yield were more sensitive to drought stress in the cultivars than plant height and number of spikelets per spike, while in the landraces these traits did not differ under drought stress compared to near optimum conditions. The average yield of cultivars was significantly better than the average yield of landraces under near optimum as well as drought stress conditions. Path coefficient analysis showed that for cultivars under near optimum conditions there was no significant direct association of any of the analysed characters with yield, while under drought stress conditions, number of kernels per spike had a significant positive direct effect. Under drought stress conditions, the number of sterile spikelets displayed a negative direct effect, while kernel weight per spike had a positive direct effect on yield. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used as a tool to classify cultivars and landraces according to their yield ability under near optimum and drought stress conditions. Among the cultivars, two groups out of five and among one of three in the landraces were characterised by high yields in both near optimum as well as under drought stress conditions. These genotypes may serve as sources of germplasm for breeding for drought tolerance.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
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    Euphytica 111 (2000), S. 199-203 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) ; protein ; Russian wheat aphid ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), has become a perennial, serious pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the western United States. Current methodologies used to enhance RWA resistance in wheat germplasm could benefit from an understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying resistance to RWA. This study was initiated to identify specific polypeptides induced by RWA feeding that may be associated with RWA resistance. The effects of RWA feeding on PI 140207 (a RWA-resistant spring wheat) and Pavon (a RWA-susceptible spring wheat) were examined by visualizing, silver-stained denatured leaf proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparisons of protein profiles of noninfested and RWA-infested Pavon and PI 140207 revealed a 24-kilodalton-protein complex selectively inhibited in Pavon that persisted in PI 140207during RWA attack. No other significant qualitative or quantitative differences were detected in RWA-induced alterations of protein profiles. These results suggest that RWA feeding selectively inhibit synthesis and accumulation of proteins necessary for normal metabolic functions in susceptible plants.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Fusarium head blight ; intermating breedingpopulation ; male-sterile gene ms 2 ; recurrent selection ; resistance ; Triticum aestivum L. ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Four cycles of recurrent selection for FHB resistance were conducted in an intermating wheat breeding population using the dominant male-sterile gene ms 2 during 1987–1991.Five cycles of phenotypic mass selection for male-sterile plants were evaluated using the soil-surface inoculation method in Experiment I. Experiment II evaluated changes in FHB scores during five cycles of progeny selection for fertile plants using the single-floret inoculation method. In Experiment I, the average level of FHB response increased to MR level in C4, compared to MS level in C0. The numbers of infected spikelets and diseased kernels decreased 0.32 and 2.68 per cycle, respectively. In Experiment II, the average level of FHB response increased to R level in C4F1. The numbers of infected spikelets and diseased kernels decreased 0.93 and 4.58 per cycle, respectively. In both experiments, the largest selection gains were realized in the first cycle. The frequencies of R and MR individuals were increased significantly. The frequencies of individuals with FHB response equal and/or superior to Sumai 3 were increased to 5–8% in C4 and 25% in C4F1after the fourth cycle. Agronomic traits tended to be slightly improved in selected populations. Compared to 2% in C0, about 34% of lines superior in both FHB resistance and agronomic traits in C4F1 were selected to enter the conventional breeding program for further evaluation. Sixty three semidwarf lines superior in both FHB resistance and yield potential were selected from the F5 generations derived from C1F1 to C4F1. From them, two resistant cultivars with high-yielding potential were developed and commercialized in the Lower Yangtze Valley. Recurrent selection appears to be highly effective and feasible in shifting the average FHB response of the intermating population in the desirable direction, thereby enhancing the frequency of resistant individuals.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: disease resistance ; incubation period ; infection frequency ; Stagonospora nodorum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Septoria nodorum blotch is the most important leaf disease of wheat in Western Australia. A potentially useful source of resistance has been identified in an accession of Aegilops tauschii. To study the genetics of resistance of this source a cross was made between the resistant Ae. tauschii accession, RL5271, and a susceptible accession, CPI110889. The resistant parent took significantly longer to develop symptoms, developed significantly fewer lesions and expressed significantly lower levels of disease than the susceptible parent. The F1 mean response for disease severity indicated there was no complete dominance. The F3 families were classified using three approaches. In the first approach the individual F3 plant response was used to classify the F3 families. In the second approach the F3 family means and standard errors were used to classify the F3 families. In the final approach Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of disease score and standard error for each F3 family derived from a REML analysis were used to classify the F3 families. The genotypic ratios generated by each of the approaches suggested that resistance is controlled by a single gene. The effectiveness of the resistance and its simple genetic control in the Ae. tauschii, accession RL5271 may be a useful resistance source for use in a bread wheat breeding program.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: ABA-responsive ; FKBP73 ; promoter ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The wheat FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 73 is a member of the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase gene family, which catalyses the interconversion between the cis and trans forms of the peptide bond preceding proline residues in proteins. A 3.5 kb sequence 5′ upstream of the ATG codon of the wheat FKBP73 was isolated from a wheat genomic library, and characterized by deletion analysis and transient expression in wheat embryos. The 1517 bp fragment is referred to as the full promoter due to the maximal activity of the fused luciferase reporter gene. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of three abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) proximal to coupling elements (CE1-like), a putative lectin box, two putative binding sites for the myb transcription factor and a 36 bp fragment which exhibits 100% identity to the pSau3A9 clone located in the centromeric region of wheat chromosomes. In a transient expression assay the promoter preserved the tissue specificity described in vivo, namely it is expressed only in germinating embryos and young shoots. The promoter was induced 1.9-fold by ABA, the minimal promoter was designated at −221 and the TATA box located at −137. The inducibility by ABA and the expression during germination may indicate that FKBP73 belongs to the group of genes induced by ABA upon germination.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: drainage ; duplex soil ; evapotranspiration ; lupin ; waterlogging ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The influence of time of sowing and sowing density on evapotranspiration and drainage loss beneath wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Spear) and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Gungurru) crops grown on a layered soil was investigated for three seasons in a Mediterranean climate in Western Australia. The aim of the study was to investigate whether managing crops to maximise their canopy growth would increase their water use and minimise groundwater recharge contributing to dryland salinity. A soil water balance approach was used to estimate evapotranspiration, with changes in soil water content measured with a neutron water meter. The study was carried out on a layered soil typical of agricultural soils in the region with variable depth to clay (0.22–0.38 m) and a marked contrast in hydraulic properties between the topsoil and subsoil. As a result of the low permeability subsoil, a perched water table occurred in the sandy topsoil in each of the three seasons under study during winter when rainfall was high and potential evaporation low. Perched water tables persisted for 2–3 months, with hydraulic gradients consistently downward causing drainage losses to occur. Although crop management had a large influence on shoot and root development, evapotranspiration from the different treatments was generally similar. Drainage losses were not influenced by either crop type, time of sowing or sowing density, because potential evaporation and hence evapotranspiration was low during the period when drainage losses occurred. The total drainage loss measured in each season was different, with losses ranging from 20.1 to 22.2 mm in 1990, from 40.4 to 46.7 mm in 1991 and from 49.4 to 66.6 mm in 1992. The increase in drainage loss from 1990 to 1992 was a result of progressively more seasonal rainfall in 1990, 1991 and 1992. It was concluded that there was little scope to increase water use and decrease deep drainage through crop management for sites with climatic conditions where winter rainfall exceeds potential evaporation.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: biomass ; intercepted radiation ; nitrogen nutrition ; oilseed rape ; radiation use efficiency ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the response of spring wheat and oilseed rape to nitrogen (N) supply, focusing on the critical period for grain number definition and grain filling. Crops were grown in containers under a shelter and treated with five combinations of applied N. Wheat and oilseed rape produced comparable amounts of biomass and yield when corrected for the costs of biomass synthesis (SC). From the responses of biomass and yield to late N applications and the apparent contribution of mobilised biomass to yield, it seems that the yield of oilseed rape was more source-limited during grain filling than that of wheat, particularly at the medium and high N levels. Both species recovered equal amounts of N from the total available N in the soil and had similar N use efficiencies, expressed as yield per unit of N absorbed. However, oilseed rape had higher efficiency to convert absorbed N in biomass, but lower harvest index of N than wheat. Oilseed rape had similar or lower root biomass than wheat, depending on N level, but higher root length per unit soil volume and specific root length. The specific uptake rate of N per unit root dry weight during the critical period for grain number determination was higher in oilseed rape than in wheat. In wheat, N limitation affected growth through a similar or lower reduction in radiation use efficiency corrected for synthesis costs (RUESC) than in the cumulative amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPARc). In oilseed rape, lower growth due to N shortage was associated more with RUESC than IPARc, during flowering while during grain filling both components contributed similarly to decreased growth. RUESC and the concentration of N in leaves and inflorescence (LIN%) decreased from flowering to maturity and were curvilinearly related. Oilseed rape tended to have higher RUESC than wheat at high N supply during the critical period for grain number determination, and generally lower during grain filling. The reasons for these differences and possibilities to increase yield potential are discussed in terms of the photosynthetic efficiency of the different organs and changes in source–sink ratio during reproductive stages.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: residual effect of gypsum ; rice ; selenium toxicity ; sulphur ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A field experiment was conducted for 2 years on an alkaline calcareous seleniferous soil to study the effect of different levels of gypsum (0.2 – 3.2 t ha−1) applied to wheat only in the first year on Se accumulation by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping sequence. With gypsum application, grain yield of both rice and wheat crops increased by 0.4 – 0.5 t ha−1; the increase in straw yield was 0.4 – 1.1 t ha−1. Significant reduction in Se accumulation by wheat was observed with gypsum application up to 0.8 t ha−1 and its residual effect was evident on the following crops for 2 years. Reduction in Se accumulation varied from 53 to 64% in wheat grain, 46 to 49% in wheat straw, 35 to 63% in rice grain and 36 to 51% in rice straw with an application of gypsum at 0.8 t ha−1. A corresponding increase in S concentration was observed. In the gypsum-treated plots, the ratio of S:Se increased by 6 – 8 times in wheat and 3 – 6 times in rice. Reduction in Se accumulation by crop plants through gypsum application may help in lowering the risk of Se over-exposure of animals and humans that depend on diet materials grown on high selenium soils.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Allelopathy ; phenolic acids ; 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one ; DIMBOA ; GC-MS-MS ; wheat ; Triticum aestivum ; weed suppression ; annual ryegrass ; Lolium rigidum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Wheat allelopathy has potential for weed suppression. Allelochemicals were identified in wheat seedlings, and they were exuded from seedlings into agar growth medium. p-Hydroxybenzoic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) were identified in both the shoots and roots of 17-day-old wheat seedlings and their associated agar growth medium. Wheat accessions with previously identified allelopathic activity tended to contain higher levels of allelochemicals than poorly allelopathic ones. The allelopathic compounds present in the shoots generally also were identified in the roots and in the agar medium. Allelochemicals were distributed differentially in wheat, with roots normally containing higher levels of allelochemicals than the shoots. When the eight allelochemicals were grouped into benzoic acid and cinnamic acid derivatives, DIMBOA, total coumaric, and total ferulic acids, the amount of each group of allelochemicals was correlated between the roots and the shoots. Most of the allelochemicals identified in the shoots and roots could be exuded by the living roots of wheat seedling into the agar growth medium. However, the amounts of allelochemicals in the agar growth medium were not proportional to those in the roots. Results suggest that wheat plants may retain allelochemicals once synthesized. The presence of allelochemicals in the agar growth medium demonstrated that wheat seedlings were able to synthesize and to exude phytotoxic compounds through their root system that could inhibit the root growth of annual ryegrass.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: nitrogen ; leaching ; paddy soil ; wheat ; rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Nitrogen in percolation water was observed in paddy field soil under rice/wheat rotation. Different N-application rates were designed. Porous pipes were installed in triplicate at depths of 30, 60 and 90 cm to collect the water in the period of wheat growth. Suction cups were installed in triplicate at the same depths to collect the water during the period of rice growth. NH4 +, NO3 - and total N in the water were analysed with a continuous-flow nitrogen analyzer. Results showed that nitrate was the predominant form of nitrogen in percolation water during the period of wheat growth. Nitrate leaching was high in early spring after the `tillering fertilisation'. More than 50 mg l-1 of nitrate concentration in percolation water was observed for 30 and 60 cm in depth and more than 15 mg l-1 were observed for 90 cm. The concentration decreased quickly and was very low, less than 2 mg l-1 usually, in the earring stage of wheat. Nitrate in water was low, less than 1.5 mg l-1 usually, when the field was flooded during the period of rice growth. Some soluble organic N existed in the water. Nitrate in percolation water increased when the field was drained. The leaching loss of nitrogen during winter wheat growth period was estimated to be about 3.4% of the N-fertiliser applied at the normal application rate of farmers; for the rice growth period it was around 1.8%. Although a reduced N-application decreased N leaching, it caused a marked decrease in crop yield.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: automated closed chamber method ; wheat ; cowpea ; slow-release nitrogen fertilizer ; residue management ; denitrification ; methane sink ; rainfall
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based cropping systems are characterized by alternate wetting and drying cycles as monsoonal rains come and go. The potential for accumulation and denitrification of NO3 − is high in these systems as is the production and emission of CH4 during the monsoon rice season. Simultaneous measurements of CH4 and N2O emissions using automated closed chamber methods have been reported in irrigated rice fields but not in rainfed rice systems. In this field study at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, simultaneous and continuous measurements of CH4 and N2O were made from the 1994 wet season to the 1996 dry season. During the rice-growing seasons, CH4 fluxes were observed, with the highest emissions being in organic residue-amended plots. Nitrous oxide fluxes, on the other hand, were generally nonexistent, except after fertilization events where low N2O fluxes were observed. Slow-release N fertilizer further reduced the already low N2O emissions compared with prilled urea in the first rice season. During the dry seasons, when the field was planted to the upland crops cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), positive CH4 fluxes were low and insignificant except after the imposition of a permanent flood where high CH4 fluxes appeared. Evidences of CH4 uptake were apparent in the first dry season, especially in cowpea plots, indicating that rainfed lowland rice soils can act as sink for CH4 during the upland crop cycle. Large N2O fluxes were observed shortly after rainfall events due to denitrification of accumulated NO3 −. Cumulative CH4 and N2O fluxes observed during this study in rainfed conditions were lower compared with previous studies on irrigated rice fields.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: elemental sulphur ; oilseed rape ; sulphate ; sulphur fertilisers ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to compare the availability and efficiency of three sulphur (S) fertilisers to wheat in the first year and oilseed rape in the second year, using six agricultural soils. Four treatments were applied in the initial year: control (no S), two forms of elemental S (either micronised S° particles or a bentonite + S° mixture) and a sulphate fertiliser (ammonium sulphate). In the first year, the micronised S° was as effective as the sulphate fertiliser, both producing similar increases of wheat grain yield (on average 36%) and S uptake (on average 164%) over the control. In contrast, responses to the bentonite + S° form were minimal, indicating a limited S supply. In the second year the control treatment failed to produce seeds in most soils, whereas the micronised S° and sulphate treatments increased seed yields of oilseed rape to an average of 13.4 and 12.9 g pot-1, respectively. The performance of the bentonite + S° varied between soils: two soils produced yields similar to those of the other S fertilisers, while the remaining soils had low yields. To test whether the poor performance of the bentonite clay + S° fertiliser was due to the lack of exposure of the prills to physical weathering in the glasshouse, the effect of freeze-thaw action on the fertilisers performance was assessed in a separate pot experiment. The responses in wheat yield and S uptake showed that freeze-thaw did not enhance the physical disruption of the prills or fertiliser effectiveness. These results suggest that the release of available S from the bentonite + S° mixture was too slow to meet the requirement of wheat and oilseed rape.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; cer ; β-diketone ; glaucous ; pre-harvest sprouting ; waxes ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Morphological features of the cereal ear, including awns, alter pre-harvest sprouting damage by changing the rate of water absorption during rainfall. In this paper, the potential for wheat (Triticum sp.) arid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) waxes to reduce sprouting by increasing water repellency of the mature ear has been examined. Six barley F2 populations segregating for different non-glaucous single-gene mutants controlling waxes on ears were examined. Water repellency was assessed by measuring both the contact angle of a water drop placed on the lemma surface (internal angle) and by repetitive weighings of whole ears during their exposure to simulated rainfall. The lemma of glaucous (wild type) lines had larger water drop contact angles, an indication of poorer spread of water over the surface. In simulated rainfall, ears of the glaucous lines showed a clear reduction of wetting (20–30% less) and, after 72 h of wetting, their in-ear sprouting was reduced by 50 to 65%. When pre-wet, the glaucous ears also shed water more readily when shaken to simulate the combined effect of wind and rainfall. To reduce pre-harvest sprouting of barley it may be possible to screen visually for ears that are more glaucous but a more specific screen would be to select for lemma water drop contact angle since it is a good indicator of ear wettability and so allows differences in surface properties to be assessed. For bread wheat (T. aestivumL.), as for barley, the more glaucous the ear, the greater the water drop contact angle and the more tubular surface wax coverage seen in scanning electron microscope images. In addition, surface wax amount apparently affected in-ear wettingin lines of durum wheat, (T. turgidum L.). Possible genetic relationships between waxy/waxless genes in wheat and barley are suggested with the aim, ultimately, of altering ear glaucousness to give increased water repellency and a reduction of in-ear sprouting of wheat.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1573-5109
    Keywords: agronomic traits ; isozymes ; landrace ; Triticum aestivum ; variation ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A sample of an Argentinean landrace of wheat showed considerable variation in most of the evaluated morphological and agronomic characters. However, analyses with high molecular glutenins and two isozyme systems, known to be highly polymorphic among current cultivars, revealed very little or no variation, respectively. The large difference in the observed variation between morphoagronomic and biochemical characters is discussed.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: grain texture ; microtome ; quality ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Although grain texture has been extensively studied, there is still some controversy about its mode of inheritance. The aim of this study was to use a microtome method to determine the inheritance of grain texture. The backcross method was used with a hard, well adapted cultivar, M29519 as recurrent parent, and Edwall, a soft cultivar with good biscuit-making quality, as donor. Segregation ratio's for grain texture were calculated after each backcross. The backcross derivates M29519 (soft) and M29519 (hard) and the donor and recurrent parents were also compared for biscuit-making quality. The microtome method was found to be very effective to determine grain texture. In this study grain softness was determined by a single dominant gene. M29519 (hard) and the recurrent parent did not differ significantly for any quality characteristics. M29519 (hard) and M29519 (soft) differed significantly for seven characteristics associated with biscuit-making quality, and M29519 (soft) produced a significantly larger biscuit diameter than M29519 (hard). M29519 (soft) differed significantly from the donor parent for six of the measured characteristics. Despite this, M29519 (soft) produced a biscuit similar in diameter to that of the donor parent. Therefore, although the transfer of the softness genes into a different genetic background did not transfer all the factors generally associated with good biscuit-making quality, it did produce a biscuit that did not differ significantly from that of the donor.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: cross prediction ; grain yield ; recombinant inbred lines ; single seed descent ; wheat ; yellow rust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Populations of F6 recombinant inbred lines, generated by single seed descent from a half diallel among eight bread wheat lines adapted to the East African highlands, were used to identify those crosses that were more likely to produce cultivars which combined resistance to yellow rust with improved yield. Crosses having the most resistant line as one parent offered the best prospect of success, particularly those which produced F1hybrids exhibiting better parent heterosis. For plot grain yield there was a highly significant correlation between the observed and predicted rankings of the recombinant inbred line populations for the proportion of individual lines equalling or surpassing the target value. For yellow rust severity, however, this correlation was non-significant when a target value of zero was used. Adopting a slightly less stringent target of 0.25, coupled with the omission of two aberrant populations, increased this correlation significantly. The plant breeding implications of these results are discussed.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: alien genetic variation ; chromosome translocation ; powdery mildew ; resistance ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A powdery mildew resistant double disomic wheat-rye substitution line carrying rye chromosomes 1R and 2R was crossed with normal bread wheats. The F2 generation was analysed cytologically by C-banding. Wheat-rye chromosome translocations involving both rye chromosomes 1R and 2R were frequent in F2. Lines with translocations of 1R and 2R were harvested separately. After four generations of selfing and selection for mildew resistance and fertility, fully fertile resistant lines were selected and analysed cytologically. Lines with 1BL/1RS and 2BS/2RL translocations were identified. The resistance on chromosome 1RS could not be shown to be different from control varieties carrying the same rye segment, while the resistance on 2RL is much broader than the earlier known 2RL derived resistance in the line Transec.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; GISH ; in situ hybridization ; translocation ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Wheat-barley translocations were identified by genomicin situ hybridization (GISH) in backcross progenies originating from in vitro regenerated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) × barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Betzes) hybrids. The regenerated hybrids were pollinated with the wheat line Martonvásári 9 kr1. Five translocated wheat-barley chromosomes were recovered among 51 BC2F2 progeny from the in vitro regenerated wheat × barley hybrids. All were single breakpoint translocations with the relative positions of the breakpoints ranging from the centromere to about 0.8 of the relative arm length. Of the four translocations with intercalary breakpoints, three were transfers of terminal barley segments to wheat chromosomes; one was a transfer of a terminal wheat segment to a barley chromosome. Because of the absence of diagnostic N-bands, the identity of three barley segments could not be determined; in one translocation the barley chromosome involved had a NOR so it must have been 5H or 6H, and the centric translocation was 4HS.2BL. Following selfing, homozygotes of four translocations were selected. The experiment suggests that in vitro culture conditions are conducive for major genome rearrangements in wheat-barley hybrids.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: aluminum tolerance ; genetic control ; induced mutations ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The behavior of 17 gamma irradiation mutant lines derived from the aluminum sensitive wheat cultivar `Anahuac' was compared with two sensitive and three tolerant cultivars in nutritent solutions containing seven Al3+ concentrations (0; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 6 and10 mg/liter), at a temperature of 25 °C and 4.0 pH. Tolerance was measured by the continued growth of the primary roots in a solution without aluminum after 48 hours in a solution containing a known concentration of aluminum. 14 mutant lines were as tolerant to the presence of 10 mg/liter of Al3+ in the treatment solutions as were the tolerant `BH-1146', `IAC-60' and `IAC-24' cultivars. Two mutant lines were tolerant and one was sensitive to the presence of 1 mg/liter of Al3+, while the cultivars `Siete Cerros' and `Anahuac' were sensitive to 1 and 0.5 mg/liter Al3+ in the solutions, respectively. F2 seedlings, obtained from cross among one sensitive and twelve tolerant mutant lines to the sensitive cultivars (`Siete Cerros' or `Anahuac') and the tolerant cultivars (`BH-1146' or `IAC-24') were assessed for tolerance to 2 mg/liter Al3+ in nutritient solutions. The twelve tolerant mutant lines and the tolerant `IAC-60' and `IAC-24' cultivars differed from the sensitive `Siete Cerros' or `Anahuac' cultivars by one pair of dominant alleles. The results indicated that tolerance in the induced mutants was due to a single pair of dominant alleles and that these alleles expressed the same tolerance as `BH-1146' and `IAC-24' cultivars.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1573-5087
    Keywords: abscisic acid (ABA) ; dormancy ; mature germination ; seed ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Seed dormancy develops latein embryogenesis after a period of potential prematuregermination and has been associated with levels ofabscisic acid (ABA) in, and sensitivity to, ABA ofembryos. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)embryos, there are two peaks in levels of ABA duringdevelopment: the first occurs 25 days afterpollination (DAP) and the second from 35 to 40 DAP. The first peak of ABA appears to be associated withthe development of the embryo's sensitivity to ABAsince such sensitivity was altered in seeds on earsthat were incubated in a solution of ABA from 15 and20 DAP. In the embryos of Kitakei wheat, a line thatexhibits dormancy, the second peak, at around 35 DAP,was more prolonged in comparison to Chihoku, anon-dormant line. The results support the proposedinvolvement of ABA in the formation and maintenance ofseed dormancy during middle and late embryogenesis. When developing embryos were incubated in water,embryonic ABA leaked out from the embryos, inparticular between 30 and 40 DAP. Prematuregermination observed between 30 and 40 DAP might berelated to such leakage of ABA from embryos.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: genomic in-situ hybridization ; meiosis ; neocentromere ; rye ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The neocentric activity of a constriction located on the long arm of rye 5R chromosome (5RL) was analysed. It is not observed in normal rye but it is unusually stretched in bivalents involving 5RL telosomes in wheat–ditelosomic 5RL addition lines. In 20% of metaphase I cells, the 5RL bivalent presents the centromeres oriented to one pole and the constrictions oriented towards the opposite pole with a strong tension. In 5% of the cells, the constriction was able to orient the bivalent to the poles without tension in the centromeres. Sister chromatid cohesion, which is one of the distinct features of centromeric function, is persistent at the constriction in delayed 5RL chromosomes at anaphase I. Neither the elongation of the constriction nor the neocentric activity was observed at second meiotic division or mitosis. FISH studies showed that the 5RL constriction lacked detectable quantities of two repetitive DNA sequences, CCS1 and the 180-bp knob repeat, present at cereal centromeres and neocentromeres, respectively. We propose that, under special conditions, such as the wheat background, the normally non-centromeric DNA present at this region of 5RL acquires a specific chromatin structure, differentiated as an elongated constriction, which is able to function as a centromere.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: D1 protein ; diphenylcarbazide ; oxygen evolving complex ; scavengers ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Irradiation of thylakoid membranes at 40 °C resulted in complete inhibition of photosystem (PS) 2 activity measured as 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) photoreduction either in the absence or presence of 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC). Concomitant with the inactivation of PS2 activity, several thylakoid proteins were lost and high molecular mass cross-linking products appeared that cross-reacted with antibodies against proteins of PS2 but not with antibodies against proteins of other three complexes PS1, ATP synthase, and cytochrome b6f. Irradiation of thylakoid membranes suspended in buffer of basic pH or high concentration of Tris at 25 °C resulted in the formation of cross-linking products similar to those in thylakoid membranes irradiated at 40 °C. Presence of radical scavengers and DPC during the high temperature treatment prevented the formation of cross-linking products. These results suggest the involvement of oxygen evolving co mplex (OEC) in the formation of cross-linking between PS2 proteins in thylakoid membrane irradiated at high temperature.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: antibody ; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; protease ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Exposure of thylakoid membranes to high temperature in dark leads to the degradation of D1 protein. Maximum degradation of D1 protein occurred at 45 °C. Using N-terminal specific D1 antibody, a 23 kDa fragment of D1 protein was detected. The degradation of D1 protein could be prevented both by radical scavengers and inhibitors of serine protease and metallo-protease. These results suggest that degradation of D1 protein during exposure of thylakoid membranes to high temperature in dark is catalyzed by protease.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: Microdochium nivale ; Fusarium ear blight ; in vitro bioassay ; disease resistance breeding ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A novel in vitro bioassay is described for screening Fusarium ear blight (FEB) resistance in adult winter wheat plants. Seven winter wheat cultivars were assessed for components of partial disease resistance as 28 day-old detached leaf segments in the laboratory using isolates of Microdochium nivale var. nivale and M. nivale var. majus. Results were compared with disease data obtained at anthesis using the same cultivars as whole plants and the same isolates under glasshouse conditions. Significant cultivar differences were observed using detached leaves, with cv. Avalon (a Fusarium culmorum ear susceptible cultivar) having the shortest leaf incubation period, greatest leaf lesion development and shortest leaf latent period compared to cv. Spark (a Fusarium culmorum ear resistant cultivar), which had the longest leaf incubation period, least leaf lesion development and longest leaf latent period. Using whole plants, cv. Avalon had the shortest ear incubation period and greatest ear disease severity, whilst cv. Spark had the longest incubation period and least ear disease severity. Overall, cultivars of intermediate F. culmorum ear resistance expressed intermediate responses to M. nivale isolates, using both detached leaves and whole plants. Significant correlations were found with ear disease severity and ear incubation period in whole plants and components of partial disease resistance in detached leaves, with significant correlations obtained between leaf incubation period and ear disease parameters using the M. nivale var. nivale isolate. In addition, leaf latent period and leaf lesion size showed significant correlations with whole plant reactions using M. nivale var. nivale and var. majus isolates. The in vitro screening of cultivars as detached leaves using M. nivale isolates may offer a real possibility of a rapid bioassay for the early screening of FEB resistance in wheat and other cereals.
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  • 33
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    European journal of plant pathology 105 (1999), S. 629-641 
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: wheat ; Triticum spp. ; Septoria tritici ; septoria tritici blotch of wheat Stagonospora nodorum ; stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1572-9788
    Keywords: wheat ; milling yield ; QTL mapping ; RFLP ; microsatellite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A partial genetic linkage map constructed using 150 single seed descent (SSD) lines generated from a cross between the hexaploid wheat varieties ‘Schomburgk’ and ‘Yarralinka’ was used to identify loci controlling milling yield. Milling yield data were obtained using seed collected from field trials conducted at different sites over two seasons. The estimated broad-sense heritability of milling yield in this population was calculated as 0.48. In the preliminary analysis, two regions were identified on chromosomes 3A and 7D, which were significantly associated with milling yield and accounted for 22% and 19% of the genetic variation, respectively. Bulked segregant analysis in combination with AFLP identified other markers linked to these loci, as well as an additional region on chromosome 5A, which accounted for 19% of the genetic variation. The applicability of these markers as selection tools for breeding purposes is discussed.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: wheat ; mitochondria ; RNA polymerase ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Using PCR-based methods, we assembled two wheat cDNA sequences, wheat-G and wheat-C, that encode T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerases (RNAPs) sharing 45% amino acid identity. In phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood, parsimony and distance methods, the predicted protein sequence of wheat-G (1005 amino acids, 113 kDa) clusters with sequences of previously assigned mitochondrial RNAPs from dicotyledonous plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Chenopodium album); likewise, in such analyses, the wheat-C sequence (949 amino acids, 107 kDa) affiliates specifically with the Arabidopsis sequence that encodes a phage-like RNAP thought to function in chloroplasts. To confirm biochemically the assignment of the gene encoding the putative wheat mitochondrial RNAP, we isolated a ca. 100 kDa wheat mitochondrial protein that is enriched in fractions displaying specific in vitro transcription activity and that reacts with an antibody raised against a recombinant maize phage-type RNAP. Internal peptide sequence information obtained from the 100-kDa polypeptide revealed that it corresponds to the predicted wheat-G cDNA sequence, providing direct evidence that the wheat-G gene (which we propose to call RpoTm) encodes the wheat mitochondrial RNAP.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: programmed cell death ; wheat ; endosperm ; ethylene ; nucleases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Although maize endosperm undergoes programmed cell death during its development, it is not known whether this developmental feature is common to cereals or whether it arose inadvertently from the selection process that resulted in the enlarged endosperm of modern maize. Examination of wheat endosperm during its development revealed that this tissue undergoes a programmed cell death that shares features with the maize program but differs in some aspects of its execution. Cell death initiated and progressed stochastically in wheat endosperm in contrast to maize where cell death initiates within the upper central endosperm and expands outward. After a peak of ethylene production during early development, wheat endosperm DNA underwent internucleosomal fragmentation that was detectable from mid to late development. The developmental onset and progression of DNA degradation was regulated by the level of ethylene production and perception. These observations suggest that programmed cell death of the endosperm and regulation of this program by ethylene is not unique to maize but that differences in the execution of the program appear to exist among cereals.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: A23187 ; calcium ; elicitor ; MAP kinase ; Typhula ishikariensis ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wheat cultured cells were used to study the role of Ca2+ in regulating protein kinases during the induction of defense-related genes by fungal elicitor treatments. Manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations by treatment with calcium ionophore A23187 in the presence of high extracellular Ca2+ resulted in the induction of mRNA expression of WCK-1, a gene encoding mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The induction of WCK-1 mRNA by A23187 did not occur when extracellular Ca2+ was chelated by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The WCK-1 mRNA was also induced by Typhula ishikariensis-derived elicitors, suggesting a possible involvement of WCK-1 in the plant defense response against pathogens. BAPTA and a calcium channel blocker, La3+, inhibited the elicitor-induced expression of the WCK-1 mRNA. A recombinant fusion protein of WCK-1 (GST-WCK-1) autophosphorylated at the Tyr residue and exhibited an autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase activity towards myelin basic protein. Alteration of Tyr-196 in the conserved ‘TEY’ motif in GST-WCK-1 to Phe by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the autophosphorylation. The GST-WCK-1 protein was activated by elicitor-treated wheat cell extracts but not by the control extract. These results suggest that fungal elicitors activate WCK-1, a specific MAP kinase in wheat. Furthermore, the results suggest a possible involvement of Ca2+ in enhancing the MAP kinase signaling cascade in plants by controlling the levels of the MAP kinase transcripts.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: alternative splicing ; starch biosynthesis ; starch-branching enzyme ; transit peptide ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A wheat gene, denoted Sbe1, encoding a type I starch-branching enzyme (SBEI) was isolated from a genomic library and shown to comprise 14 exons distributed over a 5.7 kb DNA region. Analyses of kernel RNA by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′-RACE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a considerable sequence variation at the 5′ ends of SBEI gene transcripts. DNA sequence alignments between the 5′-RACE products and the Sbe1 genomic DNA indicated that the first two exons and first intron were differentially processed to generate three classes of the mature transcript. One form of the SBEI gene transcript in 12-day old kernels contained the exon I+II+III combination at the 5′ end, whereas other forms differed by inclusion of intron 1 or exclusion of exon II sequences. RT-PCR analysis of Sbe1-uidA::nptII chimeric mRNA produced in transgenic wheat cultured cells confirmed that the isolated Sbe1 was able to produce all three forms of SBEI gene transcripts by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA. The variants of processed Sbe1 mRNA were potentially translated into N-terminal variants of the SBEI precursor with different transit peptide sequences.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: hydraulic conductivity ; leaf growth ; phosphorus ; Rhizoctonia ; water status ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Wheat seedlings infected with a pure inoculum of the root-rotting fungus Rhizoctonia solani were grown in pots designed to fit in pressure chambers, to allow the effects of the Rhizoctonia infection on leaf growth to be studied while maintaining the leaves at elevated water status. Wheat was grown to the third leaf stage in soil inoculated with three different levels of Rhizoctonia, and the pots were then pressurised for seven days to maintain the leaf xylem at the point of bleeding (ie. the leaves were at full turgor). The reduction in leaf expansion caused by Rhizoctonia was not overcome by pressurisation, indicating that a reduced supply of water to the leaves was not responsible for reduced leaf growth. The addition of phosphorus to pots marginally deficient in P did not increase the leaf growth of Rhizoctonia-infected plants, despite increased P uptake to the leaves. These results indicate that a reduced supply of water to the leaves and a supply of phosphorus that was bordering on deficient was not the cause of the growth reduction in seedlings with Rhizoctonia infection. The nature of this reduced growth remains uncertain but may involve growth regulators produced by the fungus, or by the plant as a result of the infection process. The mechanism of these growth reductions is of interest as it may provide a key to the development of plant resistance mechanisms.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: leaf emergence ; phosphorus ; photosynthesis ; tillering ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Phosphorus (P) deficiency limits the yield of wheat, particularly by reducing the number of ears per unit of area because of a poor tiller emergence. The objectives of this work were to (i) determine whether tiller emergence under low phosphorus availability is a function of the availability of assimilates for growth or a direct result of low P availability, (ii) attempt to establish a quantitative relation between an index of the availability of P in the plant and the effects of P deficiency on tiller emergence, and (iii) to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in tiller emergence in field-grown wheat. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. INTA Oasis), was grown in the field under drip irrigation on a typic Argiudol, low in P (5.5 μg P g-1 soil Bray & Kurtz I) in Balcarce, Argentina. Treatments consisted of the combination of three levels of P fertilization 0, 60 and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1, and two levels of assimilate availability, a control (non-shaded) and 65% of reduction in incident irradiance from seedling emergence until the end of tillering (shaded). Phosphorus treatments significantly modified the pattern of growth and development of the plants. Shading reduced the growth and concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates in leaves and stems. Leaf photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance was reduced by P deficiency, but was not affected by shading. At shoot P concentrations less than 4.2 g P kg-1 the heterogeneity in the plant population increased with respect to the number of plants bearing a certain tiller. At a shoot P concentration of 1.7 g P kg-1 tillering ceased completely. Phosphorus deficiency directly altered the normal pattern of tiller emergence by slowing the emergence of leaves on the main stem (i.e. increasing the phyllochron), and by reducing the maximum rate of tiller emergence for each tiller.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: macropores ; rhizosphere ; roots ; root-soil interplay ; soil properties ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Under certain soil conditions, e.g. hardsetting clay B-horizons of South-Eastern Australia, wheat plants do not perform as well as would be expected given measurements of bulk soil attributes. In such soils, measurement indicates that a large proportion (80%) of roots are preferentially located in the soil within 1 mm of macropores. This paper addresses the question of whether there are biological and soil chemical effects concomitant with this observed spatial relationship. The properties of soil manually dissected from the 1–3 mm wide region surrounding macropores, the macropore sheath, were compared to those that are measured in a conventional manner on the bulk soil. Field specimens of two different soil materials were dissected to examine biological differentiation. To ascertain whether the macropore sheath soil differs from rhizosphere soil, wheat was grown in structured and repacked cores under laboratory conditions. The macropore sheath soil contained more microbial biomass per unit mass than both the bulk soil and the rhizosphere. The bacterial population in the macropore sheath was able to utilise a wider range of carbon substrates and to a greater extent than the bacterial population in the corresponding bulk soil. These differences between the macropore sheath and bulk soil were almost non-existent in the repacked cores. Evidence for larger numbers of propagules of the broad host range fungus Pythium in the macropore sheath soil were also obtained.
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  • 42
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    Plant and soil 211 (1999), S. 223-230 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: silicon absorption ; transport ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Although silicon (Si) is a quantitatively major inorganic constituent of higher plants the element is not considered generally essential for them. Therefore it is not included in the formulation of any of the solution cultures widely used in plant physiological research. One consequence of this state of affairs is that the absorption and transport of Si have not been investigated nearly as much as those of the elements accorded 'essential' status. In this paper we report experiments showing that Si is rapidly absorbed by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants from solution cultures initially containing Si at 0.5 mM, a concentration realistic in terms of the concentrations of the element in soil solutions. Nearly mature plants (headed out) 'preloaded' with Si absorbed it at virtually the same rate as did plants grown previously in solutions to which Si had not been added. The rate of Si absorption increased by more than an order of magnitude between the 2-leaf and the 7-8 leaf stage, with little change thereafter.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: banded wetting agent ; furrow sowing ; lupins ; press wheels ; water repellent soils ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The rates of emergence of wheat and lupin were measured in 13 field experiments on water repellent sands. Conventional sowing was compared with furrow sowing either with or without the use of a press wheel and several rates of banded wetting agent. Measurements included, severity of water repellence, plant emergence, rainfall, soil temperature at sowing and, at one site, the area of wet soil after sowing. All ameliorative techniques improved emergence, with responses being greatest when seeds were sown into dry soil. Compared with conventional sowing, furrow sowing increased wheat and lupin emergence by an overall average of 16 and 41%, respectively. The benefits were greater at the drier sites. Increases in emergence due to the use of a press wheel were sometimes small, although they always occurred (1–19%). It was visually observed that press wheel use gave more uniform seeding depth, reduced clods and ensured more accurate placement of banded wetting agent. Banded wetting agent consistently improved wheat and lupin emergence, particularly where early rains were light and press wheels were used. The wetting agent increased the cross-sectional area of wet topsoil (0–10 cm) which was positively related with increased wheat emergence (R2 = 0.91). At 0.5 L ha−1 of banded wetting agent, the soil along the furrow was four times wetter than without wetting agent. Wetting agent at 0.5 and 1 L ha−1 (with press wheels) increased wheat emergence by 6 and 11% and lupin emergence by 13 and 11%, respectively. The high rates of banded wetting agent gave highest plant densities. Grain yield was only measured at three sites. Furrow sowing did not increase grain yield, however, press wheels use with furrow sowing increased grain yield by 30%. Banded wetting agent increased grain yield and they were positively correlated. The highest rate increased grain yields by a further 9% above press wheels and furrow sowing.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: agriculture ; fertilisation ; nitric oxide flux ; nitrification ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The surface flux of nitric oxide from a wheat field was investigated from 23 March to 29 May 1997 in the Kerzersmoos, Switzerland. A plot fertilised with 19 kg N ha-1 in cattle slurry and 40 kg N ha-1 in mineral NH4NO3 fertiliser and a plot receiving no nitrogen containing fertiliser were compared. The flux was calculated based on hourly measurements of the NO soil–atmosphere concentration gradient using the one-dimensional soil diffusion model of Galbally and Johansson (1989). The soil bulk diffusion coefficient was determined from measurements of the 222Rn surface flux and the activity gradient between 10 cm depth and the surface. It ranged between 79% and 0.3% of the NO diffusion coefficient in air and was parameterised by air filled soil pore space. The indirectly determined NO flux agreed well with standard flux measurements using dynamic chambers. The largest NO emission was found following fertiliser application and irrigation. The emission occurred in pulses, which lasted for 4 days up to 3 weeks coinciding with elevated soil ammonium concentrations. Nitric oxide emission in 5 days following application of cattle slurry were 31 g NO-N ha-1 and 5 g NO-N ha-1 from the non-fertilised plot, respectively. Nitric oxide emission in 15 days following application of NH4NO3 was 95 g NO-N ha-1 and 10 g NO-N ha-1 from the non-fertilised plot, respectively. NO emission in 4 days following irrigation on 21 April were 36 g N ha-1 from the fertilised and 39 g N ha-1 from the non-fertilised plot. The daily NO emission before and after fertiliser and irrigation pulses was between 0.3 and 0.7 g NO-N ha-1 d-1. NO production and NO uptake of the soil was measured regularly. No systematic influence of management or climate on NO uptake was found. NO production was strongly stimulated by fertiliser input and soil moisture content. The simulation of NO production could be reproduced using a nitrification algorithm (Riedo et al., 1998) driven by soil temperature, moisture and ammonium concentration. A NO production rate constant of 1.1ċ10-3 h-1 at 15 °C was derived from a linear regression between nitrification and NO production. Introducing the parameterisation of NO production into the model of Galbally and Johansson (1989) the duration and the strength of the NO emission pulses could be reproduced and the total NO emission during the experiment was approximated within a factor of two.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: plant regeneration ; protoplast ; suspension culture ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A fast-growing, small, granular, embryogenic callus was selected from primary calli induced from the Japanese wheat cultivar Nakasoushu and the Australian wheat cultivar Bodallin. Regenerable and fine suspension cultures were induced three to six months after liquid culture was initiated and were characterized by dense cytoplasm and active division. These suspension cultures routinely provided high yields of protoplasts with about 90% viability when incubated in a modified KMP (Kao and Michayluk, 1975) medium containing 1 mg l-1 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and 1 mg l-1 zeatin. Nakasoushu and Bodallin protoplasts divided at frequencies of 8.6% and 11.1%, respectively, in agarose-solidified media. When Nakasoushu protoplasts were cultured with effective nurse cells of sorghum and wheat, protoplast division increased to 16.9% and 12.6%, respectively. Plating efficiencies varied from 0.03% to 2.5%. After subculture, protocolonies yielded embryogenic calli and somatic embryos, from which green plants were eventually regenerated. Whole plants obtained from Nakasoushu protoplasts were fertile, demonstrating the first report of Japanese cultivars in wheat protoplast cultures.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: diallel cross ; genotype-environment interaction ; marginal environments ; wheat ; yellow rust ; yield
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Complete F1 and F2 diallel crosses were used to investigate the inheritance of yield among eight Ugandan bread wheat lines grown in two low-yielding environments; one marginal because of the high incidence of yellow rust normally experienced there, the other a low-rust site. In the marginal, high-rust environment, mainly additive genetic variation was present, though in one season, when disease incidence was unusually low, non-additive variation due to dominance was also detected. Although yield was significantly higher at the low-rust site, no clear pattern of inheritance was apparent there. The results indicated that the low rust site was an intermediate environment, just below the crossover point of a crossover genotype-environment interaction. The implications of these results for wheat breeding in low-yielding and marginal environments in Uganda and elsewhere are discussed.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: disease resistance ; inheritance ; Karnal bunt ; Neovossia ; Tilletia indica ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Inheritance of resistance to Neovossia indica was studied in a Triticum aestivum line HD 29. To overcome the influence of environment on disease expression, the study was conducted by extensive evaluation of advanced generation (F8) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed by single seed descent from the cross WL 711 (susceptible) × HD 29 (resistant. The results suggested that HD 29 possesses three major genes for resistance to isolated Ni7 and two genes for resistance to isolate Ni8. One of the two genes controlling resistance to Ni8 is common with one of the genes conferring resistance to Ni7. These observations have important implications in breeding for Karnal bunt resistance.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: capillary electrophoresis ; cultivar identification ; gliadins ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Gliadin proteins extracted from fifteen Chinese and Yugoslav winter wheat cultivars were fractionated using a new separation technique – Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE). Different CZE conditions were defined to optimize resolution and reproducibility of gliadin separations. Excellent resolution and high reproducibility of gliadin CZE patterns were obtained by using 47 cm length, 50 μm i.d. capillaries at 15 kV and 30° C in sodium borate buffer system with acetonitrile (ACN) and sodium dodecyl sulfate. By using these CZE conditions, gliadin proteins from each cultivar were easily separated into more than 35 components. This resolution is generally superior to that of one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and RH-HPLC. Analysis of reproducibility of gliadin CZE patterns from Chinese cultivar ‘Lumai 6’ showed that the average relative standard deviation (RSD) for peak migration times and heights was 0.21% and 4.06%, respectively. Gliadin electrophoregrams of all cultivars studied showed clear qualitative and quantitative differences, including presence or absence of some major peak, migration times and heights of peaks. Specifically, some closely related cultivars that were not differentiable by A-PAGE, were readily differentiated by CZE. In addition, winter wheat cultivars from China and Yugoslavia showed greater differences in gliadin compositions revealed by CZE.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: wheat ; plant breeding ; yield stability ; environmental index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effect of plant breeding on yield and their physiological determinants has been widely studied in wheat. However, it is poorly understood how, and to what extent, yield stability has been modified. To attempt a direct analysis of changes in absolute and relative yield stability, data of yield of cultivars released in different eras in different environments were obtained from records from our lab and from the literature. Depending on the availability of data, effects of plant breeding on yield stability of cultivars released in Argentina, Australia, Italy and the United Kingdom were evaluated using a quantitative approach. In this paper it was assumed that the slope of yield vs. environmental index estimates the instability of the cultivars. In addition, a more qualitative approach for Mexico, and the former USSR complemented this analysis. There was a clear decrease in yield stability assessed in absolute terms as a consequence of wheat breeding. In Argentina, Australia, Italy and the UK this decrease was related to the magnitude of yield increases. However, the decrease in yield stability in Argentina and Australia was less than for Italy and the UK, particularly so during the last 30 years. Modern cultivars released in Argentina and Australia showed a trend to maintain yield stability as a percentage of their yield similar to that of their predecessors, while the two European countries analysed tended to a slight decrease in yield stability even in relative terms. The complementary, less quantitative evaluation of Mexico and the former USSR appeared to confirm the quantitative trends described for the other countries, i.e. a general decrease in yield stability (assessed in absolute terms) with genetic gains in yield potential.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Russian wheat aphid ; resistance ; inheritance ; allelism ; segregation ratio ; wheat ; Triticum aestivum L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the United States of America. Developing adapted wheat cultivars with genetic resistance to RWA is an effective control strategy. Genetic studies were conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of gene(s) conferring resistance to RWA in an Iranian landrace wheat line, G 5864. For the inheritance study, G 5864 was crossed with the susceptible wheats ‘Yecora Rojo’ and ND 2375. Seedlings of F1, reciprocal F1, F2, BC1 to the susceptible parent (BCS), and BC1 to the resistant parent (BCR) were screened for RWA reaction. Several phenotypic segregation ratios were tested in the F2 populations for goodness of fit; the 9:3:3:1 ratio (resistant: rolled leaves: stunted plants: susceptible) was an acceptable fit in all cases. Thus, resistance in G 5864 seemed to be controlled by two independent dominant genes with additive gene effects. The allelic relationships of gene(s) in this line with genes in other resistant lines, PI 137739 (Dn1), PI 262660 (Dn2), PI 372129 (Dn4), PI 294994 (Dn5), and PI 243781 (Dn6), were also studied. Segregation patterns observed in G 5864 × resistant (R × R) F2 populations were inconclusive. However, no susceptible plants were observed in these F2 populations. If previous reports concerning the number of resistance genes present in the other resistant lines are correct, then given the high manifestation of resistance observed in G 5864, and given the absence of susceptible plants in the R × R F2 populations, it is indicated that RWA resistance in G 5864 is either controlled by different alleles at the same loci as the other resistance genes, or that G 5864 shares a resistance gene with each of the other resistant lines.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: diallel analysis ; Fusarium culmorum ; heterosis ; resistance ; scab ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Fusarium head blight (FHB, scab) caused by Fusarium spp. is a widespread disease of cereals causing relevant yield and quality losses and contaminating cereal products with mycotoxins. Breeding resistant cultivars is the method of choice for controlling the disease. Resistance to FHB is a quantitative trait and is most likely governed by several genes. We present the results of an F1 diallel analysis of FHB resistance involving six resistant and one susceptible European winter wheat genotypes of diverse origin in order to identify promising combinations for the selection of improved cultivars. Parents and F1s including reciprocals were evaluated for FHB resistance in an artificially inoculated field trial. Two traits were assessed: visual disease symptoms on the heads and the percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels in a harvested sample. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were statistically significant for visual symptoms and kernel damage, whereas reciprocal effects were small or not significant. Heterosis for resistance was common, indicating that the parental genotypes possess different resistance genes. Selection of transgressive segregates should be feasible from such heterotic combinations.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: promoter analysis ; puroindoline gene ; seed ; tissue-specific expression ; transgenic rice ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genomic DNA fragment containing the 5′-upstream sequence and part of the open reading frame corresponding to Triticum aestivum puroindoline-b cDNA, was isolated by inverse PCR. Promoter fragments extending to −1068, −388, −210 or −124 upstream of the translation initiation ATG codon and the sequence coding for the first 13 amino acids of the puroindoline-b, were translationally fused to the uidA reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase and transferred to rice calli via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The 1068 bp and 124 bp promoters were also transcriptionally fused to the uidA reporter gene. Out of the 196 plants regenerated from transformed rice calli, 118 plants set seeds. No GUS activity was detectable in the stems, roots, leaves or pollen of the transgenic rice which had integrated the puroindoline-b promoter or its deletions; GUS activity was detected only in seeds, except in those having integrated the 124 bp promoter. Within seeds, histological localisation showed GUS activity as being restricted to the endosperm, aleurone cells and pericarp cell layers; no GUS activity was detected in the embryonic axis. Analysis of 5′ promoter deletions identified the region between −388 and −210 as essential for endosperm expression, and the region between −210 and −124 as essential for expression in the epithelium of the scutellum. No difference of expression was observed between the translational and transcriptional fusion genes.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: abscisic acid ; drought ; soil water content ; water potential ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In order to investigate the effects of soil texture on possible non-hydraulic signals under field conditions, spring wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Cadensa) grown in sand and loam soils and with a well developed root system were exposed to slow soil drying in the late vegetative stage of growth. Soil water potential and content were measured daily at different depths and plant responses were measured in flag leaves. When the average soil water potential in the top soil layers (0–25 cm depth in sand and 0–45 cm depth in loam) dropped to –60 or –70 kPa and the lower soil layers were still at field capacity, morning xylem [ABA] (0.03–0.04 vs. 0.06–0.08 mmol m-3) and midday leaf ABA concentration increased (250–300 vs. 400–450 ng/g DW) and leaf conductance decreased relatively to well-watered (control) plants (0.75–0.88 vs. 0.64–0.70 mol m-2 s-1). These responses took place before any decrease in leaf water potential occurred as compared with control plants, indicating that they were triggered by root-borne signals due to reduced root water status in the top soil layers. At this stage the soil water content was as low as 6% by volume, the fraction of roots in ‘wet’ soil was 0.12 and relative available soil water was 45% in sand and still high 20%, 0.48 and 70%, respectively, in loam of the whole soil profile indicating that roots were responding to soil water availability and not soil water content at a certain evaporative demand. In addition, similar responses occurred at high and low evaporative demands (3.4–5.2 vs. 0.6–4.0 mm/day of potential evapotranspiration).
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: 2 ; 4-D ; germination ; growth ; salinity-tolerance ; seed treatment ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to study the effect of 2,4-D on rooting and salinity tolerance of wheat. Seeds of one commercial wheat (Inqalab-91) and three salt-tolerant wheat lines (WL-41, WL-359, and WL-1073 developed through wide hybridization) were included in the study. Preliminary and short-term experiments were conducted to determine the level of 2,4-D (administered through seed soaking for 24.5 h. at 25 °C in the dark) at which the maximum number of roots emerged. Under hydroponic conditions, 2,4-D treatment of seeds caused an increase of 60 to 100% in the number of primary roots. The maximum increase in the number of roots was observed in one of the salt tolerant wheat lines (WL-41). The roots appeared in bunches but showed stunted growth at higher levels of 2,4-D. Dry matter accumulation decreased markedly; the effect was more pronounced in Inqalab-91 which is less tolerant to stress than other wheat lines. In all wheat types, allocation of dry matter to roots relative to shoot increased due to 2,4-D treatment. In soil, seeds treated with different levels of 2,4-D showed a germination delay of 1–3 days. Although the number of primary roots increased, 2,4-D treatment caused a decrease in total dry matter accumulation by plants grown for 40 days. In another experiment, conducted under greenhouse conditions, seed germination and growth of seedlings was significantly retarded in saline compared to that in non-saline (normal) soil. Initially, the pace of germination of treated seeds as well as seedling growth was slower in both soils, but after six weeks, the leaf area of seedlings raised from treated seeds was greater than those raised from untreated seeds. Towards maturity, plants arising from treated seeds developed wider and longer flag leaves leading to enhanced yield. Root biomass decreased in saline soil as compared to normal soil. However, 2,4-D treatment caused a substantial increase in root biomass in saline soil and the roots were harder in texture in wheats other than Inqalab-91. Seed treatment with 2,4-D led to a significant improvement in the number of productive tillers, yield of straw and grain, and grain protein content of all wheats grown in saline soil. Plants grown in normal soil did not show any marked effect of seed treatment on grain yield and other agronomic parameters. The four wheats showed substantial differences for different parameters but the salt tolerant wheat lines performed better compared to the commercial variety Inqalab-91.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: barley ; genetic variation ; phosphate uptake ; rhizosphere ; root hairs ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Low phosphorus (P) availability in soils and diminishing P reserves emphasize the need to create plants that are more efficient P users. Knowledge of P efficient germplasm among the existing cereal varieties may serve as the basis for improving soil P use by selection and breeding. We had identified some cereal cultivars (winter wheat: Kosack and Kraka; winter barley: Hamu and Angora; spring barley: Canut, Alexis, Salka, Zita;) which differed (p〈0.05) in P depletion from thin slices (0.2 mm) of the rhizosphere soil under controlled conditions. In the present study, the same cultivars were studied under field conditions at three levels of P supply (no-P, 10 and 20 kg P ha-1) and the differences in P uptake as found in the previous work were confirmed. Under both conditions, the variation between the cultivars was greatest in soil without P fertilizers (no-P) for about 30 years. The variation in P uptake with most cultivars disappeared when 10 kg P ha-1 was applied. Root development did not differ between the cultivars much, but there was wide, consistent variation in their root hairs, regardless of growth media (solution, soil column and field). Increase in soil P level reduced the length of root hairs. The variation in root hairs between the cultivars was largest in no-P soil. When 10 kg P ha-1 was applied, the root hair lengths did not differ between the cultivars. Barley cultivars with longer root hairs depleted more P from the rhizosphere soil and also absorbed more P in the field. The relationship between root hairs and phosphorus uptake of the wheat cultivars was less clear. The wide variation in P uptake among the barley cultivars in the field and its relationship to the root hair development confirms that root hair length may be a suitable plant characteristic to use as criterion for selecting barley cultivars for P efficiency, especially in low-P soils.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: boron ; genotypic difference ; sterility ; Triticum aestivum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two pot experiments at the Plant Environment Laboratory (PEL), Reading, UK investigated sterility, boron (B) accumulation and B partitioning of wheat cultivars grown with limited B in the growing medium. The first experiment evaluated nine cultivars of spring wheat with diverse field responses to low available soil B, supplied with or without 20 μM B. A second experiment examined the response of a susceptible (SW-41) and a tolerant (Fang-60) cultivar to B-deficiency. These cultivars were supplied with either 20 μM B from sowing to flag leaf emergence and no added B thereafter, or 20 μM B from sowing to maturity. When B was not supplied in the nutrient solution, the number of grains ranged from 4 per ear (cv. BL-1135) to 32 per ear (cv. BL-1249) and sterility of competent florets ranged from 39% to 93%. Boron concentration in the flag leaf at anthesis did not differ greatly when the growing medium contained limited B, but differences between cultivars were evident when B was unlimited. Tolerance of B-deficiency was not related to the B concentration in the flag leaf. Some cultivars produced viable pollen and set grains while others failed to do so at similar B concentrations in the flag leaf. The two contrasting cultivars did not differ much in their pattern of B partitioning when B supply was restricted from flag leaf emergence onwards. Similarly, little evidence was found that the tolerant cultivars translocated B from their leaves, roots or stems when the supply in the growing medium was restricted. The proportion of total B partitioned in different organs was the same irrespective of B supply and cultivar. On average, leaves contained 68% of the total B content in the whole plant compared to 16% in the roots, 10% in the ears and only 6% in the stems. Tolerant or susceptible cultivars of wheat could not be distinguished based on the B concentration and B content of the flag leaf.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: critical levels of Mn ; soil extractants ; Mn-deficiency ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Seven chemical extractants were tested for their relative performance to predict the response of wheat to Mn application in coarse textured alkaline soils of semi-arid region. Five out of the seven extractants were found to be promising for the estimation of critical level of available Mn in these soils, as the amount of Mn extracted by these extractants was positively and significantly correlated with relative grain yield as well as Mn uptake. The critical deficiency level of soil available Mn with 0.005 M DTPA, 0.02% hydroquinone, 0.02 N sodium pyrophosphate, 0.1N H3PO4 and 0.05N HCl+0.025N H2SO4 was 3.1, 13.8, 23.5, 5.3 and 17.8 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. The 1N ammonium acetate and 0.01M CaCl2 were found to be unsuitable extractants for these soils. Further field trials at eight locations with varying levels of Mn deficiency showed successive increase in the grain yield of wheat with foliar Mn application, emphasizing the need for Mn fertilization when wheat is grown on Mn deficient soils.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: wheat ; potassium ; nutrition ; genotypic variability ; utilization efficiency ; uptake efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Pot and field experiments were carried out in order to study the genotypic variation in potassium uptake and utilization by winter wheat (T. aestivum L). Fifty-eight genotypes showed variation in K concentration, accumulation and potassium efficiency ratio (KER) in a field experiment. KER had significant positive correlation with grain weight per spike and harvest index (HI), and significantly negative correlation with stem K concentration at maturity. In a subsequent field experiment, three out of four genotypes, Yunmei 5, 94-18 and 94-6 differed in their KER, and had significantly higher grain yield with K application (K1) than without K application (K0). The 4th genotype Zhemei 1 showed no response to K. The yield increase due to K application was mainly due to the improvement in spike development from tillers. K concentration and accumulation in the plant varied between genotypes, K levels and plant parts. Among various plant parts, stem contained the highest K concentration and had the highest K accumulation at maturity, and changed considerably with the K level, while other plant parts remained relatively unchanged. All four genotypes had smaller KER in K1, as compared to K0, but there existed some difference in KER reduction among genotypes.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1573-1618
    Keywords: CERES ; wheat ; soil moisture ; nitrogen ; variability ; precision agriculture ; spatial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Crop growth modelling techniques were used to investigate the performance of a wheat crop over a range of weather conditions, nitrogen application rates and soil types. The data were used to predict long term benefits of using spatially variable fertilizer application strategies where fertilizer application rate was matched to the soil type, against a strategy of uniform fertilizer application. The model was also run with modified soil properties to determine the importance of soil moisture holding capacity in the variability of crop yield. It was found that the benefits of spatially variable nitrogen management when fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the season were modest on average. The range of results for different weather conditions was much greater than the average benefit. A large proportion of the variability of crop performance between soil types could be explained by differing soil moisture holding capacity. Devising techniques for managing this variability was concluded to be important for precision farming of cereals.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1572-9788
    Keywords: wheat ; DNA markers ; yellow rust resistance ; Yr17
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The Yr17 gene, which is present in many European wheat cultivars, displays yellow rust resistance at the seedling stage. The gene introduced into chromosome 2A from Aegilops ventricosa was previously found to be closely linked (0.5 cM) to leaf and stem rust resistance genes Lr37 and Sr38, respectively. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the Yr17 gene. We screened with RAPD primers, for polymorphism, the DNAs of cv. Thatcher and the leaf rust-resistant near-isogenic line (NIL) RL 6081 of cv. Thatcher carrying the Lr37 gene. Using a F2 progeny of the cross between VPM1 (resistant) and Thésée (susceptible), the RAPD marker OP-Y15580 was found to be closely linked to the Yr17 gene. We converted the OP- Y15580 RAPD marker into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR). This SCAR marker (SC-Y15) was linked at 0.8 ± 0.7 cM to the Yr17 resistance gene. We tested the SC-Y15 marker over a survey of 37 wheat cultivars in order to verify its consistency in different genetic backgrounds and to explain the resistance of some cultivars against yellow rust. Moreover, we showed that the Xpsr150-2Mv locus marker of Lr gene described by Bonhomme et al. [6] which possesses A. ventricosa introgression on the 2A chromosome was also closely linked to the Yr17 gene. Both the SCAR SC-Y15 and Xpsr150-2Mv markers should be used in breeding programmes in order to detect the cluster of the three genes Yr17, Lr37 and Sr38 in cross progenies.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1572-9788
    Keywords: insect resistance ; aphids ; GNA ; lectins ; transgenic plants ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Transgenic wheat plants containing the gene encoding snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) under the control of constitutive and phloem-specific promoters were generated through the particle bombardment method. Thirty-two independently derived plants were subjected to molecular and biochemical analyses. Transgene integration varied from one to twelve estimated copies per haploid genome, and levels of GNA expression from 0 to ca. 0.2% of total soluble protein were observed in different transgenic plants. Seven transgenic plants were selected for further study. Progeny plants from these parental transformants were selected for transgene expression, and tested for enhanced resistance to the grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) by exposing the plants to nymphal insects under glasshouse conditions. Bioassay results show that transgenic wheat plants from lines expressing GNA at levels greater than ca. 0.04% of total soluble protein decrease the fecundity, but not the survival, of grain aphids. We propose that transgenic approaches using insecticidal genes such as gna in combination with integrated pest management present promising opportunities for the control of damaging wheat pests.
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