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  • stability  (679)
  • Springer  (679)
  • MDPI Publishing
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Keywords: Key words free-surface flow ; solidification ; strip casting ; steady state ; nonuniqueness ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary The paper is concerned with a one-dimensional analysis of plane open-channel flow with continuous solidification. The process is of relevance for recent developments in the casting of steel and other metals. The bottom of the channel consists of a rotating casting roll and a horizontal cooling table, where the solidified material is withdrawn with given velocity. The study is restricted to the region downstream of the top of the casting roll. Surface tension is neglected. In the main part of the analysis inviscid fluid flow is considered since the Reynolds number is very large in the applications. It is found that the steady-state solutions are nonunique in a certain parameter range. In addition to a continuous solution, there are two solutions including hydraulic jumps, with one hydraulic jump being located on the casting roll, the other one on the cooling table. Regarding the stability of the non unique solutions, the evolution of disturbances is investigated numerically as an initial-value problem. It is concluded that the hydraulic jump on the cooling table is unstable, while the other discontinuous solution as well as the continuous solution are stable for sufficiently small disturbances. Which stable solution is attained in the steady state, depends on the history of the process. Friction at the liquid/solid interface is taken into account in the last part of the analysis. A constant friction coefficient is assumed. It is found that the history of the process determines the steady-state solution if, and only if, the friction coefficient is sufficiently small. For larger values of the friction coefficient, the steady-state solution is unique and independent of the history of the transient process. Furthermore, for sufficiently large friction coefficients, stable hydraulic jumps are found, in contrast to the inviscid case, also on the cooling table.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Keywords: Pt-USY ; de-NOx ; HC-SCR ; propene ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by propene has been investigated on Pt-USY and compared to other Pt-catalysts. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, Ar adsorption at 87 K, TEM, and CO chemisorption, and tested in a gas mixture system in excess oxygen. Pt-USY shows an excellent activity in the reaction, with a molar NOx conversion of 90% at 475 K. Stability during time-on-stream and resistance to SO2 and H2O in the feed stream has also been investigated. Pt-USY performs better under lean-burn conditions than other Pt-catalysts on ZSM-5, Al2O3, or SiO2. The selectivity to N2 was similar for all the catalysts (∼30%), the other major product being N2O.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: paclitaxel ; emulsions ; filter-sterization ; particle size ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. Paclitaxel is currently administered i.v. as a slow infusion of asolution of the drug in an ethanol:surfactant:saline admixture. However,poor solubilization and toxicity are associated with this drug therapy.Alternative drug delivery systems, including parenteral emulsions, areunder development in recent years to reduce drug toxicity, improveefficacy and eliminate premedication. Methods. Paclitaxel emulsions were prepared by high-shearhomogenization. The particle size of the emulsions was measured by dynamiclight scattering. Drug concentration was quantified by HPLC and invitro drug release was monitored by membrane dialysis. The physicalstability of emulsions was monitored by particle size changes in boththe mean droplet diameter and 99% cumulative distribution. Paclitaxelpotency and changes in the concentration of known degradants wereused as chemical stability indicators. Single dose acute toxicity studieswere conducted in healthy mice and efficacy studies in B16 melanomatumor-bearing mice. Results. QW8184, a physically and chemically stable sub-micronoil-in-water (o/w) emulsion of paclitaxel, can be prepared at high drugloading (8-10 mg/mL) having a mean droplet diameter of 〈100 nmand 99% cumulative particle size distribution of 〈200 nm. In vitro release studies demonstrated low and sustained drug release both inthe presence and absence of human serum albumin. Based on singledose acute toxicity studies, QW8184 is well tolerated both in miceand rats with about a 3-fold increase in the maximum-tolerated-dose(MTD) over the current marketed drug formulation. Using the B16mouse melanoma model, a significant improvement in drug efficacywas observed with QW8184 over Taxol®. Conclusions. QW8184, a stable sub-micron o/w emulsion of paclitaxelhas been developed that can be filter-sterilized and administered i.v.as a bolus dose. When compared to Taxol®, this emulsion exhibitedreduced toxicity and improved efficacy most likely due to thecomposition and dependent physicochemical characteristics of the emulsion.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: particle size ; PLG microspheres ; protein delivery ; spray-freeze drying ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To investigate the effect of atomization conditions on particle size and stability of spray-freeze dried protein. Methods. Atomization variables were explored for excipient-free (no zinc added) and zinc-complexed bovine serum albumin (BSA). Particle size was measured by laser diffraction light scattering following sonication in organic solvent containing poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). Powder surface area was determined from the N2 vapor sorption isotherm. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to assess decrease in percent protein monomer. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to estimate protein secondary structure. PLG microspheres were made using a non-aqueous, cryogenic process and release of spray-freeze dried BSA was assessed in vitro. Results. The most significant atomization parameter affecting particle size was the mass flow ratio (mass of atomization N2 relative to that for liquid feed). Particle size was inversely related to specific surface area and the amount of protein aggregates formed. Zinc-complexation reduced the specific surface area and stabilized the protein against aggregation. FTIR data indicated perturbations in secondary structure upon spray-freeze drying for both excipient-free and zinc-complexed protein. Conclusions. Upon sonication, spray-freeze dried protein powders exhibited friability, or susceptibility towards disintegration. For excipient-free protein, conditions where the mass flow ratio was 〉 ∼0.3 yielded sub-micron powders with relatively large specific surface areas. Reduced particle size was also linked to a decrease in the percentage of protein monomer upon drying. This effect was ameliorated by zinc-complexation, via a mechanism involving reduction in specific surface area of the powder rather than stabilization of secondary structure. Reduction of protein particle size was beneficial in reducing the initial release (burst) of the protein encapsulated in PLG microspheres.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1614-3116
    Keywords: nonlinear dynamics ; bifurcation ; stability ; fluid-solid interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper studies interactions of pipe and fluid and deals with bifurcations of a cantilevered pipe conveying a steady fluid, clamped at one end and having a nozzle subjected to nonlinear constraints at the free end. Either the nozzle parameter or the flow velocity is taken as a variable parameter. The discrete equations of the system are obtained by the Ritz-Galerkin method. The static stability is studied by the Routh criteria. The method of averaging is employed to examine the analytical results and the chaotic motions. Three critical values are given. The first one makes the system lose the static stability by pitchfork bifurcation. The second one makes the system lose the dynamical stability by Hopf bifurcation. The third one makes the periodic motions of the system lose the stability by doubling-period bifurcation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8922
    Keywords: stability ; three-dimensional theory ; tribotechnics ; elastoplastic deformations ; viscoelasticity ; surface ; tracking and dead loads ; laminated coating ; piecewise-homogeneous model ; active loading
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The problem of surface instability of laminated coatings with inelastic properties is considered within the framework of a model of piecewise-homogeneous media on the basis of the three-dimensional linearized theory of stability. A general statement of the problem is formulated and the basic characteristic equations are derived. The solutions of particular problems are obtained for elastoplastic and viscoelastic models of solids.
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  • 7
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    Dynamics and control 10 (2000), S. 255-276 
    ISSN: 1573-8450
    Keywords: continuous-time systems ; frequency weighted model reduction ; gradient flow ; optimization ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Inthis paper, a model reduction technique based on optimizationis presented. The objective function minimized is the impulseenergy of the overall system. An extension of the technique tothe frequency weighted case is also presented, where single-sidedor double-sided weightings can be incorporated in the reductionprocedure. The paper proposes an alternative to find an optimizationsolution by solving ordinary differential equations which aregradient flow associated with the objective function to be minimized.Two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness ofthe method.
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  • 8
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    Chemistry of heterocyclic compounds 36 (2000), S. 115-133 
    ISSN: 1573-8353
    Keywords: thiophthalylium salts ; methods of preparation ; structure ; stability ; reactivity ; electrophilic properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Methods of preparation, chemical reactions, the structures and reactivity of thiophthalylium ions are reviewed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8698
    Keywords: nonconservative mechanical systems ; stability ; Lyapunov functions ; attraction domain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Mechanical systems subjected to dissipative, gyroscopic, conservative, and also nonconservative positional forces are considered. The question of the effect of dissipative, gyroscopic, and conservative forces on the motion stability of a mechanical systems is determined by classical Kelvin–Chetaev theorems [1]. The presence of nonconservative positional forces considerably complicates the situation and excludes direct application of these theorems. Applying Lyapunov's functions method the condition of asymptotic stability of a mechanical system under the action of all listed above forces is obtained. Moreover, the estimation of the attraction domain in phase space is found. The precession system which is used in the solution of some problems in the applied theory of the gyroscopic systems is also examined. The connection between the stability of origin and precession systems is detected. Theoretical results are applied to the stabilization problem of stationary motion of the balanced gimbal suspension gyro by means of external moments.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8337
    Keywords: stability ; stochastic functional differential equations ; previous history ; Poisson switchings ; "dangling spider" model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract To study the stability of the stochastic "dangling spider" model, the second Lyapunov method is substantiated for stochastic differential functional equations with the whole previous history.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-8337
    Keywords: stochastic model ; "dangling spider problem" ; stability ; Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract To study the stability of the stochastic "dangling spider" model, the second Lyapunov method is substantiated for stochastic differential functional equations with the entire previous history.
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  • 12
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    Dynamics and control 10 (2000), S. 47-61 
    ISSN: 1573-8450
    Keywords: stability ; robust control ; Lyapunov approach ; discrete system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Control design of nonlinear discrete-time uncertain systems with (possibly fast) uncertain parameters is considered. We study the effect of only partially compensating the uncertainty. The optimal choice of a design parameter, which indicates the amount of compensation, is recommended.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1572-8897
    Keywords: numerical method ; stability ; Hopf bifurcation ; coupled oscillator
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A second-order accurate numerical method has been proposed for the solution of a coupled non-linear oscillator featuring in chemical kinetics. Although implicit by construction, the method enables the solution of the model initial-value problem (IVP) to be computed explicitly. The second-order method is constructed by taking a linear combination of first-order methods. The stability analysis of the system suggests the existence of a Hopf bifurcation, which is confirmed by the numerical method. Both the critical point of the continuous system and the fixed point of the numerical method will be seen to have the same stability properties. The second-order method is more competitive in terms of numerical stability than some well-known standard methods (such as the Runge–Kutta methods of order two and four).
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1573-2754
    Keywords: composite material ; rotational shell ; stability ; nonlinear ; O347.3
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract By adopting the energy method, a new method to calculate the stability of the composite shell of revolution is presented. This method takes the influence of nonlinear prebuckling deformations and stresses on the buckling of the shell into account. The relationships between the prebuckling deformations and strains are calculated by nonlinear Kármán equations. The numerical method is used to calculate the energy of the total system. The nonlinear equations are solved by combining gradient method and amendatory Newton iterative method. The computer program is also developed. An example is given to demonstrate the accuracy of the method presented.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1573-2754
    Keywords: suspended solid particles ; continuum phase-coupled model ; stability ; moving jet ; numerical computation ; O359
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The spatial stability equation of moving jet containing dense suspended solid particles was derived out by means of the continuum phase-coupled model. The stability curves of moving jet for different downstream distances, Reynolds number of flow-field, particle properties and velocities of jetting device are got by the finite difference method based on the asymptotic method and the Eulerian conservative difference scheme. Founded on the analysis of the obtained stability curves it is found that the positive velocity of jetting device widens the unstable frequency range of flow-field but the effect of the negative one is contrary. In addition, particles existing in the flow-field curb the instability of flow-field and the effect enhances with the decrease of Reynolds number of flow-field. These conclusions benefit learning the development of moving two-phase jet.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1573-773X
    Keywords: associative memory ; dynamical systems ; Glauber dynamics ; Hopfield model ; infinite dimensional state space ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A generalization of the Little–Hopfield neural network model for associative memories is presented that considers the case of a continuum of processing units. The state space corresponds to an infinite dimensional euclidean space. A dynamics is proposed that minimizes an energy functional that is a natural extension of the discrete case. The case in which the synaptic weight operator is defined through the autocorrelation rule (Hebb rule) with orthogonal memories is analyzed. We also consider the case of memories that are not orthogonal. Finally, we discuss the generalization of the non deterministic, finite temperature dynamics.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1573-7691
    Keywords: modified conjugate gradient method ; conjugate gradient method ; Krylov space ; convergence rate ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract We consider the modified conjugate gradient procedure for solving A $$\underline x $$ = $$\underline b $$ in which the approximation space is based upon the Krylov space associated with A 1/p and $$\underline b $$ , for any integer p. For the square-root MCG (p=2) we establish a sharpened bound for the error at each iteration via Chebyshev polynomials in $$\sqrt A$$ . We discuss the implications of the quickly accumulating effect of an error in $$\sqrt A$$ $$\underline b $$ in the initial stage, and find an error bound even in the presence of such accumulating errors. Although this accumulation of errors may limit the usefulness of this method when $$\sqrt A$$ $$\underline b $$ is unknown, it may still be successfully applied to a variety of small, “almost-SPD” problems, and can be used to jump-start the conjugate gradient method. Finally, we verify these theoretical results with numerical tests.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Methanol dehydrogenase ; Ca2+ ; binding ; activity ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of exogenously added Ca2+ on the enzymatic activity and structural stability of methanol dehydrogenase were studied for various Ca2+ concentrations. Methanol dehydrogenase activity increased significantly with increasing concentration of Ca2+, approaching saturation at 200 mM Ca2+. The effect of Ca2+ on the activation of MDH was time dependent and Ca2+ specific and was due to binding of the metal ions to the enzyme. Addition of increasing concentration of Ca2+ caused a decrease of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence intensity in a concentration-dependent manner to a minimum at 200 mM, but with no change in the fluorescence emission maximum wavelength or the CD spectra. The results revealed that the activation of methanol dehydrogenase by Ca2+ occurred concurrently with the conformational change. In addition, exogenously bound Ca2+ destabilized MDH. The potential biological significance of these results is discussed.
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  • 19
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    Aquatic geochemistry 6 (2000), S. 1-17 
    ISSN: 1573-1421
    Keywords: lakes ; density ; compressibility ; expansibility ; conductivity ; stability ; pvt properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract In recent years, a number of workers have studied the stability of deep lakes such as Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal and Lake Malawi. In this paper, the methods that can be used to determine the effect that the components of lakes have on the equation of state are examined. The PVT properties of Lakes have been determined by using apparent molal volume data for the major ionic components of the lake. The estimated PVT properties (densities, expansibility and compressibilities) of the lakes are found to be in good agreement with the PVT properties (P) of seawater diluted to the same salinity. This is similar to earlier work that showed that the PVT properties of rivers and estuarine waters could also be estimated from the properties of seawater. The measured densities of Lake Tanganyika were found to be in good agreement (± 2 × 10-6 g cm-3) with the values estimated from partial molal properties and the values of seawater at the same total salinity (ST = 0.568‰). The increase in the densities of Lake Tanganyika waters increased due to changes in the composition of the waters. The measured increase in the measured density (45 × 10-6 g cm-3) is in good agreement (46 × 10-6 g cm-3) with the values calculated for the increase in Na+, HCO3 -, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Si(OH)4. Methods are described that can be used to determine the conductivity salinity of lakes using the equations developed for seawater. By combining these relationships with apparent molal volume data, one can relate the PVT properties of the lake to those of seawater.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1573-0824
    Keywords: 2-D systems ; descriptor systems ; singular systems ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we discussthe jump behavior and stability problems for 2-D linear shift-invariantsingular systems under the standard boundary conditions. It isshown that once a boundary condition or the input is inadmissiblein the classical sense, a group of non-causal or backward jumpsof the system states will be incited. This interpretation releasesthe conventional admissibility constraints on the boundary conditionsand inputs. Based on this observation, a systematic stabilitytheory is developed for 2-D singular systems. The well-knownbasic stability theorem for the 1-D singular systems or 2-D regularsystems is thus extended to the 2-D singular case.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1573-0824
    Keywords: 2-D linear systems ; optimal control ; stability ; unit memory linear repetitive processes ; numerical methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Because many optimal control problems require solution using iterative procedures they fall naturally in the realm of 2-D systems where the two dimensions are response time horizon and iteration index, respectively. The paper uses this observation to employ 2-D systems theory, in the form of unit memory repetitive process techniques, to analyse local stability and convergence behaviour of a continuous optimal control algorithm based on dynamic system optimisation and parameter estimation. Existing work is extended to incorporate unmatched terminal constraints. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability are obtained whose evaluation require the solution of a difficult eigenvalue problem. The paper shows how solutions can be achieved using numerical and graphical facilities of MATLAB.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1573-0409
    Keywords: wall-climbing robot ; electromagnetic grippers ; stability ; additional support element ; sliding and turning over conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Legged-climbing robot is considered. Each foot of the robot has an electromagnet system for robot"s holding on a metal surface. This surface can be both vertical and inclined, including negative slope. Analytical calculation of robot stability under turn over or sliding conditions has been made. Critical slopes have been determined. One of these slopes corresponds to minimal reserve of robot stability towards sliding and another to minimal reserve of robot stability towards turning-over. As total reserve of stability of a robot is always equal to the minimal one of these reserves. Additional support elements of elastic material with high coefficient of friction, along with electromagnet, allows to increase minimal reserve of robot stability towards sliding. The use of such support elements leads to redistributing force of normal support reaction between electromagnet (which surface has low coefficient of friction) and additional support element (which surface has high coefficient of friction). It is just what leads to increasing the total friction force and as a consequence to increasing of minimal reserve of robot stability towards sliding.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1573-2754
    Keywords: elastic foundation ; pipe conveying fluid ; coupled-mode flutter ; stability ; power series method ; 0353
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The governing equation of solid-liquid couple vibration of pipe conveying fluid on the elastic foundation was derived. The critical velocity and complex frequency of pipe conveying fluid on Winkler elastic foundation and two-parameter foundation were calculated by power series method. Compared with pipe without considering elastic foundation, the numerical results show that elastic foundation can increase the critical flow velocity of static instability and dynamic instability of pipe. And the increase of foundation parameters may increase the critical flow velocity of static instability and dynamic instability of pipe, thereby delays the occurrence of divergence and flutter instability of pipe. For higher mass ratio β, in the combination of certain foundation parameters, pipe behaves the phenomenon of restabilization and redivergence after the occurrence of static instability, and then coupled-mode flutter takes place.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1573-2754
    Keywords: system identification ; damped least square ; recursive algorithm ; convergence ; stability ; O231 ; O241
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The recursive least square is widely used in parameter identification. But it is easy to bring about the phenomena of parameters burst-off. A convergence analysis of a more stable identification algorithm-recursive damped least square is proposed. This is done by normalizing the measurement vector entering into the identification algorithm. It is shown that the parametric distance converges to a zero mean random variable. It is also shown that under persistent excitation condition, the condition number of the adaptation gain matrix is bounded, and the variance of the parametric distance is bounded.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1573-2754
    Keywords: stability ; chaos ; averaging method ; Galerkin method ; viscoelastic column ; O322
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The dynamical stability of a homogeneous, simple supported column, subjected to a periodic axial force, is investigated. The viscoelastic material is assumed to obey the Leaderman nonlinear constitutive relation. The equation of motion was derived as a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation, and was simplified into a nonlinear integro-differential equation by the Galerkin method. The averaging method was employed to carry out the stability analysis. Numerical results are presented to compare with the analytical ones. Numerical results also indicate that chaotic motion appears.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: CHO cells ; gel microdrops ; human antibody ; population parameters ; productivity ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The long-term stability of high-level expression is the mostimportant factor to consider when choosing cell lines for the expression of recombinant proteins. Declining volumetricyields in large-scale fermentation can be caused by changes affecting the cell population as a whole such as loss in viability, depletion of nutrients or accumulation of metabolites affecting cell growth. Alternatively, geneticinstability may lead to the outgrowth of a less productive,metabolically favored sub-population. Currently a variety ofparameters are measured to monitor the condition of cells infermenters including glucose uptake, lactate accumulation andoxygen consumption; in addition, periodic viable cell countsallow the determination of the growth rate and viability of the population. All of these methods measure the condition ofthe cell population as a whole and changes must involve a significantly large proportion of the total culture in orderto be detectable. Here we report on a method that allows theevaluation of the productivity of individual cells. Using the gel microdrop secretion assay, we detected the appearance ofa sub-population of cells with lower productivity. Subsequentanalysis of the culture confirmed the existence of lower productivity cells with a lower vector copy number. Therefore,the single cell secretion assay proved to be a rapid method todetect and isolate a low productivity variant of the producer cell line.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Keywords: discharge effects on lotic invertebrates ; disturbance ; persistence ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Temporal and spatial trends were examined in benthic macroinvertebrate and physical-chemical data collected for at least ten years at ten sites along the plains reach of the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado, USA. A distinct longitudinal environment gradient was found as many of the water chemistry parameter levels changed downstream from the reference site. Seasonal Kendall analyses on individual sites indicated that several chemical parameters, including conductivity, un-ionized NH3-N and NO2-N have increased since the beginning of the study within most sites. Levels of some parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, un-ionized NH3-N) violated aquatic life standards a few times during the study. Over 175 taxa of macroinvertebrates (primarily insects) were collected in the study reach from 1981–1996. Results from detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) on macroinvertebrate data indicated that this stretch of the river exhibited little longitudinal change beyond the two farthest upstream sites. There was a decline in macroinvertebrate density and total number of taxa within most individual sites during 1983–1984, corresponding with the highest recorded discharge in 75 years (1983) and a prolonged, heavy spring runoff in 1984. Taxa richness and density recovered to pre-1983 levels within a few months to a year following the high flows at most sites. These findings suggested that the macroinvertebrate assemblages had low resistance to disturbance, but high resilience. However, the results from DCAs and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W) on individual sites for the entire study period suggested a similar macroinvertebrate community structure through time. It would appear that the composition and abundance of the lotic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Poudre River has remained relatively constant over the long-term. This has occurred even with some potentially negative changes in water chemistry and increased urban development.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1531-5878
    Keywords: Singular systems ; delay ; consistency condition ; stability ; instability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, the general class of singular systems with delay and linear constant coefficient singular systems with delay are discussed. First, several definitions of stability are presented for singular systems with delay, and general sufficient stability conditions and instability conditions are obtained. Second, stability and instability are analyzed for linear constant coefficient singular systems with delay.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Keywords: promoting effect ; B2O3 ; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst ; methanol synthesis ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The addition of B2O3 to a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst increased the activity of the catalyst for methanol synthesis after an induction period during the reaction. The stability of the B2O3-containing Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of colloidal silica to the catalyst.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Keywords: potassium desorption ; stability ; excitation ; iron catalyst ; Rydberg atoms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Well‐characterized catalyst model compounds of KAlO2 and KFeO2 are investigated by thermal desorption of potassium from the material. The desorbing fluxes of ions, atoms and highly excited states (field ionizable Rydberg states) were studied with surface and field ionization detectors in a vacuum apparatus. From the Arrhenius plots the activation energies for desorption of K and K+ were determined. The chemical state of potassium at the surfaces is concluded to be: ionic on KAlO2 (with the K desorption barrier of 1.76 eV) and covalent on KFeO2 (barrier of 2.73 eV). These results agree with the data obtained earlier for industrial catalysts for ammonia and styrene production. They are interpreted in terms of the Schottky cycle, which is completed for KAlO2 and fails for KFeO2. This failure indicates a non‐equilibrium desorption process. K Rydberg states are only found to desorb from KFeO2, in agreement with the suggestion that such states in some way are responsible for the catalytic activity.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1531-5878
    Keywords: Time-varying autoregressive models ; stability ; smoothness priors ; Tihkonov regularization ; constrained optimization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The stability of time-varying autoregressive (AR) models is an important issue in such applications as time-varying spectrum estimation and electroencephalography simulation and estimation. In some cases, such as time-varying spectrum estimation, the models that exhibit roots near unit moduli are difficult to use. Thus a tighter stability condition such as stability with a positive margin is needed. A time-varying AR model is stable with a positive margin if the moduli of the roots of the time-varying characteristic polynomial are somewhat less than unity for every time instant. Recently, a new method for the estimation of the time-varying AR models was introduced. This method is based on the interpretation of the underdetermined time-varying prediction equations as an ill-posed inverse problem that is solved by Tikhonov regularization. The method is referred to as the deterministic regression smoothness priors (DRSP) scheme. In this paper, a stabilization method in which the DRSP scheme is augmented with nonlinear stability constrainst is proposed. The problem is formulated so that stability with a positive margin can also be achieved. The problem is solved iteratively with an exterior point algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is studied with a simulation. It is shown that the proposed approach is well suited to stable modeling of signals containing narrowband transitions.
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  • 32
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    Acta biotheoretica 48 (2000), S. 207-218 
    ISSN: 1572-8358
    Keywords: Dynamical population ; fishing efforts ; metapopulation ; time scales ; aggregation method ; equilibrium ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This work presents a specific stock-effort dynamical model. The stocks correspond to two populations of fish moving and growing between two fishery zones. They are harvested by two different fleets. The effort represents the number of fishing boats of the two fleets that operate in the two fishing zones. The bioeconomical model is a set of four ODE's governing the fishing efforts and the stocks in the two fishing areas. Furthermore, the migration of the fish between the two patches is assumed to be faster than the growth of the harvested stock. The displacement of the fleets is also faster than the variation in the number of fishing boats resulting from the investment of the fishing income. So, there are two time scales: a fast one corresponding to the migration between the two patches, and a slow time scale corresponding to growth. We use aggregation methods that allow us to reduce the dimension of the model and to obtain an aggregated model for the total fishing effort and fish stock of the two fishing zones. The mathematical analysis of the model is shown. Under some conditions, we obtain a stable equilibrium, which is a desired situation, as it leads to a sustainable harvesting equilibrium, keeping the stock at exploitable densities.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: chile ; double haploid ; pepper ; pungency ; stability ; within-genotype variance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The response, in terms of capsaicinoid content, of chile (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes to different environments was studied. Double haploidlines, an F1 hybrid, and an open-pollinated cultivar estimated the genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment interaction effect on the total capsaicinoids and on individual capsaicinoids. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes and among genotype-by-environment interactions over the environments. Among the genotypes in an environment, the within-genotype variances were also significantly different. The double haploid line, HDA 207, had low within-genotype variance for individual and total capsaicinoids, with the exception of the isomer of dihydrocapsaicin. Also for HDA 270, the genotype-by-environment interaction was negligible for individual and total capsaicinoids, Indicating stability across environments.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Avena ; genetic correlation ; genotype-environmentinteraction ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In order to test if selection can improve a population's adaptation to diverse environments simultaneously, three cycles of recurrent selection based on grain yield in Iowa, Idaho, and Norway were practiced in an oat (Avena sativaL.) population developed from North American, Scandinavian, and wild species (A. sterilis L.) germplasm sources. Specific objectives were to determine if selection: increased mean yields across environments and within all environments; changed the genetic correlation of yields in different environments; and changed genetic variation for yield within the population. We evaluated 100 to 210 randomly-chosen families from each cycle of selection at three Iowa locations, in Idaho, and in Norway for two years. Grain yield within each location and mean yields across locations increased significantly over cycles of selection. Mean yields across locations expressed as a percent of the original population mean increased at a rate of 2.6% per year. Several families from the third cycle population exhibited both high mean yields across locations and consistently high yields within all locations. Average genetic correlations of yield in different environments were higher in the second cycle than in the original population. A trend of reduced genetic variation and heritability was observed in Iowa only. These results suggest that we successfully improved mean population yield both within and across locations, and yield stability across environments, and in developing families with outstanding adaptation to diverse environments.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1573-5168
    Keywords: amberjack ; myosin heavy chain ; cDNA ; α-helix ; coiled coils ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The structural stability of fish myosin depends upon species and temperatures of water in which fish live. Primary, secondary, and quaternary structures of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from three species of fish living at different temperature ranges have been compared with those of rabbit MyHC in order to investigate the differences in stability. Primary structure of MyHC, although being accessible for warm-water and cold-water fish (carp and walleye pollack), was not available in previous for tropical-water fish literature; so in this study primary structure of MyHC of the tropical-water fish amberjack has been determined by cloning and sequencing its cDNA. The MyHC has 1938 amino acid residues (AA), which are almost as much as as those of carp and walleye pollack. The amberjack MyHC is 91–95% homologous with other fish and rabbit MyHCs. There is a discernible difference between animal species with stable myosin rod (amberjack, carp, and rabbit) and walleye pollack with unstable rod. Stable rod species have a high probability of forming coiled-coil around the COOH-terminal end of the rod, while the pollack has a low coiled-coil formation probability. In addition, the average scores of the coiled-coil for myosin rod were rabbit (1.738) 〉 amberjack (1.691) 〉 carp (1.680) 〉 walleye pollack (1.674) which correlated exactly with the observed stability. The results suggest that coiled-coil forming ability, particularly around the COOH-terminal end, directs structural stability of fish myosin rod.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1573-2681
    Keywords: collagen structure ; stability ; rupture criterion ; growth mechanics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Intracranial saccular aneurysms remain an enigma; it is not known why they form, why they enlarge, or why only some of them rupture. Nonetheless, there is general agreement that mechanics plays an essential role in each aspect of the natural history of these potentially deadly lesions. In this paper, we review recent findings that discount limit point instabilities under quasi-static increases in pressure and resonance under dynamic loading as possible mechanisms of enlargement of saccular aneurysms. Indeed, recent histopathological data suggest that aneurysms enlarge due to a stress-mediated process of growth and remodeling of collagen, the primary load-bearing constituent within the wall. We submit that advanced theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies of this process are essential to further progress in treating this class of pathologies. The purpose of this review is to provide background and direction that encourages elasticians to contribute to this important area of research.
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  • 37
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    International journal of fracture 105 (2000), S. 57-79 
    ISSN: 1573-2673
    Keywords: Interface toughness ; interface debonding ; stability ; adhesive interface ; bimaterial.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we studied the interface debonding when a crack perpendicularly approaches an interface between two dissimilar elastic materials. An interface toughness law was first defined according to an adhesive model governing the interface fracture. By analysing the interaction between the normally approaching crack and the interface crack and by tacking account of the adhesive forces at ends of the interfacial crack, a model for studying the interface debonding and the debonding stability was established. It is observed that the interface debonding toughness depends strongly on the mixed mode locally produced over the plastic adhesive zone of the interface. Moreover, the interface debonding may be unstable, i.e. the interface debonding length may jump from an initial value to a certain final value under critical remote loading. This jump may be surprisedly important in certain cases. These results agree with the experimental works gathered so far and can be used to explain the mechanism of 'crack arrestor' formed by an interface.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: 4WS vehicle ; time delay ; stability ; Hopf bifurcation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A mathematical model is presented for four-wheel-steeringvehicles, with the time delay in driver's response and the nonlinearityin lateral tyre forces taken into account. It is proved that thevehicle-driver system has a trivial steady state motion, as well aseight non-trivial steady state motions due to the nonlinearity of tyreforces. The asymptotic stability and Hopf bifurcation of the trivialsteady state are analyzed for two control strategies ofrear-wheel-steering. It is shown through the numerical simulations thatthe four-wheel-steering technique based on the bilinear control strategyworks better when the driver's response involves time delay.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Systems theory ; stability ; robust stability ; linear systems ; discrete-time systems ; robustness ; polynomial theory ; Kharitonov theorem ; inverse Kharitonov problem ; Rouche theorem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The paper investigates the problem of the robust stability of Schur polynomials. Recently, a new approach based on the Rouche theorem of classical complex analysis has been adopted for the solution of this problem. In this paper, an improvement of the previous solution is presented. This is the optimum solution of the robust stability problem for Schur polynomials, which is obtained by solving a minimization problem and is better than other methods in robust stability literature. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed method.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Vector optimization ; asymptotically minimizing sequences ; extended well-posedness ; stability ; vector variational principle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, the concept of extended well-posedness of scalar optimization problems introduced by Zolezzi is generalized to vector optimization problems in three ways: weakly extended well-posedness, extended well-posedness, and strongly extended well-posedness. Criteria and characterizations of the three types of extended well-posedness are established, generalizing most of the results obtained by Zolezzi for scalar optimization problems. Finally, a stronger vector variational principle and Palais-Smale type conditions are used to derive sufficient conditions for the three types of extended well-posedness.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: vector optimization ; set-valued mappings ; constraint sets ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In vector optimization, several authors have studied the upper and lower semicontinuity for mappings involving constraints in topological vector spaces partially ordered through a cone with nonempty interior. In this paper, we give conditions about the upper and lower semicontinuity in the case that the ordering cone in the parameter space has possibly empty interior, as it happens in many function spaces and seqence spaces.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: mixed solutions ; weak Stackelberg problems ; existence ; stability ; weak convergence of probability measures
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    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We are concerned with ∈-mixed solutions for weak Stackelberg problems corresponding to two-player nonzero-sum noncooperative games. Two cases are considered: (i) mixed strategies for only the second player; (ii) mixed strategies for both players. After giving basic results relating convergence of functions and weak convergence of probability measures, we establish existence and stability results for ∈-mixed solutions under general assumptions of minimal character without any convexity assumption. Our results improve previous work of Mallozzi and Morgan (Refs. 1–2).
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  • 43
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    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: multidimensional polynomial theory ; robustness ; Kharitonov theorem ; stability ; Schur polynomials ; inverse Kharitonov problem ; Rouché theorem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this note, the problem of the robust stability for a two-dimensional (two-variable) Schur polynomial which is the characteristic polynomial of a discrete-time linear time-invariant system is investigated. A new approach based on the Rouché theorem is adopted. The extension to the robust stability for multidimensional (multivariable) polynomials is also provided. Interesting sufficient conditions for such robust stability are derived. A two-dimensional example is included to support the theoretical result.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1572-9044
    Keywords: numerical analysis ; shallow water problems ; DIRK methods ; stability ; 65L06 ; 65L20 ; 65M12 ; 65M20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We construct A‐stable and L‐stable diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta methods of which the diagonal vector in the Butcher matrix has a minimal maximum norm. If the implicit Runge–Kutta relations are iteratively solved by means of the approximately factorized Newton process, then such iterated Runge–Kutta methods are suitable methods for integrating shallow water problems in the sense that the stability boundary is relatively large and that the usually quite fine vertical resolution of the discretized spatial domain is not involved in the stability condition.
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  • 45
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    BIT 40 (2000), S. 62-73 
    ISSN: 1572-9125
    Keywords: Gaussian elimination ; stability ; pivoting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract It has been recently shown that large growth factors might occur in Gaussian Elimination with Partial Pivoting (GEPP) also when solving some plausibly natural systems. In this note we argue that this potential problem could be easily solved, with much smaller risk of failure, by very small (and low cost) modifications of the basic algorithm, thus confirming its inherent robustness. To this end, we first propose an informal model with the goal of providing further support to the comprehension of the stability properties of GEPP. We then report the results of numerical experiments that confirm the viewpoint embedded in the model. Basing on the previous observations, we finally propose a simple scheme that could be turned into (even more) accurate software for the solution of linear systems.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1572-9125
    Keywords: Runge-Kutta methods ; stability ; convergence ; stiff problems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper studies the stability and convergence properties of general Runge-Kutta methods when they are applied to stiff semilinear systems y′(t) = J(t)y(t) + g(t, y(t)) with the stiffness contained in the variable coefficient linear part. We consider two assumptions on the relative variation of the matrix J(t) and show that for each of them there is a family of implicit Runge-Kutta methods that is suitable for the numerical integration of the corresponding stiff semilinear systems, i.e. the methods of the family are stable, convergent and the stage equations possess a unique solution. The conditions on the coefficients of a method to belong to these families turn out to be essentially weaker than the usual algebraic stability condition which appears in connection with the B-stability and convergence for stiff nonlinear systems. Thus there are important RK methods which are not algebraically stable but, according to our theory, they are suitable for the numerical integration of semilinear problems. This paper also extends previous results of Burrage, Hundsdorfer and Verwer on the optimal convergence of implicit Runge-Kutta methods for stiff semilinear systems with a constant coefficients linear part.
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  • 47
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    BIT 40 (2000), S. 226-240 
    ISSN: 1572-9125
    Keywords: Stochastic differential equations ; regularisation ; stability
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    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper is devoted to the numerical analysis of ill-posed problems of evolution equations in Banach spaces using certain classes of stochastic one-step methods. The linear stability properties of these methods are studied. Regularisation is given by the choice of the regularisation parameter as α = $$\sqrt {\tau _n }$$ , where τ n is the stepsize and provides the convergence on smooth initial data. The case of the approximation of well-posed problems is also considered.
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  • 48
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    Acta applicandae mathematicae 62 (2000), S. 23-130 
    ISSN: 1572-9036
    Keywords: stability ; functional equations ; Cauchy difference ; semigroup ; inequalities ; approximate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we study the stability of functional equations that has its origins with S. M. Ulam, who posed the fundamental problem 60 years ago and with D. H. Hyers, who gave the first significant partial solution in 1941. In particular, during the last two decades, the notion of stability of functional equations has evolved into an area of continuing research from both pure and applied viewpoints. Both classical results and current research are presented in a unified and self-contained fashion. In addition, related problems are investigated. Some of the applications deal with nonlinear equations in Banach spaces and complementarity theory.
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  • 49
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    Set-valued analysis 8 (2000), S. 253-266 
    ISSN: 1572-932X
    Keywords: Hausdorff metric ; linear inequality systems ; stability
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    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we propose a Hausdorff metric to measure the “distance” between two linear inequality systems on a real normed space X. For this topology, which comes through a pseudo-metric in the set Σ of linear inequality systems, the closedness of the feasible set mapping is studied, and at the same time a characterization of the stability of the subset Σ c of consistent sytems is given.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1572-9443
    Keywords: multiple access ; CDMA ; rates of convergence ; stability ; functional limit theorems ; transient analysis ; Markov-modulated capture channel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract We consider the slotted ALOHA protocol on a channel with a capture effect. There are M 〈 ∞ users each with an infinite buffer. If in a slot, i packets are transmitted, then the probability of a successful reception of a packet is q i. This model contains the CDMA protocols as special cases. We obtain sufficient rate conditions, which are close to necessary for stability of the system, when the arrival streams are stationary ergodic. Under the same rate conditions, for general regenerative arrival streams, we obtain the rates of convergence to stationarity, finiteness of stationary moments and various functional limit theorems. Our arrival streams contain all the traffic models suggested in the recent literature, including the ones which display long range dependence. We also obtain bounds on the stationary moments of waiting times which can be tight under realistic conditions. Finally, we obtain several results on the transient performance of the system, e.g., first time to overflow and the limits of the overflow process. We also extend the above results to the case of a capture channel exhibiting Markov modulated fading. Most of our results and proofs will be shown to hold also for the slotted ALOHA protocol without capture.
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  • 51
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    Queueing systems 36 (2000), S. 327-349 
    ISSN: 1572-9443
    Keywords: multiclass networks ; networks with feedback ; Skorokhod Problem ; Skorokhod Mapping ; Lipschitz continuity ; stability ; load conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract We consider a four-class two-station network with feedback, with fluid inputs and a head-of-the-line generalized processor sharing discipline at each station. We derive the Skorokhod Problem associated with the network and obtain algebraic sufficient conditions for Lipschitz continuity of the associated Skorokhod Map. This provides the first example of a multiclass network with feedback for which the associated Skorokhod Problem has been proved to be regular. As an elementary application, we show that under the conditions which guarantee Lipschitz continuity the network is stable if and only if the usual load conditions apply.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1572-9109
    Keywords: reaction-diffusion system ; unilateral conditions ; quasivariational inequality ; Leray-Schauder degree ; eigenvalue ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We consider a reaction-diffusion system of the activator-inhibitor type with unilateral boundary conditions leading to a quasivariational inequality. We show that there exists a positive eigenvalue of the problem and we obtain an instability of the trivial solution also in some area of parameters where the trivial solution of the same system with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions is stable. Theorems are proved using the method of a jump in the Leray-Schauder degree.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1572-9206
    Keywords: parabolic equations ; ADI scheme ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract An ADI scheme for solving three-dimensional parabolic equations withfirst-order derivatives and variable coefficients has been developed basedon our previous papers and the idea of the modified upwind differencescheme. This ADI scheme is second-order accurate and unconditionallystable. Further, a small parameter can be chosen which makes it suitablefor simulating fast-transient phenomena or for computations on fine spatialmeshes. The method is illustrated with numerical examples.
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  • 54
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    Annals of operations research 99 (2000), S. 251-265 
    ISSN: 1572-9338
    Keywords: stochastic programming ; bond portfolio management ; interest ratescenarios ; stability ; sensitivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract The bond portfolio management problem is formulated as a multiperiod two-stage or multistage stochastic program based on interest rate scenarios. These scenarios depend on the available market data, on the applied estimation and sampling techniques, etc., and are used to evaluate coefficients of the resulting large scale mathematical program. The aim of the contribution is to analyze stability and sensitivity of this program on small changes of the coefficients – the (scenario dependent) values of future interest rates and prices. We shall prove that under sensible assumptions, the scenario subproblems are stable linear programs and that also the optimal first-stage decisions and the optimal value of the considered stochastic program possess acceptable continuity properties.
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  • 55
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    Letters in mathematical physics 53 (2000), S. 313-320 
    ISSN: 1573-0530
    Keywords: partial differential equations ; nonlinearities ; symmetries ; stability ; minimization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We suggest a simple but general method of establishing symmetry properties of stable solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations. The method relies on characterization of symmetry breaking with a help of zero modes and on a generalization of the Perron–Frobenius theory.
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  • 56
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    Journal of statistical physics 101 (2000), S. 731-746 
    ISSN: 1572-9613
    Keywords: attractive Bose–Einstein condensates ; nonlinear Schrödinger equation ; stability ; ground state ; variational arguments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We propose the critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a harmonic potential as a model of attractive Bose–Einstein condensates. By an elaborate mathematical analysis we show that a sharp stability threshold exists with respect to the number of condensate particles. The value of the threshold agrees with the existing experimental data. Moreover with this threshold we prove that a ground state of the condensate exists and is orbital stable. We also evaluate the minimum of the condensate energy.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1572-9478
    Keywords: stability ; normal form ; spin-orbit resonance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We consider a model of spin-orbit interaction, describing the motion of an oblate satellite rotating about an internal spin-axis and orbiting about a central planet. The resulting second order differential equation depends upon the parameters provided by the equatorial oblateness of the satellite and its orbital eccentricity. Normal form transformations around the main spin-orbit resonances are carried out explicitly. As an outcome, one can compute some invariants; the fact that these quantities are not identically zero is a necessary condition to prove the existence of nearby periodic orbits (Birkhoff fixed point theorem). Moreover, the nonvanishing of the invariants provides also the stability of the spin-orbit resonances, since it guarantees the existence of invariant curves surrounding the periodic orbit.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1572-9222
    Keywords: singular perturbation ; standing pulses ; stability ; Hopf bifurcation ; reaction-diffusion system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Bifurcation phenomena from standing pulse solutions of the problem $$\varepsilon \tau u_t = \varepsilon ^2 u_{xx} + f(u,v),{\text{ }}v_t = v_{xx} + g(u,v)$$ is considered. ε(〉0) is a sufficiently small parameter and τ is a positive one. It is shown that there exist two types of destabilization of standing pulse solutions when τ decreases. One is the appearance of travelling pulse solutions via the static bifurcation and the other is that of in-phase breathers via the Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore which type of destabilization occurs first with decreasing τ is discussed for the piecewise linear nonlinearities f and g.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-0924
    Keywords: Keywords: Material characteristic length ; strain-rate gradient ; dominant growth rate ; viscoplastic material ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract We study thermomechanical deformations of a viscoplastic body deformed in simple shear. The strain gradients are taken as independent kinematic variables and the corresponding higher order stresses are included in the balance laws, and the equation for the yield surface. Three different functional relationships, the power law, and those proposed by Wright and Batra, and Johnson and Cook are used to relate the effective strain rate to the effective stress and temperature. Effects of strain hardening of the material and elastic deformations are neglected. The homogeneous solution of the problem is perturbed and the stability of the problem linear in the perturbation variables is studied. Following Wright and Ockendon's postulate that the wavelength whose initial growth rate is maximum determines the minimum spacing between adjacent shear bands, the shear band spacing is computed. It is found that the minimum shear band spacing is very sensitive to the thermal softening coefficient/exponent, the material characteristic length and the nominal strain-rate. Approximate analytical expressions for the critical wave length for heat conducting nonpolar materials and locally adiabatic deformations of gradient dependent materials are also derived.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Keywords: Key words Bifurcation ; stability ; multibody system dynamics ; singularity theory ; Liapunov's direct method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary In this paper, the global behavior of relative equilibrium states of a three-body satellite with flexible connection under the action of the gravitational torque is studied. With geometric method, the conditions of existence of nontrivial solutions to the relative equilibrium equations are determined. By using reduction method and singularity theory, the conditions of occurrence of bifurcation from trivial solutions are derived, which agree with the existence conditions of nontrivial solutions, and the bifurcation is proved to be pitchfork-bifurcation. The Liapunov stability of each equilibrium state is considered, and a stability diagram in terms of system parameters is presented.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Keywords: Key words: Hebbian learning rule ; attractor dynamics ; symmetric connections ; multiplicative normalization ; self-organization ; stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. While learning and development are well characterized in feedforward networks, these features are more difficult to analyze in recurrent networks due to the increased complexity of dual dynamics – the rapid dynamics arising from activation states and the slow dynamics arising from learning or developmental plasticity. We present analytical and numerical results that consider dual dynamics in a recurrent network undergoing Hebbian learning with either constant weight decay or weight normalization. Starting from initially random connections, the recurrent network develops symmetric or near-symmetric connections through Hebbian learning. Reciprocity and modularity arise naturally through correlations in the activation states. Additionally, weight normalization may be better than constant weight decay for the development of multiple attractor states that allow a diverse representation of the inputs. These results suggest a natural mechanism by which synaptic plasticity in recurrent networks such as cortical and brainstem premotor circuits could enhance neural computation and the generation of motor programs.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1349-9432
    Keywords: optical propagation equation ; stability ; picosecond pulse ; 3-dimensional computation ; Fresnel’s distribution ; fast Fourier transform
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present a new simulation code able to simulate the entire propagation of laser pulse, from the amplifiers level up to the focusing stage. This algorithm has some new characteristics that we intend to present. It computes the three-dimensional optical propagation equation using no approximation other than its picosecond expression. The stability has been carefully studied so that it can be applied to any geometry. This is a great improvement since, up to now only cylindrical geometry was accessible for accuracy. In this paper we also present a method using Fast Fourier Transform able to evaluate with a high accuracy, Fresnel’s distribution of a focused laser pulse. The advantages provided by our algorithm are its rapidity and its high physical understanding of the focusing phenomena.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: nanoparticles ; poly(lactic acid) ; poly(lactic acid-co-ethylene oxide) ; freeze-drying ; stability ; flow cytometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To investigate the feasibility of producing freeze-dried poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-surface modified nanoparticles and to study their ability to avoid the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), as a function of the PEO chain length and surface density. Methods. The nanoparticles were produced by the salting-out method using blends of poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-ethylene oxide) (PLA-PEO) copolymers. The nanoparticles were purified by cross-flow filtration and freeze-dried as such or with variable amounts of trehalose as a lyoprotectant. The redispersibility of the particles was determined immediately after freeze-drying and after 12 months of storage at −25° C. The uptake of the nanoparticles by human monocytes was studied in vitro by flow cytometry. Results. PLA-PEO nanoparticles could be produced from all the polymeric blends used. Particle aggregation after freeze-drying was shown to be directly related to the presence of PEO. Whereas this problem could be circumvented by use of trehalose, subsequent aggregation was shown to occur during storage. These phenomena were possibly related to the specific thermal behaviours of PEO and trehalose. In cell studies, a clear relationship between the PEO content and the decrease of uptake was demonstrated. Conclusions. The rational design of freeze-dried PEO-surface modified nanoparticles with potential MPS avoidance ability is feasible by using the polymer blends approach combined with appropriate lyoprotection and optimal storage conditions.
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  • 64